Vilém Flusser;  The Future of Writing  1983–84;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ It will have to explain illustrations of texts in the
Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.htmlDiese Leitmetapher
Vilém Flusser;  The Future of Writing  1983–84;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ future.
Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html besteht darin, daß sie alle das semantische System der Sprache als ein n-dimensionales Netz modellieren.
TEXT
Alexander Schierl

INTRODUCTION

Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf It is in fact signless, not showing itself as to its essence; perhaps that is why most of you, as is proven to me by your reaction, though well intended, have not grasped what I have been trying to say. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Any type of text can be discussed according to these categories; I avoid the primitive and theoretically uninteresting division between electronic and hard copy texts as well as the nebulous concept of interactive fiction. Michel Foucault;  T H E A T R U M P H I L 0 S O P H I C U M  1970;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpfoucault5.htm Deleuze's proposals, I believe, are directed to lifting this triple subjection that, to this day, is imposed on the event: a metaphysics of the incorporeal event (which is consequently irreducible to a physics of the world), a logic of neutral meaning (rather than a phenomenology of signification based on the subject), and a thought of the present infinitive (and not the raising up of the conceptual future in a past essence). Lev Manovich;  DEEP REMIXABILITY  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=61 For instance, I have not analyzed the actual techniques of digital compositing and the fundamental concept of an alpha channel which deserves a separate and detailed treatment. Vilém Flusser;  Essays  1967;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ In the essay, I submerge myself in the topic and in my others. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Far from feeling like Landow’s “reader-author”, who has no problem constructing “meaning and narrative from fragments provided by someone else,” I felt constantly sidetracked, turning and turning in the dilating text, dead sure that important things were being whispered just beyond my hearing. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf The reason is that what I say depends on what reality or fancy I feel I am talking into, that is, on what possible responses I might anticipate. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See And this has given me room to argue that the very interlocking assumptions used to achieve closure are themselves the result of historical contingencies and embedded contextualities. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text If I agree to judge a text according to pleasure, I cannot go on to say: this one is good, that bad. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history In particular I will draw attention to consequent shifts in authority, in changes in forms of reading, shifts in shapes of knowledge and in forms of human engagement with the social and natural world. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html It's loosely related to Robert Louis Stevenson's classic Treasure Island, and the whole idea was triggered after I saw a great Japanese film. Marcel Duchamp;  The Creative Act  1957;  http://www.brainpickings.org/index.php/2012/08/23/the-creative-act-marcel-duchamp-1957/ Therefore, when I refer to ‘art coefficient’, it will be understood that I refer not only to great art, but I am trying to describe the subjective mechanism which produces art in the raw state — à l’état brut — bad, good or indifferent. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history They are also different in terms of affective ‘proximity’: I may be closer to Amanda than to Josh, and so I place that person’s name first. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf Subtract the unique from the multiplicity to be constituted; write at n - I dimensions. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles In the spring of 2007 I traveled down to the University of Maryland to attend the Electronic Literature Organization’s annual symposium, “The Future of Electronic Literature,” and at the symposium I first saw Hayles, whom I had read about in numerous footnotes and works-cited lists. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html Thinking of the text as "the order of words and punctuations" is as print-centric a definition as I can imagine, for it comes straight out of the printer's shop and the lineation of type as the means of production for the book. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm I have been describing the problem of acquisition of knowledge of language in terms that are more familiar in an epistemological than a psychological context, but I think that this is quite appropriate. WALTER BENJAMIN;  THE AUTHOR AS PRODUCER  1970;  http://newleftreview.org/I/62/walter-benjamin-the-author-as-producer First because I am forced to’—here Maublanc indicates his duties as a teacher in a high school—‘secondly because I am of bourgeois origin and of a bourgeois education and come from a bourgeois milieu, and therefore am naturally inclined to address myself to the class to which I belong, which I know best and can best understand. Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl It amounts to more than the idea that viruses could be created in language or, like in Richard Dawkins’ concept of the “meme,” that certain speech acts had contagious effects.Burroughs stresses that I have frequently spoken of word and image as viruses or as acting as viruses, and this is not an allegorical comparison. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms The story I just told could also be told diffirently. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Where she overtly plagiarised from her source texts, by simply copying sections of them out, she sought to 'represent' the texts, and address the question, 'if I repeated the same text, would it be the same text?' In this way, she addresses the issues of ownership and authorship. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html For me the tattoo is very profound. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm This is the second type of question that I now wish to outlines To develop this question, I should like to approach, as a privileged example, the project and texts of Ferdinand de Saussure. Vilém Flusser;  Criteria—Crisis—Criticism  1984;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ In this essay, I want to defend the following thesis: If we consider how the criticism of images has been elaborated during the course of our history, then critical thinking cannot be applied to photography or other technical images, because these images are based on science and technology— produced by apparatuses—and are therefore themselves based on critical thinking. Vilém Flusser;  Waiting for Kafka  1967;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Nevertheless, it seems to me that all the answers that have so far been given have been attempts to return to a traditional religiosity—or else to atheism. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Because the same blood wasn't in me that was in them, I was awkward. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See In constructing a narrative that will contest systems theory's account ofhow meaning is generated, I will follow Luhmann's advice. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm Furthermore, it can certainly be informative; for example, I can signal my interest in reaching a certain goal by the speed or intensity with which I walk. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html The idealization of the literary text and the attribution to it of a stylistic essence are both developments of latent print possibilities, but there was, I believe, no precise necessity beforehand that letters would be valorized in these particular ways". Thomas Bernhard;  From One Catastrophe to the Next (Interview)  1986;  http://www.thomasbernhard.org/interviews/1986intas.shtml I only had to think of her, I didn't even have to visit her, and everything was already in order. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm We live, after all, in the age of “behavioural science,” not of “the science of mind.” I do not want to read too much into a terminological innovation, but I think that there is some significance in the ease and willingness with which modern thinking about man and society accepts the designation “behavioural science.” No sane person has ever doubted that behaviour provides much of the evidence for this study – all of the evidence, if we interpret “behaviour” in a sufficiently loose sense. Christian Kerslake;  The Vertigo of Philosophy:Deleuze and the Problem of Immanence  2002;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze8.htm On the contrary, my discourse is logical or properly philosophical when I say the sense of what I say, and when in this manner Being says itself. Lev Manovich;  DEEP REMIXABILITY  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=61 But I think it is fair to say that such complex juxtapositions of media within the same frame (rather than in edited sequence) were rare exceptions in the overwise “unimedia” universe where filmed images appeared in feature films and hand drawn images appeared in animated films. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text Then, potentially, all linguistics fell, linguistics which believes only in the sentence and has always attributed an exorbitant dignity to predicative syntax (as the form of a logic, of a rationality); I recalled this scientific scandal: there exists no locutive grammar (a grammar of what is spoken and not of what is written; and to begin with: a grammar of spoken French). N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Say you slap me and I become angry. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Of the alphabet, Theuth said, “this invention… will make the Egyptians wiser and will improve their memories, for it is an elixir of memory and wisdom that I have discovered”. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Eine wachsende Respektlosigkeit, die ihren künstlerischen Niederschlag nicht nur in den wilden Samplesund Coverversionen findet, sondern auch in den zum Teil das Original komplett ignorierenden Remixes durch berühmte DJs wie MK, der auf dem New Music Seminar 1993 in New York bemerkte: »Wenn ich mir jeden Dreck im Original anhören müßte, den ich remixe, würde ich es nicht mehr machen. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm Each of the major traditions of study and speculation that I have been using as a point of reference was associated with a certain characteristic approach to the problems of mind; we might say, without distortion, that each evolved as a specific branch of the psychology of its time, to which it made a distinctive contribution. Jörg Heiser;  Sight Reading  2009;  https://www.frieze.com/issue/article/sight_reading/ Of course I will not do so, I mean, I will not speak of these simulacra any longer.’ The art work as ‘simulacrum’ was, of course, the classic emergency exit for certain French thinkers. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Selbst wenn Gott ihn als verschlagener Betrüger geflissentlich stets täuscht, so ist es »unzweifelhaft, daß ich bin. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf Is it the philo-sopher as he appears in classical thought, even if he is an aborted unity that makes itself felt only through its absence or subjectivity, saying all the while, I know nothing, I am nothing?) Thus the authors speak of dictatorship theorems. Rick Prelinger;  On the Virtues of Preexisting Material | Contents Magazine  2007;  http://contentsmagazine.com/articles/on-the-virtues-of-preexisting-material/ It seems to me to be as much about loss of contiguity—the destabilization of historical and artistic connections—as it is about corruption of the original work, or creators’ rights. Michael Goddard;  Felix and Alice in Wonderland. The Encounter between Guattari and Berardi and the Post-Media Era  2006;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpbifo1.htm According to Berardi, “inside was the map of the existential and theoretical wanderings in which at this time I was going to get lost. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html Let us note merely that it governs another equally decisive operative concept (here I am classically, and for convenience, opposing operative to thematic) of the Essai: to trace and to retrace. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See To recapitulate: the advantage I claim for narrativeisthat it renders the closures systems theory would perform contingent rather than inevitable, thus mitigating the coercive effects that systems theory can sometimes generate. Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf (Here I refer to Searle's analyses, among others.') Obviously, one cannot turn a proper name into a pure and simple reference. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html I tried to figure out who I was and who I wasn't and went to texts of murderesses. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm As I mentioned in my first lecture, I think that one major indirect contribution of modern structural linguistics results from its success in making explicit the assumptions of an anti-mentalistic, thoroughly operational and behaviourist approach to the phenomena of language. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Furthermore, by re-presenting a segment of text from the novel - her own novel - Acker returns to her earlier question 'if I repeated the same text, would it be the same text?' Switches of narrator and diary extracts also feature throughout the book. Rick Prelinger;  On the Virtues of Preexisting Material | Contents Magazine  2007;  http://contentsmagazine.com/articles/on-the-virtues-of-preexisting-material/ But I think that reincarnation through reuse helps weave works and makers into a denser quilt, and confers importance, recognition, and respect. Thomas Bernhard;  From One Catastrophe to the Next (Interview)  1986;  http://www.thomasbernhard.org/interviews/1986intas.shtml From the person who died, I know that you love life to the very last moment. Lev Manovich;  REMIXABILITY  2005;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CC4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2FRemix_modular.doc&ei=2zqzUdX4Gcem4AT6lYHAAQ&usg=AFQjCNHlaRFP8sddB6-_oH4XEmra5A8NlQ&sig2=FAwD4HxylAODfMkX2J-4ig&bvm=bv.47534661,d.bGE&cad=rja Last week I was at a Design Brussels event where the designer Jerszy Seymour speculated that once Rapid Manufacturing systems become advanced, cheap and easy, this will give designers in Europe a hope for survival. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm In discussing the past, I referred to two major traditions that have enriched the study of language in their separate and very different ways; and in my last lecture, I tried to give some indication of the topics that seem on the immediate horizon today, as a kind of synthesis of philosophical grammar and structural linguistics begins to take shape. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text And yet, against and in spite of everything, the text gives me bliss. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text Likewise for the text: it produces, in me, the best pleasure if it manages to make itself heard indirectly; if, reading it, I am led to look up often, to listen to something else. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm At one point Goodman remarks, correctly, that even though “for certain remarkable facts I have no alternative explanation ...

CHAPTER
ONE

Rick Prelinger;  On the Virtues of Preexisting Material | Contents Magazine  2007;  http://contentsmagazine.com/articles/on-the-virtues-of-preexisting-material/ The ideology of originality is arrogant and wasteful. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf The second Book of Moses, chapter 20, contains a copy of what Jahwe's own finger originally had written on two stone tablets: the law. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 The activity of the hip hop DJs evolved into sampling bits of music; they eventually evolved from being live performers to music studio producers, which means that based on the principles of sampling, they were cutting/copying and pasting pre-recorded material to create their own music compositions. Katherine Hayles;  The Power of Simulation: What Virtual Creatures Can Teach Us  1999;  http://www.stanford.edu/class/history34q/readings/Hayles/Simulation.html A photocopy of a will does not count the same as the original signed document. Katherine Hayles;  The Power of Simulation: What Virtual Creatures Can Teach Us  1999;  http://www.stanford.edu/class/history34q/readings/Hayles/Simulation.html The legal fight to insure copyright, the cult of the author, print technology, and print culture worked hand in glove to create a depth model of subjectivity in which analogue resemblances guaranteed that the surface of the page was matched by an imagined interior within the author, which evoked and was also produced by a similarly imagined interior in the reader. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Similarly, her plagiarism from a notably broad range of sources, while generating an intertextuality which is integral to her work in a manner which is in keeping with prevailing postmodern modes, represents anything but a celebration of the death of originality. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Frederic Jameson, who attacks Louis Althusser in The Political Unconscious for creating impressions of "facile totalization" and of "a seamless web of phenomena" himself more explicitly and more frequently makes these models the site of error. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ For the mass culture, the problem is that the more technically perfect the images become, the richer they become and the more completely they substitute themselves for the facts they may have originally represented. Mal Ahern;  Deleuze, Gilles. "Nomad Thought"  2003;  http://csmt.uchicago.edu/annotations/deleuzenomad.htm What is transmitted, then, is not a static logic or codification of the world, but “a current of energy,” a theoretical force, a way of interpreting the world that is fully contingent on the world that the text exists in. Michel Foucault;  T H E A T R U M P H I L 0 S O P H I C U M  1970;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpfoucault5.htm The philosophy of representation-of the original, the first time, resemblance, imitation, faithfulness-is dissolving; and the arrow of the simulacrum released by the Epicureans is headed in our direction. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 During the first decade of the twenty-first century, sampling is practiced in new media culture when any software users including creative industry professionals as well as average consumers apply cut/copy & paste in diverse software applications; for professionals this could mean 3-D modeling software like Maya (used to develop animations in films like Spiderman or Lord of the Rings); and for average persons it could mean Microsoft Word, often used to write texts like this one. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Typically the version which is in the same media as the original “property” is treated as the source. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Rose recounts, for example, the landmark case in the U.S., Burrow-Giles Lithographic Co. v. Sarony (1884), in which the court decided that the photograph derived entirely from the photographer's "'original mental conception'" and thus owed nothing to the camera that produced it (cited in Rose 135). Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history We can not say how Homer’s original audience exercised that control; they may have shouted advice, or they may simply have shown greater or less interest as the performer proceeded. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 In this case both albums, the original and the remixed versions, are considered works on their own, yet the remixed version is completely dependent on Massive’s original production for validation. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja Three decades ago Roland Barthes elegantly defined a cultural text as “a tissue of quotations”: “We know now that a text is not a line of words releasing a single ‘theological’ meaning (the ‘message’ of the Author-God) but a multi-dimensional space in which a variety of writings, none of them original, blend and clash. Roy Christopher;  Interview with Jay David Bolter: FutureText  2001;  http://roychristopher.com/jay-david-bolter-futuretext However, I’m proud to say that some of the truly original and important hypertext fictions (including Michael Joyce’s own afternoon, Stuart Moulthrop’s Victory Garden, Shelley Jackson’s Patchwork Girl, and many others) were conceived and executed in Storyspace. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Moreover, the phraseology is derived heavily from Treasure Island, and, characters such as Silver are lifted directly- and then altered slightly - from the source text.Other examples of 'plagiarism' include the shanty which recurs throughout Treasure Island. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Richard Pynson secured such a privilegium in 1518 from Henry VIII In 1557 the Stationers’ Company was incorporated in London to oversee authors’ and printers’ or printer-publishers’ rights, and by the eighteenth century modern copyright laws were shaping up over western Europe. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms Slowly printed books developed a different way of presenting information; similarly cinema also developed its own original concept of narrative space. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt To show how the eight points discussed above can be mobilized in a reading of an electronic hypertext, I will discuss Shelley Jackson's brilliantly realized hypertext Patchwork Girl, an electronic fiction that manages to be at once highly original and intensely parasitic on its print predecessors. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf The elements out of which a term is originally built usually, and probably always, linger somehow in subsequent meanings, perhaps obscurely but often powerfully and even irreducibly. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Her method of 'collaging' different narratives shows a clear lineage from the original cut-up method, as well as a distinct development in its application, the transition from cut-up to 'cut and paste.' After just half a page of narrative prose, there is a switch to an alternative method of presentation as she turns to dialogue presented in script form. Vilém Flusser;  Criteria—Crisis—Criticism  1984;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Originally, critical thinking meant the criticism of images. Eduardo Navas;  THE FRAMEWORK OF CULTURE: REMIX IN MUSIC, ART, AND LITERATURE  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=651#more-651 This activity is now a shared attitude in computing, quite evident in the basic act of cut/copy & paste; arguably, the most common form of sampling in daily life. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The second remix is selective; it consists of adding or subtracting material from the original composition. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm The psychic image of which Saussure speaks must not be an internal reality copying an external one. Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst Es geht um Machtverhältnisse, abbildende Repräsentation und die Kritik daran, aber auch um eine Entwertung des „originalen“ und einmaligen Werkes, dessen Warenförmigkeit dadurch verdeutlicht werden soll. Anthony Burke;  After BitTorrent: Darknets to Native Data  2006;  http://hotfile.com/dl/123907648/e66d7b2/7ad_collective_intelligence_in_design_-_edited_by_christopher_hight__chris_perry.rar.html?lang=de In this light, many theorists believe the copyright wars we are in the midst of are the death throes of mass media as we have known it. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 A music remix, in general, is a reinterpretation of a pre-existing song, meaning that the “spectacular aura” of the original will be dominant in the remixed version. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt (In a perhaps intentional irony, the Eastgate title page inscribes Jackson's name below as the "authorized" signature, along with the usual warnings about copyright infringement, even though the entire thrust of Jackson's text pushes against this view of a sole author who produces an original work.) Jackson's subversions of her publisher's proprietary claims continue in a section entitled "M/S," a naming that invites us to read the slash as both dividing and connecting Mary Shelley and Shelley Jackson. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Landow similarly has twice revised his original text, considerably expanding his insights and adding new material to take account of the Web in Hypertext 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology and globalization in Hypertext 3.0: Critical Theory and New Media in an Era of Globalization. Rick Prelinger;  On the Virtues of Preexisting Material | Contents Magazine  2007;  http://contentsmagazine.com/articles/on-the-virtues-of-preexisting-material/ Archives promise the possibility of a return to original, unmediated documents. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf With writing, resentment at plagiarism begins to develop. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html If Burroughs' Cities of the Red Night represented a shift from active piracy (of other texts, in the form of the cut-ups) within the Burroughs oeuvre, then Acker's Pussy makes an explicit and all-encompassing link between plagiaristic piracy and piracy in all other, broader senses. Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl Tzara’s “infinitely original author of charming sensibility, even though unappreciated by the vulgar herd” clearly mocks the romantic genius. Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst Für die Institution Kunst erschütternder als die kapitalismuskritische Decodierung des Warenfetischs ist jedoch die Ablehnung der für die Moderne zentralen Begriffe Kreativität, Expressivität und Originalität. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm Peirce, to my knowledge, is original and unique in stressing the problem of studying the rules that limit the class of possible theories. Roy Christopher;  Interview with Jay David Bolter: FutureText  2001;  http://roychristopher.com/jay-david-bolter-futuretext Tim Berners-Lee originally conceived of the Web principally as a textual medium. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 The first remix is extended, that is a longer version of the original song containing long instrumental sections making it more mixable for the club DJ. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Mit welcher Authentizität oder welcher Originalität? Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html The philosophical operation that Condillac also calls "to retrace" consists in traveling back, by way of analysis and continuous decomposition, along the movement of genetic derivation which leads from simple sensation and present perception to the complex edifice of representation: from original presence to the most formal language of calculation. Rick Prelinger;  On the Virtues of Preexisting Material | Contents Magazine  2007;  http://contentsmagazine.com/articles/on-the-virtues-of-preexisting-material/ Unfortunately, art-as-property often relies on the idea of originality. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Pussy, King of the Pirates: Piracy, Plagiarism and Myth. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Blood and Guts: Cut and Paste Although Acker referred to herself as a plagiarist, conceding that 'if I had to be totally honest I would say that what I'm doing is breach of copyright,' her writing does not comply with the strictest definition of plagiarism. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html More significantly, however, is the strongly implicit concern with influence and theft, or plagiarism, and Acker's choice of Genet as a character is significant for a number of reasons, not least of all because he is one of the authors she cited as a major influence on her work. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm Thus he appears to be willing, in this article, to accept the view that in some sense the mature mind contains ideas; it is obviously not “incomprehensible,” then, that some of these ideas are “implanted in the mind as original equipment,” to use his phraseology. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja Yet we are left with an interesting paradox: while in the realm of commercial music remixing is officially accepted, in other cultural areas it is seen as violating the copyright and therefore as stealing. Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst Beginnend in der frühen Moderne mit der kubistischen Collage und Dada-Gedichten – die sich erstmals Zeitungsausschnitten bemächtigten, um diese in ihre Bild- oder Textarrangements einzufügen – ziehen sich künstlerische Aneignungen von Bild- und Textmaterial durch die gesamte Moderne und nehmen bestimmte Aspekte postmoderner Infragestellung und Dekonstruktion von Originalität, Authentizität und AutorInnenschaft vorweg. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf When he exhibited an exact copy of a Warhol painting, Bidlo entitled it Not Duchamp {Bicycle Wheel, 1913). Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm On this point Peirce is undoubtedly closer to the inventor of the word phenomenology: Lambert proposed in fact to “reduce the theory of things to the theory of signs.” According to the “phaneoroscopy” or “Phenomenology” of Peirce, manifestation itself does not reveal a presence, it makes a sign. Michel Foucault;  T H E A T R U M P H I L 0 S O P H I C U M  1970;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpfoucault5.htm They should consequently be freed from the restrictions we impose upon them, freed from the dilemmas of truth and falsehood and of being and nonbeing (the essential difference between simulacrum and copy carried to its logical conclusion); they must be allowed to conduct their dance, to act out their mime, as "extrabeings." The Logic of Sense can be read as the most alien book imaginable from The Phenomenology of Perception.6 In this latter text, the body-organism is linked to the world through a network of primal significations which arise from the perception of things, while, according to Deleuze, phantasms form the impenetrable and incorporeal surface of bodies; and from this process, simultaneously topological and cruel, something is shaped that falsely presents itself as a centered organism and distributes at its periphery the increasing remoteness of things. Wolfgang Iser;  THE RANGE OF INTERPRETATION  2000;  http://books.google.de/books/about/The_range_of_interpretation.html?id=9IPLzzYy2hAC&redir_esc=y Instead, the familiar is subjected to correction and change when something that is originally beyond its scope is fed back into it. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Therefore “canonization of a text may at times serve to take the authority away from its original meaning, allowing the commentator to choose the meaning that will be deemed authoritative. Jean Baudrillard;  CONTEMPORARY ART: ART CONTEMPORARY WITH ITSELF  2005;  http://www.egs.edu/faculty/jean-baudrillard/articles/contemporary-art-art-contemporary-with-itself/ This vertical and horizontal, aesthetic and commercial diversification is henceforth part of the work, the original core of which cannot be located. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja When it released the original Doom (1993), id software also released detailed descriptions of game files formats and a game editor, thus encouraging the players to expand the game, creating new levels. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf In the face of the economic abstraction that makes daily life unreal, or an absolute weapon of techno-market power, artists reactivate forms by inhabiting them, pirating private property and copyrights, brands and products, museum-bound forms and signatures. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm They come into being by development out of other signs, particularly from icons, or from mixed signs.” But these roots must not compromise the structural originality of the field of symbols, the autonomy of a domain, a production, and a play: “So it is only out of symbols that a new symbol can grow. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf In the bazaar, economist Michel Henochsberg explains, "transaction goes beyond the dry and reductive simplification in which modernity rigs it," assuming its original status as a negotiation between two people. Lev Manovich;  DEEP REMIXABILITY  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=61 Similarly, as we saw, After Effects original interface, toolkit, and workflow drew on the techniques of animation and the techniques of graphic design. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf Are we heading toward a culture that would do away with copyright in favor of a policy allowing free access to works, a sort of blueprint for a commmunism of forms In 1956, Guy Debord published "Methods of Detournement:" The literary and artistic heritage of humanity should be used for partisan propaganda purposes. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf This process assumes that data is originally continuos, for example “the axis or dimension that is measured has no apparent indivisible unit from which it is composed.” Converting continuos data into a numerical representation is called digitization. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms Another is the rise of common interface conventions and tools which we use in working with different types of media regardless of their origin: for instance, a virtual camera, a magnifying lens, and of course the omnipresent copy, cut and paste commands. Lev Manovich;  The Practice of Everyday (Media) Life: From Mass Consumption to Mass Cultural Production?  2009;  http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/596645#fn9 In summary, today strategies used by social media companies often look more like tactics in the original formulation by de Certeau while tactics look like strategies. Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl Or chips like the Transmeta Crusoe which has only minimal hardware wiring and implements its CPU instruction set—like Intel-compatible x86— solely through an embedded emulation software (written originally by Linux creator Linus Torvalds)? Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 Thus we arrive at a paradox: any mediating technology is obliged to erase itself to the highest degree possible in the name of unfettered communication, but in so doing it proves its own virtuosic presence as technology, thereby undoing the original erasure. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Sampling (cut/copy & paste) technology also makes possible the larger than life special effects of movies like Star Wars; not to mention the possibility of watching video on iphones and ipods while text messaging: constantly being connected becomes the norm based on this one activity of cutting/copying and pasting. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 But as Chun and others have pointed out, ‘programming’ a computer originally meant patching circuits together using cables or connectors and thus ‘software’ began historically not as executable software applications as we know them today but as any sort of service labor performed in or on informatic machines; even video was once known as ‘software’, to distinguish it from ‘hard’ playback decks and cameras. Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst Während im Wissenschaftsbetrieb der Begriff „Plagiarismus“ durchwegs negativ konnotiert ist und die derzeitige Debatte hauptsächlich darum geht, wie man Plagiate am effektivsten aufdecken und mit welchen Maßnahmen man sie vermeiden bzw. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 The DJ was able to compose, to improvise new material in the moment by re-using pre-recorded material, originally designed for listening. WALTER BENJAMIN;  THE AUTHOR AS PRODUCER  1970;  http://newleftreview.org/I/62/walter-benjamin-the-author-as-producer that of original communistic individual freedom, spontaneous solidarity and the unity of man. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf In the very early days of print, however, a royal decree or privilegium was often secured forbidding the reprinting of a printed book by others than the original publisher. Michel Foucault;  T H E A T R U M P H I L 0 S O P H I C U M  1970;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpfoucault5.htm It is the product of a particular metaphysics that designated the separation between the simulacrum on one side and the original and the perfect copy on the other. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt When Jackson re-inscribes Shelley's text into hers, the act is never merely a quotation, even when the referents are not violently wrenched away from the originals as in "Thanks"; witness the fact that Jackson divides Shelley's text into lexias and encodes it into the Storyspace software. Mal Ahern;  Deleuze, Gilles. "Nomad Thought"  2003;  http://csmt.uchicago.edu/annotations/deleuzenomad.htm Rather, the “revolutionary force” of the text - which can be manifest not only in contextualization, but also in the “notion of style as politics” (the crossing of the frame and attention drawn to it) - must be sought out, from outside of the text. Eric A. Havelock;  The Muse Learns to Write  1986;  http://www.thenewhumanities.net/books/Book%20Reviews16.html Preface to Plato sought to shift attention, so far as the original Greek epics were concerned, away from improvisation towardd recollection and remembrance, applied to content as well as style, and on a larger scale of reference, since what was now embraced was the whole tradition of the society for which the bard sang, something which it was his didactic purpose to conserve. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf When Sturtevant exhibited a copy of a Warhol painting, she kept the original title: Duchamp, coin de chastete, 1967. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html At this point the text on screen and in the computer's memory briefly coincide, but the reader always encounters a virtual image of the stored text and not the original version itself; in fact, in descriptions of electronic word processing, such terms and such distinctions do not make much sense. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm Since the deliberate and systematic phonological orientation of linguistics (Troubetzkoy, Jakobson, Martinet) carries out an intention which was originally Saussure's, I shall, at least provisionally, confine my-self to the latter. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf By cutting out cultural or social forms (votive sculptures, cartoons, theater sets, drawings by abused children) and placing them in another context, Kelley uses forms as cognitive tools, freed from their original packaging. Vilém Flusser;  What Is Communication?  1973–74;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Certainly, one can “humanize” everything (for instance, read clouds) and “naturalize” everything (for instance, discover a book’s original cause). Tristan Tzara;  TO MAKE A DADAIST POEM  1920;  http://www.moma.org/interactives/redstudio/interactives/chance/ Copy conscientiously in the order in which they left the bag. Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst Auch lassen die durch Computer ermöglichte unbegrenzte Kopierbarkeit von digitaler Information und ihre durch das Internet fast kostenlose Verbreitung die Proklamation von Plagiarismus in fotokopierten Fanzines heute mehr als anachronistisch erscheinen. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Er sollte keine einzigartige, »theologische« Bedeutung (die Botschaft des Autoren-Gottes) mehr offerieren, sondern als multidimensionaler Raum funktionieren, in dem mehrere Schriften verheiratet und zerstritten sind und keine ein Original ist.

CHAPTER
TWO

Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history In that sense the book is not linear at all. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html As literature (although not as textual media), MUDs are very different from anything else, with their streams of continuing text and their collective, often anonymous readership and writership. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Literacy, as will be seen, is absolutely necessary for the development not only of science but also of history, philosophy, explicative understanding of literature and of any art, and indeed for the explanation of language (including oral speech) itself There is hardly an oral culture or a predominantly oral culture left in the world today that is not somehow aware of the vast complex of powers forever inaccessible without literacy. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html The book follows the central character, Janey, from her home with her father to Tangier in the company of Jean Genet and beyond. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles In Electronic Literature Hayles only briefly discusses hypertextesque works of print literature, and the omission is unfortunate, as many qualities inherent in these works rise to the surface more when a reader is familiar with electronic literature. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles In large part, Hayles’ Electronic Literature lays out the details implicit in this address. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html The technology of the book found enhancement by pagination, indices, and bibliographies. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf Any reconstruction of this tradition in German literature has to begin in the Baroque period when the idea of German linguistic primacy was introduced in poetic treatises such as Martin Opitz’s (1597-1639) Buch von der deutschen Poeterey (1624), Philipp von Zesen’s (161989) Hoch-Deutscher Helikon (1640) or Georg Philipp Harsdörffer’ (1607-58) Poetischer Trichter (3 vols., 1647-53). George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html To get an idea of how hypertext produces Barthes's writerly text, let us examine how the print version and the hypertext version of this book differ. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf A first type of book is the root-book. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html A later system, the commercial dialogue program Racter, created by William Chamberlain (1984), is even supposed to have written a book, The Policeman's Beard Is Half Constructed, but as it turns out, the book was co-written (at least) by Chamberlain (see Barger 1993 and chapter 6, below). William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles Arguably the most popular and best known genre of electronic literature is hypertext fiction, distinguished by its many links between blocks of text known as lexias. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt There are of course notable exceptions, for example Robert Coover's print hypertext "The Babysitter." Choosing not to notice such experimental print fictions, the narrator of Patchwork Girl remarks, "When I open a book I know where I am, which is restful. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms By systematically developing easy to use GUI-based software to create and edit familiar media types, Kay and others appear to lock a computer into being a simulation machine for “old media.” Or, to put this in terms of Bolter and Grusin’s influential book Remediation: Understanding New Media (2000), we can say that GUI-based software turned digital computers into a “remediation machine:” a machine that expertely represents a range of earlier media. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Collecting innovative, high-quality work is an important step forward in opening electronic literature up to a wider audience and moving it into the classroom. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Moreover, she was of the opinion that the very sequencing of events within a book could be more or less arbitrary. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Initially the most striking feature of the book is the presentation. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html The book opens with a brief introduction of the central character, Janey Smith. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html The Electronic Literature Organization, whose mission is to "promote the writing, publishing, and reading of literature in electronic media," convened a committee headed by Noah Wardrip-Fruin, himself a creator and critic of electronic literature, to come up with a definition appropriate to this new field. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html (Atelier de Littérature Assistee par le Mathematique et les Ordinateurs, or Workshop of Literature Assisted by Mathematics and Computers), which includes among others Jean-Pierre Balpe, and the group with which he is associated, L.A.I.R.E (Lecture, Art, Innovation, Recherche, Écriture, or Reading, Art, Innovation, Research, Writing). NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf We never read a book the way its author would like us to. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html As he and others have argued, notably Matthew Kirschenbaum, John Cayley, and Matthew Fuller, code must be considered as much a part of the "text" of electronic literature as the screenic surface. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles Electronic Literature is artfully poised between newcomers and e-lit veterans, as there is enough material to accommodate both those new to the genre and those who are already familiar with the literature’s texts. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history But the important difference between listening to a story and reading a book is that, while listeners simply allow the words to come to them, readers must themselves make the words move. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Text as Vapor In his important book Authors and Owners: The Invention of Copyright, Mark Rose shows that copyright did more than provide a legal basis for intellectual property. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles Normally, definitions of electronic literature exclude print literature that has been digitized, such as the work of Project Gutenberg, and an important distinction for electronic literature is the requirement of “properly executed code,” in order for the work to be accessible. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf What takes place in a book composed instead of plateaus that communicate with one another across microfissures, as in a brain? Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf It forms a rhizome with the world, there is an aparallel evolution of the book and the world; the book assures the deterritorialization of the world, but the world effects a reterritorialization of the book, which in turn deterritorializes itself in the world (if it is capable, if it can). William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles Jackson’s work allows the “female companion” in Mary Shelley’s famous book to displace Victor Frankenstein as the protagonist, even though in the original story she was torn to bits by Dr Frankenstein at the thought of his creations reproducing. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Is literary quality possible in digital media, or is electronic literature demonstrably inferior to the print canon? N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html The deepest and most provocative for electronic literature is the fifth principle of "transcoding," by which Manovich means the importation of ideas, artifacts, and presuppositions from the "cultural layer" to the "computer layer" (46). N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Moreover, print texts can engage in reflexive play at least as complex as anything in Patchwork Girl, as Michael Snow's wonderful artist book Cover to Cover playfully demonstrates. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm It showed bow to reach the literary element, to what in literature passes through an irreducibly graphic text, tying the play of form to a determined substance of expression. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf The loss to literature will be enormous, but not so enormous as a Chinese typewriter using over 40,000 characters. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Conversely, any work of literature -- which for the sake of argument and economy I shall here confine in a most arbitrary way to mean "high" literature of the sort we read and teach in universities -- offers an instance of implicit hypertext in nonelectronic form. Marshall McLuhan;  The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man  1962;  http://books.google.de/books/about/The_Gutenberg_Galaxy.html?id=y4C644zHCWgC&redir_esc=y GG was, in Harry Skornia’s words, “not really a book in the usual organizational or formal sense. James J. Pulizzi;  Machine Intelligence and Electronic Literature  http://newhorizons.eliterature.org/essay.php@id=9.html It is important to keep in mind that IF unlike conventional printed literature is always a potential narrative. Michael Goddard;  Felix and Alice in Wonderland. The Encounter between Guattari and Berardi and the Post-Media Era  2006;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpbifo1.htm If Felix comes out of the promise Berardi made on Guattari’s death to write a book about his friend, the fact that it took eight years to complete, gives some indication that the continuation, rather than the explication of this thought is no straightforward task. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm That which, within the history of literature and in the structure of a literary text in general, escapes that framework, merits a type of description whose norms and conditions of possibility glossematics has perhaps better isolated. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Rather, I am concerned to delineate characteristics of digital environments that writers and readers can use as resources in creating literature and responding to it in sophisticated, playful ways. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html The exposition made here is mostly for elucidation purposes and must not be mistaken for an attempt to produce an exhaustive historical inventory of ergodic literature (see, instead, Vuillemin 1990). George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Students of technology and reading practice point to several hundred years of gradual change and accommodation, during which different reading practices, modes of publication, and conceptions of literature obtained. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Die Literatur der Moderne, für die Foucault Flaubert, Proust und Kafka anführt, forderte die Preisgabe des Autors zugunsten der Unsterblichkeit des Textes. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html These letters both mimic and parody the author, combining 'factual' elements such as the title of the book that brought her to the public's attention with fictitious parody of her style. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles The future of electronic literature is still an unknown world, and those who immerse themselves in it can revel in the possibilities. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Although he under-estimates the ways in which narrative forms can also be disruptive, he nevertheless makes a strong case for electronic literature as an experimental practice grounded in the materiality of the medium. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf In Tristram Shandy (1760–7), Laurence Sterne uses typographic space with calculated whimsy, including in his book blank pages, to indicate his unwillingness to treat a subject and to invite the reader to fill in. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf In treating the technologizing of the word, for the most part this book has avoided the term media (with its now more and more fugitive singular, medium). Roland Barthes;  From Work to Text - 1  1971;  http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/From%20Work%20to%20Text.pdf In particular, the tendency must be avoided to say that the work is classic, the text avant-garde; it is not a question of drawing up a crude honours list in the name of modernity and declaring certain literary productions 'in' and others 'out' by virtue of their chronological situation: there may be 'text' in a very ancient work, while many products of contemporary literature are in no way texts. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf Espen Aarseth and his followers have repeatedly pointed out and proved with many examples that their theories of cybertext and ergodic literature are focused on the mechanical organization of text and on the actions of users/readers on a broad and general level; they are not limited to texts in computer-based media. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf Considering each book to consist of "multiple writings, proceeding from several cultures and entering into dialogue, into parody, into protest," Barthes accords the writer the status of scriptor, an intertextual operator: the only place where this multiplicity of sources converges is in the brain of the reader-postproducer. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history But instead the new electronic medium redefines the book in a way that can incorporate both linear and nonlinear form. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm If there is something in literature which does not allow itself to be reduced to the voice, to epos or to poetry, one cannot recapture it except by rigorously isolating the bond that links the play of form to the substance of graphic expression. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Here I have focused not on the effects and insights produced by the various branches of literary theory when applied to nonlinear texts but on the potential for new perspectives on literature in general that the study of nonlinear textuality might bring us. MATTHEW FULLER;  BEHIND THE BLIP - ESSAYS ON THE CULTURE OF SOFTWARE  2003;  http://www.multimedialab.be/doc/citations/matthew_fuller_blip.pdf In their book What Is Philosophy. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html In the Renaissance, however, the idea of the labyrinth, both in literature and visual art, was reduced to the multicursal paradigm that we recognize today. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Electronic literature, generally considered to exclude print literature that has been digitized, is by contrast "digital born," a first-generation digital object created on a computer and (usually) meant to be read on a computer. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The book and its page had been the site of writing and the logic of writing had shaped the order of the page and the book; the screen is the site of the image and the logic of the image is shaping the order and the arrangements of the screen. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history But we should also remember that the original text was without book or scene divisions, paragraphing, indices, punctuation, or even word division. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Serious literature was élitist and wanted to be known as élitist. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Of course books also create rich cognitive environments, but they passively embody the cognitions of writer, reader, and book designer rather than actively participate in cognition themselves. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf The ideal for a book would be to lay everything out on a plane of exteriority of this kind, on a single page, the same sheet: lived events, historical determinations, concepts, individuals, groups, social formations. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Acker punctuates this section of the book with extensive quotations from Genet's work, and in doing so clearly invites parallels to be drawn between Janey's story and Acker's own theft / plagiarism from her own influencers. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history In general, however, the new form of the book placed greater emphasis on the second visual dimension. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Realizing this broader possibility requires that we understand electronic literature not only as an artistic practice (though it is that, of course), but also as a site for negotiations between diverse constituencies and different kinds of expertise. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Coverley's Califia and her new work Egypt: The Book of Going Forth by Day ; the picaresque hypertext The Unknown by Dirk Stratton, Scott Rettberg and William Gillespie, reminiscent in its aesthetic of excess to Kerouac's On the Road ; Michael Joyce's elegantly choreographed Storyspace work, Twelve Blue, disseminated on the Web through the Eastgate Hypertext Reading Room ; Caitlin Fisher's These Waves of Girls, including sound, spoken text, animated text, graphics and other functionalities in a networked linking structure ; Stuart Moulthrop's multimodal work Reagan Library, featuring QuickTime movies with random text generation ; The Jew's Daughter by Judd Morrissey in collaboration with Lori Talley, with its novel interface of a single screen of text in which some passages are replaced as the reader mouses over them ; Talan Memmott's brilliantly designed and programmed Lexia to Perplexia ; and Richard Holeton's parodic Frequently Asked Questions about Hypertext, which in Nabokovian fashion evolves a narrative from supposed annotations to a poem , along with a host of others. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html The study of cybertexts reveals the misprision of the spaciodynamic metaphors of narrative theory, because ergodic literature incarnates these models in a way linear text narratives do not. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf The problem with terms such as the electronic text and the printed book is that they are, to borrow a phrase from Clifford Geertz, too “dangerously unfocused” to sustain a precise analysis. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html "The end of linear writing," Derrida declares, "is indeed the end of the book," even if, he continues, "it is within the form of a book that the new writings -- literary or theoretical -- allow themselves to be, for better or worse, encased" ( Of Grammatology, 86). Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf In fact, these instructions are ironically broken, and the writers of such texts usually discuss and question the rules themselves; in many cases, they even call on the readers to challenge or to expand them by themselves, so that literature explicitly transcends the space of the rule-governed game in favor of a “meta-game” (SchmitzEmans 2002, 193). Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl The disciplines his manifesto covers in brief individual sections are mathematics, music, literature and poetry, mysticism, erotica and painting. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading But there are texts which can be “consumed” in this way, as is obvious from the mounds of light literature that flow regularly into the pulping machines. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt A literary tradition must precede an author's inscriptions for literature to be possible as such, yet this same appropriation and re-working of an existing tradition is said to produce "original" work. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles Hayles’ defense of this prediction relies on the fact that almost all literature today is transferred into digital format at some point. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Afternoon does not represent a break with the novel.On the contrary, it finds its place in a long tradition of experimental literature in which one of the main strategies is to subvert and resist narrative. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html With these ground-clearing arguments, new opportunities became available to re-think the specificities of print and electronic literature and to explore their commonalities without collapsing one into the other. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf To attribute the book subject is to overlook this working of matters, and the exteriority of their relations. Christian Kerslake;  The Vertigo of Philosophy:Deleuze and the Problem of Immanence  2002;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze8.htm Spinoza and the ‘best plane of immanence’ In the Spinoza book of 1968, Deleuze fashions a history of the philosophy of immanence, from the Neoplatonists through to Duns Scotus, which culminates in Spinoza. James J. Pulizzi;  Machine Intelligence and Electronic Literature  http://newhorizons.eliterature.org/essay.php@id=9.html Such a structure would result in a constrained narrative, more akin to the set print of a book than what one would expect from a dynamic device like a computer. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Just as the twentieth century saw an explosion of interest in the book as a medium, with an impressive canon of artists' books and other experimental practices exploring the potential of the book as an artistic and literary venue, so electronic literature has seen a growing body of work that interrogates networked and programmable media as the material basis for artistic innovation and creation. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Writing as mode and book as medium have shaped western imagination, forms of knowledge, practices of reading; the technology of writing has shaped the book, and the technology of the book has shaped how writing has developed. T. W. Adorno;  The Essay a s Form  1984;  http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0094-033X%28198421%2F22%290%3A32%3C151%3ATEAF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-C Such works -alongwith prod ucts like the biographical sketches of Herbert E~lenberg,~ the German model for a flood of cultural trash-literature, all the way to the films about Rembrandt, Toulouse-Lautrec, and the Holy Bible -have pro moted the neutralizing transformation of cultural artifacts into com modities, a transformation which, in recent cultural history, has ir resistably seized up all that which in the eastern bloc is shamelessly called "the cultural heritage." This process is perhaps most striking in the instance of Stefan Zweig, who in his youth wrote several discerning essays, and who finally, in his book on Balzac, stooped so low as to de scribe the psychology of the creative artist. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Two other specialized approaches to literature invite rethinking in terms of orality—literacy contrasts. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles Its place among everyday readers of literature can be seen by how much even a casual acquaintance with e-lit can modify, accentuate, and broaden the horizons of the very books all readers adore. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Ergodic literature, at least in my understanding of the term, describes a form of literature where the user moves through a text by acting on it and through a form of non-trivial effort, always restricted to the amount of freedom and the set of rules predefined by the author. MATTHEW FULLER;  BEHIND THE BLIP - ESSAYS ON THE CULTURE OF SOFTWARE  2003;  http://www.multimedialab.be/doc/citations/matthew_fuller_blip.pdf Material based around philosophy and literature includes Michael Heim’s Electric Language and the contributions of Friedrich Kittler, despite his assertions that the object of attention here does not exist. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf It is quite evident that literature has not only been confronted with the challenge of interactivity since modern computers were invented, but also that a “permanent mutability” of signifiers is a fundamental feature of all creative processes, which do not aim at permanent storage of strings. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf A strange mystification: a book all the more total for being fragmented. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html By attempting to give a recognizable shape to this fast-moving and diverse community of artists, writers, designers, programmers, and critics and the works they create and interpret, I hope this essay will also interest specialists who may be familiar with one or more areas of electronic literature but not necessarily with the field as a whole. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Still others who come to digital media from backgrounds as print writers, such as M. Coverley, are on steep upward learning curves in which their visual and graphic sensibilities are rapidly becoming as accomplished as their verbal expertise (compare, for example, the design qualities of Califia with the stunning graphic design of Egypt: The Book of Coming Forth by Day).

CHAPTER
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N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html Rossetti Hypermedia Archive demonstrate. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html The editors of the archive are meticulous in insisting that even small differences in materiality potentially affect meaning, so they have gone to a great deal of trouble to compile not only different works but extant copies of the same work. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The database becomes a delivery device of authority in potentia: when needed, call upon it to verify the reliability of accessed material; but until that time, all that is needed is to know that such archive exists. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf At first, we may think that this is simply a particular technological implementation of variability principle, but, as I will show in “Database” section, in a computer age database comes to function as a cultural form of its own. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html The database is in principle similar to the filing cabinet but with a level of automation and speed that made radically different textual practices possible. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Eine relationale Datenbank könnte, anders als ein Karteikasten, eine Vielzahl gleichrangiger Sortierungen enthalten; darüber hinaus wäre eine Anzahl von Unterdateien denkbar, die, durch komplizierte Querverbindungen miteinander verwoben, ein verzweigtes Netz von Informationen bilden, eine 'Architektur', die an die drei Dimensionen des physikalischen Raumes nicht mehr gebunden ist. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html It is no exaggeration to say that theWilliam Blake Archive establishes the gold standard for literary Web sites. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html The Web promises to allow these dual imperatives to be more successfully integrated than ever before, as the William Blake Archive and McGann's work on the D. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 History is here dependent on linear traces that expose the instability of interpretation; much like tree rings, traces are left behind, marking time, leaving us with an allegorical database presenting destruction (death) as an inevitable part of life. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The Regenerative Remix privileges the ever-present—at the same time, it knows it needs history for legitimation, and the archive can be called upon to suffice as proof of its reliability. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Here the archive becomes the field of knowledge to be accessed; it is the archeological ground to be explored by sophisticated researchers and lay-people alike. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Yet, even when its archive may be accessible, it does not mean that people will necessarily ever use it directly; most people will stick to the most immediate material, placed on the front pages of any online resource, because the Regenerative Remix encourages the now: the present—for the sake of practicality and functionality. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html Thus he is more interested (at least theoretically) in what deformations of Rossetti's images in Photoshop reveal about their composition than in the accomplishments of the William Blake Archive in simulating the color tones and sizes of the paper documents. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Jerome McGann, whose work on the Rossetti Archive and contributions to Institute of Advanced Technology in the Humanities (IATH) at the University of Virginia have made him a leading figure in the field, turns this perspective on its head in Radiant Textuality: Literature after the World Wide Web by arguing that print texts also use markup language, for example, paragraphing, italics, indentation, line breaks and so forth. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf For the libraries, in which the archeologist found so much rich material, collected and catalogued papers that in terms of addressee, distribution technique, degree of secrecy and writing technique had been extremely diverse -- Foucault's archive as the entropy of a post office.[5] Even writing itself, before it ends up in libraries, is a communication medium, the technology of which the archeologist simply forgot. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 But, as previously noted, the archive also functions in market value as the resource’s importance grows as its database grows; when reconfigured properly, it can provide revenue when people use a search engine to buy items online. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 Here, the archive is similar to analog vinyl records losing their fidelity and being slightly deteriorated every time the needle passes through the groove. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 This particular type of mashup goes deep into the database to access dynamic data. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 In “Le Catalogue,” the mastermind behind x-arnDOTorg has created a database of documentary images (an archive) of art projects between 1990-1996 that’s available for public access. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 This is quite a challenge because as this text demonstrates, the Regenerative Remix is primarily designed for practicality, for the sake of immediate services; and the archive is designed to come to the front at the very moment that a query is made. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf A new media object can be defined as one or more interfaces to a multimedia database (see introduction to “Interface” chapter and “Database” section for more discussion of this principle).

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EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The Regenerative Remix is specific to new media and networked culture. Vilém Flusser;  Waiting for Kafka  1967;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ As such, Kafka’s thoughts are determined by the structure of German grammar. Christian Kerslake;  The Vertigo of Philosophy:Deleuze and the Problem of Immanence  2002;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze8.htm To proceed it is necessary to bring out the general teleological structure of cognition present in Kant’s work right from the first edition Critique. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 This will enable us to understand the dialectics at play within Remix, which at the beginning of the twenty-first century is the ideological foundation for remix culture. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Thus digital computers have an Oreo-like structure with an analogue bottom, a frothy digital middle, and an analogue top. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 One of the first claims extracted from Chun is that there is a similarity, which we may call a formal similarity, between the structure of ideology and the structure of software. Wolfgang Iser;  THE RANGE OF INTERPRETATION  2000;  http://books.google.de/books/about/The_range_of_interpretation.html?id=9IPLzzYy2hAC&redir_esc=y Recursive looping as a structure of translatability reveals that the liminal space between the foreign and the familiar, between input and output, between the structural coupling of systems, and between the levels of autonomous systems, cannot be eliminated, although recursivity is powered by the drive to eliminate it. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf There are many scales of change in a text’s metamorphosis: unintentional (the blunders of a typesetter or projectionist in the dark), usurpatory (a re-mix of samples from a musical recording, a hacked version of a computer game), plagiary (one composer’s unacknowledged variations on a theme of another), and subversive or estranging (the “cut up” textual experiments of William Burroughs and John Cage), to suggest a few. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html And this absence is not a continuous modification of presence; it is a break in presence, "death," or the possibility of the "death" of the addressee, inscribed in the structure of the mark (and it is at this point, I note in passing, that the value or effect of transcendentality is linked necessarily to the possibility of writing and of "death" analyzed in this ,way). EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 In brief, the remix when extended as a cultural practice is a second mix of something pre-existent; the material that is mixed at least for a second time must be recognized otherwise it could be misunderstood as something new, and it would become plagiarism. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 But to move further with this argument Remix must be defined in direct relation with modernism and postmodernism, because it is at the crux of these two concepts that Remix was first practiced popularly as an activity with a proper name. Lev Manovich;  REMIXABILITY  2005;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CC4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2FRemix_modular.doc&ei=2zqzUdX4Gcem4AT6lYHAAQ&usg=AFQjCNHlaRFP8sddB6-_oH4XEmra5A8NlQ&sig2=FAwD4HxylAODfMkX2J-4ig&bvm=bv.47534661,d.bGE&cad=rja Creative Commons offers a special set of Sampling Licenses which “let artists and authors invite other people to use a part of their work and make it new.” Flickr offers multiple tools to combine multiple photos (not broken into parts – at least so far) together: tags, sets, groups, Organizr. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 In the end, no matter what tools are used to mix or remix in culture, what is important is being able to develop a critical position: one that will allow for a constant flux between representation and repetition with the purpose to confront false-consciousness. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm There is no a priori “naturalness” to such a system, any more than there is to the detailed structure of the visual cortex. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history This might be the best way for readers to approach the carefully interwoven philosophy of Aristotle: following the electronic links would allow readers to sample from various texts and move progressively deeper into the problems that each text poses. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 As it will become clear in this essay, in order for remix culture to come about, certain dynamics had to be in place, and these were first explored in music, around the contention of representation and repetition. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history In a medieval codex the spatial structure is the pattern of rubrication and various sizes of letters; in a printed book it is the arrangement into paragraphed pages; in the computer it is the pattern of textual windows and images on the screen. Eduardo Navas;  THE FRAMEWORK OF CULTURE: REMIX IN MUSIC, ART, AND LITERATURE  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=651#more-651 The very concept of originality helped establish literature, a creative field which, to this day, holds a somewhat privileged position in relation to art and music—and especially to the basic concept of remixing; this view is still pervasive in mainstream culture; and it is remix culture that is trying to debunk such position, of course. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The megamix has its roots in the sampling practice of disco and hip hop. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 As previously noted, the remix in music was created and defined by the DJs in the early 1960’s and late 70’s in New York City, Chicago and other parts of the United States. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm Furthermore, an investigation of their work indicates that the underlying recursive principles that generate deep structure were assumed to be restricted in certain ways – for example, by the condition that new structures are formed only by the insertion of new “propositional content,” new structures that themselves correspond to actual simple sentences, in fixed positions in already formed structures. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 But sampling, as can be noticed from the various examples that have been discussed, begins to be supplanted by constant updating. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history A written text is a structure in space that implies a structure in time: writing turns time into space. Christian Kerslake;  The Vertigo of Philosophy:Deleuze and the Problem of Immanence  2002;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze8.htm Hegel manages to generate a lot of determinate possibilities out of the structure of negation: it is hard to see what determinate possibilities can be strictly generated from ‘difference in itself’. Vilém Flusser;  On the Theory of Communication  1986–87;  http://www.flusserstudies.net/ A radical change in the mass-media structure is perfectly possible, and present techniques allow it. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Now that remix has been defined in its four basic forms, we are ready to look at mashups in music as well as other fields in mass culture, especially web 2,0 applications. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Flash’s mix does not fit comfortably into any of the Remix definitions I have provided above; instead, it vacillates among them as a transitional song. EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 Its specificity in the second half of the twentieth century can best be understood when realizing that the strategies by artists throughout the first half of the twentieth century had to be assimilated to then be recycled as part of the postmodern condition in the second half—a time when remix proper developed in music. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Traversing this path, the "doing" of the reader-the linear turning of pages as she reads-becomes also a kind of"knowing," for she experiences the structure ofautopoiesis as weil as comprehends it when the text circles back on itself. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Thus, it is not the plot, or the narrative, or any other wellknown poetic unit that will be our definitive agency but the shape or structure of the text itself. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm He points out that mammals other than man appear to lack the human ability to imitate sounds, and that one might therefore have expected birds (many of which have this ability to a remarkable extent) to be “the group which ought to have been able to evolve language in the true sense, and not the mammals.” Thorpe does not suggest that human language “evolved” in any strict sense from simpler systems, but he does argue that the characteristic properties of human language can be found in animal communication systems, although “we cannot at the moment say definitely that they are all present in one particular animal.” The characteristics shared by human and animal language are the properties of being “purposive,” “syntactic,” and “propositional.” Language is purposive “in that there is nearly always in human speech a definite intention of getting something over to somebody else, altering his behaviour, his thoughts, or his general attitude toward a situation.” Human language is “Syntactic” in that an utterance is a performance with an internal organisation, with structure and coherence. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html der Kommunikation; und weil Kommunikation etwas gutes ist, erscheint es selbstverständlich, daß die Medien einander überbieten und in der historischen Abfolge immer mehr Kommunikation, Kommunikation über weitere Strecken, bequemer oder mit einer größeren Zahl von Beteiligten gewährleisten; Massenkommunikation und 'global village' erscheinen entsprechend als der zu erreichende Gipfel, ergänzt durch den wenig vermittelten Einwand, die Medien sollten nun ihre monologisch-hierarchische Struktur aufgeben und zum Grundmuster des Dialogs zurückkehren. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm The sound-image is the structure of the appearing of the sound [l'apparaître du son] which is anything but the sound appearing [le son apparaissant]. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm Now B would be as such constituted by the retention of Now A and the protention of Now C; in spite of all the play that would follow from it, from the fact that each one of the three Now-s reproduces that structure in itself, this model of successivity would prohibit a Now X from taking the place of Now A, for example, and would prohibit that, by a delay that is inadmissible to consciousness, an experience be determined, in its very present, by a present which would not have preceded it immediately but would be considerably “anterior” to it. Lev Manovich;  REMIXABILITY  2005;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CC4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2FRemix_modular.doc&ei=2zqzUdX4Gcem4AT6lYHAAQ&usg=AFQjCNHlaRFP8sddB6-_oH4XEmra5A8NlQ&sig2=FAwD4HxylAODfMkX2J-4ig&bvm=bv.47534661,d.bGE&cad=rja We can find precedents for this “remixability” – for instance in modern electronic music where remix has become the key method since the 1980s. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 While people who developed early personal computers may not have been influenced by mashups directly as a cultural reference, their similarities bear comparison, especially because the eighties is the time when computers and remix in music were both introduced to popular culture. Jacques Derrida;  Speech and writing according to Hegel  1993;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida1.htm It means first very generally that signs are here considered according to the structure and movement of the Aufhebung by which mind, rising above nature, suppressing and retaining it, sublimating it in itself, is accomplished as inward freedom, and thus is presented to itself as such: 'Psychology', says Hegel, 'studies the faculties or general modes of mental activity qua mental - intuition, representation, remembering etc, desires etc. Christian Kerslake;  The Vertigo of Philosophy:Deleuze and the Problem of Immanence  2002;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze8.htm But is this a relevant criterion for the structure of problems? Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading How, then, can it evolve from the structure of the text? EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 To understand Remix as a cultural phenomenon, we must first define it in music. Vilém Flusser;  On the Theory of Communication  1986–87;  http://www.flusserstudies.net/ They order their symbols by rules, and the sum of these rules is called the “structure of the code.” Both repertoire and structure are quantifiable. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Generally speaking, remix culture can be defined as a global activity consisting of the creative and efficient exchange of information made possible by digital technologies. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Recursive looping as a structure of translatability reveals that the liminal space between the foreign and the familiar, between input and output, between the structural coupling of systems, and between the levels of autonomous systems, cannot be eliminated, although recursivity is powered by the drive to eliminate it. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 In either case web application mashups, for the most part, leave the actual code intact, and rely on either dynamic or static sampling, meaning that they either take data from a source once (static) or check for updates periodically (dynamic). Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm The presentation of the other as such, that is to say the dissimulation of its “as such,” has always already begun and no structure of the entity escapes it. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja That year M/A/R/S released their record “Pump Up the Volume”; as Poscardt points out, “This record, cobbled together from a crazy selection of samples, fundamentally changed the pop world. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Major genres in the canon of electronic literature emerge not only from different ways in which the user experiences them but also from the structure and specificity of the underlying code. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Diese Fragen waren vor allem deshalb relevant, weil die Expertensysteme, in die man große Hoffnungen setzte, an Problemen des Zugriffs, der Datenreduktion und des impliziten Wissens zu scheitern drohten und das Modell der Sprache zumindest Aufschluß über die Struktur dieser Art von Problemen versprach. MATTHEW FULLER;  BEHIND THE BLIP - ESSAYS ON THE CULTURE OF SOFTWARE  2003;  http://www.multimedialab.be/doc/citations/matthew_fuller_blip.pdf Theorisations of software that are able to operate on the level of a particular version of a program, a particular file structure, protocol, sampling algorithm, colour-scheme, API, Request For Comment, and so on, are necessary. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja According to Ulf Poscardt, “The DJ’s domination of the world started around 1987.” This take-over is closely related to the new freedom in the use of mixing and sampling. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See To describe the change that takes place, the authors use the term "natural drift." There seems tobe a natural drift in "natural drift," however, and in later passages it becomes "structural drift." If structure changes, what does it mean to say that autopoiesis is conserved? Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf The basic structure of Adventurecan be described not as a topography but as an ergography, the textually represented laborious progress of the main character/narratee/user; the text’s “you.” You’s task is to find all the treasure and kill the appropriate monsters while avoiding getting killed or stuck or lost in the topographical maze. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html It does not seem so, or at very least this distance, division, delay, diffé rance must be capable of being brought to a certain absolute degree of absence for the structure of writing, supposing that writing exists, to be constituted. Katherine Hayles;  The Power of Simulation: What Virtual Creatures Can Teach Us  1999;  http://www.stanford.edu/class/history34q/readings/Hayles/Simulation.html One creature, for example, moves in a way that indicates it samples the position of the puck and opponent once at the beginning of the competition and thereafter ignores all cues about position.Clearly, here is an instance of a relatively simple program creating an impression of surface complexity that contrasts with the simplicity of the underlying rules. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf This is another consequence of numerical coding of media (principle 1) and modular structure of a media object (principle 2). N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See To describe the change that takes place, the authors use the term "natural drift." There seems tobe a natural drift in "natural drift," however, and in later passages it becomes "structural drift." If structure changes, what does it mean to say that autopoiesis is conserved? Katherine Hayles;  The Power of Simulation: What Virtual Creatures Can Teach Us  1999;  http://www.stanford.edu/class/history34q/readings/Hayles/Simulation.html An example of an oreo structure is positron emission tomography, or PET images. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html In this context, the plagiarised sections in Acker's texts are analogous to longer samples - equivalent to a chord sequence - whereas the original syntactic cut-ups can be seen as shorter samples - equivalent to a few notes or a drum sound. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html The history of writing will conform to a law of mechanical economy: to gain the most space and time by means of the most convenient abbreviation; it will never have the least effect on the structure and content of the meaning (of ideas) that it will have to vehiculate. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Flash’s mix also has principles of the Reflexive Remix because it pushes the overall composition to attain its own independence with the quick juxtaposition of the songs. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ They impose a very different structure on thought in that they represent the world by means of static images. Christian Kerslake;  The Vertigo of Philosophy:Deleuze and the Problem of Immanence  2002;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze8.htm From the ideal notion of collective unity we move to a permanently distributive structure of reason. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Die psychologische Struktur des bürgerlichen Individuums war voll von Generälen und Chefs, wie es Deleuze und Guattari ausdrückten. Lev Manovich;  REMIXABILITY  2005;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CC4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2FRemix_modular.doc&ei=2zqzUdX4Gcem4AT6lYHAAQ&usg=AFQjCNHlaRFP8sddB6-_oH4XEmra5A8NlQ&sig2=FAwD4HxylAODfMkX2J-4ig&bvm=bv.47534661,d.bGE&cad=rja Now we’re looking to a new set of tools to aggregate and remix microcontent in new and useful ways.” And it is much easier to “aggregate and remix microcontent” if it is not locked by a design. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf The musical practice of sampling has also contributed to destroying the figure of the Author, in a practical way that goes beyond theoretical deconstruction (the famous "death of the author" according to Barthes and Foucault). Eduardo Navas;  THE FRAMEWORK OF CULTURE: REMIX IN MUSIC, ART, AND LITERATURE  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=651#more-651 So, in a way, this essay aims to evaluate remix as an act of struggle. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Instantiating a linear narrative that turns into a circle, the book simulates an autopoietic structure in which the details produce the overail organization, and the organization produces the details. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Leaving aside the hand-waving explanations of structure and organization, that something is basically the integrity of a selfcontained, self-perpetuating system that is operationally closed to its environment. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 This essay will focus on defining remix in relation to these two terms, and then move on to examine its role in media and art. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm In fact, there is much dispute at the moment about the general properties of the underlying phrase structure system for natural languages; the dispute is not in the least resolved by the existence of proper names. Eduardo Navas;  THE FRAMEWORK OF CULTURE: REMIX IN MUSIC, ART, AND LITERATURE  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=651#more-651 Cultural citation, which we can think of as the foundation of intertextuality, is much more difficult to trace than material sampling because at times it may be an abstract idea, or a premise that is being recycled. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html It constructs the mark; and the eventual presence of the referent at the moment when it is designated changes nothing about the structure of a mark which implies that it can do without the referent. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm In general, the problem of extending concepts of linguistic structure to other cognitive systems seems to me, for the moment, in not too promising a state, although it is no doubt too early for pessimism. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 Today, Remix (the activity of taking samples from pre-existing materials to combine them into new forms according to personal taste) has been extended to other areas of culture, including the visual arts; it plays a vital role in mass communication, especially on the Internet. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 The analogical or ‘expressive’ theory of ideology is also not unfamiliar, as in the work of Louis Althusser where the structure of ideology resembles, more or less, an architectural drawing of a house, with the material base of society down below and the cultural or superstructural layer up above. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Written lines impose a specific structure on thought, in that they represent the world by means of a point sequence. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ They impose a radically new structure on thought in that they represent the world by means of moving images. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Regardless of the legal contentions, without a trace of its history, then, the remix cannot be Remix. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms In its very structure it is “avant-garde” since it is constantly being extended and thus redefined. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm To repeat: Suppose that we assign to the mind, as an innate property, the general theory of language that we have called “universal grammar.” This theory encompasses the principles that I discussed in the preceding lecture and many others of the same sort, and it specifies a certain subsystem of rules that provides a skeletal structure for any language and a variety of conditions, formal and substantive, that any further elaboration of the grammar must meet. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 At the beginning of the twenty-first century, it is evident that the Regenerative Remix is defining the next economic shift. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 An example of this is Mad Professor’s famous dub/trip hop album No Protection, which is a remix of Massive Attack’s Protection. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See The energy generated by these Contradietory propositions rebounds like a loaded spring toward the very term that Maturana's closure was designed to erase, namely "reality." What is enacted rhetorically within the structure of this sentence is formalized in Luhmann's theory by investing the observer with the agency to draw a distinction. Christian Kerslake;  The Vertigo of Philosophy:Deleuze and the Problem of Immanence  2002;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze8.htm It is important to remember that Spinoza thinks he is demonstrating the structure of the absolute, and would be critical of any interpretation of ‘affirmation’ which suggested voluntarism. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja In contrast to earlier examples of such practice – for instance the 1980s Star Track fans editing their own video tapes by sampling from various Star Track episodes or writing short stories involving main Star Track characters – now it came into the central place, being legitimized and encouraged by game producers. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja As if from nowhere, the avant-garde sound collage, unusual for the musical taste of the time, made it to the top of the charts and became the year’s highest-selling 12-inch single in Britain.” Theorizing immediately after M/A/R/S, Coldcut, Bomn The Bass and S-Xpress made full use of sampling, music critic Andrew Goodwin defined sampling as “the uninhibited use of digital sound recording as a central element of composition. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf from Harsdörffer 1647-53/1969, I, 10)13 Many samples can be found in Harsdörffer’s eight-volume Frauenzimmer-Gesprächspiele (1641-49), a collection of parlor games framed by a rather simple story: Six interlocutors, three women and three men, get together in a mansion to talk about social, scientific and poetic matters – and for just having a chat. Rick Prelinger;  On the Virtues of Preexisting Material | Contents Magazine  2007;  http://contentsmagazine.com/articles/on-the-virtues-of-preexisting-material/ Yes, you can remix the present and upload it to YouTube, but they can take it down and they will, if you use content that someone else owns. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html The absence of the sender, the addressor, from the marks that he abandons, which are cut off from him and continue to produce effects beyond his presence and beyond the present actuality of his meaning, that is, beyond his life itself, this absence, which however belongs to the structure of all writing and I will add, further on, of all language in generalthis absence is never examined by Condillac. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Networks allow the content of a new media object to be periodically updating while keeping its structure intact. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm In the course of these lectures I have mentioned some of the classical ideas regarding language structure and contemporary efforts to deepen and extend them. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history In computer writing any relationships between textual elements can float to the surface; the computer invites the writer to reveal the inner structure in the appearance and the behavior of the text. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm It is a point on which Jakobson disagrees with Saussure decisively by substituting for the homogeneousness of the line the structure of the musical staff, “the chord in music.” What is here in question is not Saussure's affirmation of the temporal essence of discourse but the concept of time that guides this affirmation and analysis: time conceived as linear successivity, as “consecutivity.” This model works by itself and all through the Course, but Saussure is seemingly less sure of it in the Anagrams. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The foundation of musical mashups can be found in a special kind of Reflexive Remix known as the megamix, which is composed of intricate music and sound samples. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading This is the point where the textual structure of his role begins to affect the reader.

CHAPTER
FIVE

Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Instead of one linear argument, the hypertext can present many, possibly conflicting arguments. Vilém Flusser;  The Codified World  1978;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Linear codes demand a synchronization of their diachronicity. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf Most modern methods for making series proliferate or a multiplicity grow are perfectly valid one direction, for example, a linear direction, whereas a unity of totalization asserts itself even more firmly in another, circular or cyclic, dimension. Vilém Flusser;  The Future of Writing  1983–84;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Therefore, during history, imagination was the source of reason: the stronger the imagination, the greater the challenge of critical reason, and rich images permit more powerful linear explanations. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Wiederholungen sind eine Strategie der Vertextung, die Elemente quer zum Verlauf des linearen Syntagmas miteinander verbindet; und zwar eine relativ schlichte Form, wenn man sie mit anderen Arten der Vertextung vergleicht. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Wenn es sinnvoll erscheint, das n-dimensionale Netz der Rechner vom psychologischen Assoziationsbegriff zu lösen und auf die sprachlichen Assoziationen zu beziehen, wenn zweitens das sprachliche System als ein Netz negativ-differentieller Verweise begriffen werden muß, und wenn drittens die Sprache die Besonderheit hat, auf zwei Orte verteilt zu sein und ein n- dimensionales Netz in den Köpfen mit linearen Syntagmen im Außenraum zu konfrontieren, so ergibt sich die Folgerung, daß das neue Medium exakt auf dieser Grenze operiert. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The storytellers tale is strictly linear, although it need not be fixed from one telling to another. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf This perspective lets us include nonlinear texts, many of which have no author (or even reader) in the traditional sense. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf She defines “book labyrinths” on a material level as “non-linear constructed books, which explicitly ‘send’ the reader to and fro by means of typography, reading instructions, non-linear pagination or other signals, or as collections of text segments” (transl. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Damit ergibt sich eine auffällige Entsprechung zu der erhöhten Aufmerksamkeit, die die Literaturtheorie in den letzten Jahren für die Intertextualität entwickelt hat; Hypertextsysteme erscheinen als eine Möglichkeit, intertextuelle Bezüge, die bis dahin latent waren, in manifeste Bezüge - in Links eben - zu überführen, und damit Strukturen nachzuzeichnen, die quer zu den linearen Syntagmen die verschiedenen Texte immer schon verbinden. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ It may be that what is happening at present is the attempt to incorporate linear thought into surface thought, concept into image, elite media into mass media. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ Then they subjected this image to a linear critique (the case of the alphanumerical explanation). Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Damit wäre die Software-Struktur von Hypermedien identisch mit der Theorie-Struktur komplexer Sachverhalte: Relationierung von Relationen." Hypertextsysteme sind Maschinen, die Texte quer zum Verlauf des linearen Syntagmas miteinander verknüpfen. Vilém Flusser;  The Future of Writing  1983–84;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ And so did Plato when he announced his hatred of what we now call the “plastic arts.” Writing, historical consciousness, linear, rational thought were invented to save humankind from “ideologies,” from hallucinatory imagination. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Seven years earlier, in ‘Of Grammatology’ (1976b), Derrida was already drawing a contrast between linear and nonlinear writing. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Many scripts across the world have been developed independently of one another (Diringer 1953; Diringer 1960; Gelb 1963): Mesopotamian cuneiform 3500 BC (approximate dates here from Diringer 1962), Egyptian hieroglyphics 3000 BC (with perhaps some influence from cuneiform), Minoan or Mycenean ‘Linear B’ 1200 BC, Indus Valley script 3000–2400 BC, Chinese script 1500 BC, Mayan script AD 50, Aztec script AD 1400. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Und man wird sich vergegenwärtigen müssen, daß dies ein in extremer Weise restriktives Ordnungsprinzip ist: Das Prinzip der linearen Anreihung läßt zu jedem Zeitpunkt nur die Auswahl eines einzigen neuen Elements zu, alle anderen möglichen Elemente müssen unterdrückt und von der Auswahl ausgeschlossen werden. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history If linear and hierarchical structures dominate current writing, the computer now adds a third, the network as a visible and operative structure. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf In this, hypertext is not different from paper-based linear texts. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Whereas analogue recording of sound and visual information requires serial, linear processing, digital technology removes the need for sequence by permitting one to go directly to a particular bit of information. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Since the paradigms and practice of literary theory cannot remain unaffected by its encounter with nonlinear literature, except by pretending it never happened, I both discuss new applications of literary theory and suggest some possible new departures. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Among these classes we could place the figures of nonlinearity, with the following set of subclasses: forking, linking/jumping, permutation, computation, and polygenesis. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ Before we shall try to focus on the outright calculating and computing, it is imperative to consider the “photographic view”, through which we see the world and ourselves within it, and thanks to which we have already jumped out of linearity. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Und dies verschiebt die Perspektive grundsätzlich; den linearen Texten gegenüber nämlich steht nun: die Sprache. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Der gesamte Kontext der Sprachtheorie scheint zusammengebrochen, sobald es um die Computer geht, und um ihre Fähigkeit, nicht-lineare Strukturen nun im Außen zu repräsentieren. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ This explains the division of our civilization into a mass culture (those who participate almost exclusively in surface fiction) and an elite culture (those who participate almost exclusively in linear fiction). Vilém Flusser;  The Codified World  1978;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ And the result is a new experience of time, that is, linear time, a stream of unstoppable progress, of dramatic unrepeatability, of framing: in short, history. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf When I said that a textcan be nonlinear by convention, the definition is laid open to interference from the interpretable level. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ The function of the picture as a plate for orientation is significant here (our intent is to consider what motivates linear writing). Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm Saussure's entire theory of the “linearity of the signifier” could be interpreted from this point of view. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles The digressions and omissions in Sterne’s novel read like hypertext to me, and in fact, the general defiance of linearity and a distortion of conventional ordering didn’t seem quite right in print: Tristram Shandy needed the sort of reader participation I was becoming accustomed to in e-lit. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Second, although both linear and hierarchical arrangements provide information in some sort of order, that order does not always match the needs of individual users of that information. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Offensichtlich ist zunächst, daß innerhalb der Literatur verstärkt Projekte auftreten, die mit der Linearität in offenem Zwiespalt liegen. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Or worse, what if the text starts by warning us against possible attacks of illegitimate nonlinearities, then proceeds to order usto go at once to page 50 for further instructions and skip the intervening pages that, we are told, have been contaminated by subversive directions? Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf The weakness of this simplified model is that some nonlinear texts, such as those that are both static and indeterminate, fall between the generalized categories. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Die langen, linearen Syntagmen scheinen einer unaufhaltsamen Erosion ausgesetzt und es entstehen essayistische, gebrochene oder offene Strukturen, wie sie für die Texte der Moderne kennzeichnend sind. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf To present nonlinear textuality as a phenomenon relevant to textual theory, one must rethink the concept of textuality to comprise linear as well as nonlinear texts. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ To return to our argument, at present we dispose of two media between ourselves and the facts—the linear and the surface. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Das Bild des Netzes verbindet lineare Achsen oder Vektoren zu einer zwei-, drei- oder mehrdimensionalen Struktur. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html This is very different from the ambiguities of a linear text. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Wenn wir unser Wort: arbre (Baum) wieder aufgreifen, [sehen wir, daß] es alle symbolischen Kontexte anzieht, in denen es im Hebräisch der Bibel erscheint [und ebenso Verse der Dichtung, die man], glauben wir, mit Recht in den mitklingenden Tönen des Wortes arbre hören kann." Drei Gedanken faßt diese Stelle zusammen: die Kritik einer allzu schlichten Vorstellung von Linearität, das Gegenbild einer Vielstimmigkeit oder Partitur, das die Kopräsenz der 'vertikalen', paradigmatischen Achsen betont, und drittens, wie gleich zu zeigen sein wird, ein Entwicklungsmodell. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Is there a name or recognized class for the device (or better, set of devices) of nonlinearity? Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Die neue Signifikantenanordnung scheint die Beschränkungen aufzuheben, denen die lineare Schrift unterliegt, ihr ausschließender Charakter scheint überwunden und ein lange verfolgtes Desiderat scheint sich plötzlich einzulösen. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf The question of nonlinear narrative versus antinarrative should not be decided by the evidence from only one text (even if it exists in two versions), and perhaps we need a new terminology that lets us name the representation and composition principle that relates to nonlinearity as narrative relates to linearity. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history For semiotics, as for linguistics, texts are chains of signs and, therefore, linear by definition. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html So, if I'm going to do anything that has any relation to my own life, which it has to, I'm not going to write in terms of linear time. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf In terms of the simplified hierarchy of nonlinear texts, these classes of figures belong to the following levels: forking, found in the spatially nonlinear text; linking/jumping, belonging to the stratum of hypertext; permutation, computation, and polygenesis, all found in both determinate and indeterminate cybertext. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Baudrillard has described one major thread or constituent of contemporary reality that is potentially at war with the multilinear, hypertextual one. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ For the elite, the problem is that the more objective and clearer the linear fiction becomes, the more it is impoverished, because it tends to lose contact with the facts it wants to represent (all meaning). Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Konkret wird nun hervorgehoben, daß die Linearität als ein Mechanismus der Ausschließung, ja, der Verdrängung verstanden werden muß. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ What was intended here was to suggest a point of view that counters a widespread cultural pessimism: Doubtlessly, we would lose much if we lost the linear code, and with it historical, process oriented, critical thinking. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Much of the initial discomfort felt by the user of a nonlinear text is caused by its not behaving as a real text should; once the strangeness is gone, the user knows what to expect, which is not to expect everything. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ (A Venus of Willendorf may tell a story, but a film tells its story differently; it tells it historically, along a line.) Thus we must rectify our explanation: the present civilization does not look like the result of a linear development from image to concept, but rather like the result of a sort of spiral movement from image through concept to image. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Although Bush emphasizes the “trail”—the linear ordering of interesting items from the “maze of materials available”—he allows his user to go off on little side excursions. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Wenn es also eines der großen Rätsel ist, auf welchem Weg das sprachliche System in die Köpfe hineinkommt, wäre hier - vorläufig und immer im Rahmen des reduziert/abstrahierten Modells - zu antworten, daß es die äußeren, linearen Texte sind, die die Assoziationswege bahnen, die dann den Kernbestand des sprachlich verfaßten Wissens bilden. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html This distinction is inconspicuous in a linear expression text, since when you read from War and Peace, you believe you are reading War and Peace. Vilém Flusser;  The Future of Writing  1983–84;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Instead, it proposes to consider a tendency that underlies those problems: namely, the tendency away from linear codes such as writing and toward two-dimensional codes such as photographs, films, and TV, a tendency that may be observed if one glances even superficially at the codified world that surrounds us. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Until print, the only linearly plotted lengthy story line was that of the drama, which from antiquity had been controlled by writing. Vilém Flusser;  The Codified World  1978;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ That is what we mean by “crisis of values”: that we step out of the linear world of explanations and into the techno-imaginary world of “models.” The revolutionary originality of techno-images is not that they move themselves, that they are “audiovisual,” that they shine in light of the cathThe Codified World 41 ode ray, and so on, but that they are “models,” the image of a concept of a scene. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ For a while now, mathematical, calculating thought has been breaking out from within the alphanumerical code, is claiming independence, and it is turning against linear thought, to analyze it, and (surprisingly, but certainly not unexpectedly) to lead to a new form of imagination. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ The motivations of the inventors of linear writing may, somewhat anachronistically, be phrased like this: imagination is an ontologically doubtful stance, the resulting images are connotative, and they are subject to the inner dialectic inherent in all mediation. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history These are traits he shares with such writers as Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, and Wittgenstein, each of whom in his own way attacked the development of systematic, linear argument. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Aarseth highlights the fact that reading paths through a book are actually less linear and predfined as they are in a hypertext. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Now may be the time to broaden the scope of interest and to examine textual nonlinearity from a general point of view. Vilém Flusser;  Orders of Magnitude and Humanism  1990;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ The new humanism is forced to break out of the linearity of technical progress into the winding. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf In addition, reader has—until now—always been defined by literary theorists with only the linear text in mind. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ It suggests that both readings are linear (because paths are lines), and that the difference between the two has something to do with freedom. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf Als Buch-Labyrinthe verstanden seien darum im folgenden auf materiellvisueller Ebene nicht-linear konstruierte Bücher, die den Leser explizit hin und her ‘schicken’, durch typographische Mittel, Leseanleitungen, nicht-lineare Numerierungen oder andere Signale, sowie Text-BausteinSammlungen. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf In this essay I outline a theory of nonlinear texts and investigate some of its possible implications for the practice of literary theory and criticism. Lev Manovich;  DEEP REMIXABILITY  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=61 Consequently, while NLE (the standard abbreviation for non-linear editing software) gave the editor many tools for adjusting the edits, they took for granted the constant of film language that came from its industrial organization – that all frames have the same size and aspect ratio. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Particularly poststructuralism actually critisizes the linearity which it thinks is at the core of the medium book. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html In der Theorie verstärkt sich die Tendenz, ihren eigenen Textcharakter zu reflektieren; es entsteht der Verdacht, daß insbesondere historische Darstellungen eine Linearität in die geschilderten Ereignisse überhaupt erst hineintragen. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Now, if this is true, it means that “surface thought” is absorbing “linear thought,” or is at least beginning to learn how to do so. Vilém Flusser;  The Future of Writing  1983–84;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ From the point of view of the texts that will flow into the box, this will be a utopian situation: the box is the “fullness of time,” because it devours linear time and freezes it into images. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Derrida, more than any other major theorist, understands that electronic computing and other changes in media have eroded the power of the linear model and the book as related culturally dominant paradigms. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html "As Derrida emphasizes, the linear habits of thought associated with print technology often force us to think in particular ways that require narrowness, decontextualization, and intellectual attentuation, if not downright impoverishment. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Agrippa is a unique lesson in textual ontology, a linear text that seems to flirt with nonlinearity, not through its convention or mechanism but through the difference between its used and unused copies. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Electronic linking creates hypertext, a form of textuality composed of blocks and links that permits multilinear reading paths. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Insights promoted by the metaphors of nonlinear physics aid understanding of nonlinear texts as well as linear ones, but reading a nonlinear textis not the same as a reading informed by research in fractal geometry or chaos theory. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html All four, like many others who write on hypertext or literary theory, argue that we must abandon conceptual systems founded upon ideas of center, margin, hierarchy, and linearity and replace them with ones of multilinearity, nodes, links, and networks." Die Gleichsetzung als kurzschlüssig zurückzuweisen, wäre einfach. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm This articulation therefore permits a graphic (“visual” or “tactile,” “spatial”) chain to be adapted, on occasion in a linear fashion, to a spoken (“phonic,” “temporal”) chain. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf The first of its kind, it intriguingly demonstrates the potential of hypertextuality for literary experiment and explores the effects of nonlinearity on narration. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Hypertext, when regarded as a type of text, shares with a variety of other textual types a fundamental trait, which we defined as nonlinearity. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ In short, the synthesis of linear and surface media may result in a new civilization. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Aslater examples reveal, the position of a single letter or the position of many syntagms strung together can make a text nonlinear. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Die linearen Texte nämlich müssen nun als ein 'Durchlauf' durch die Netzstruktur, als eine aktuelle Inanspruchnahme bereits gebahnter Wege erscheinen. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Recently, because of the computer, certain types of nonlinear texts have received attention from educational, technological, and theoretical circles. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf The fundamental difference is that between the linear and the nonlinear. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm This linearism is undoubtedly inseparable from phonologism; it can raise its voice to the same extent that a linear writing can seem to submit to it. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf As a simplified synthesis of this model I now propose four pragmatic categories, or degrees, of nonlinearity: (1) the simple nonlinear text, whose textons are totally static, open and explorable by the user; (2) the discontinuous nonlinear text, or hypertext, which may be traversed by “jumps” (explicit links) between textons; (3) the determinate “cybertext,” in which the behavior of textons is predictable but conditional and with the element of role-playing; and (4) the indeterminate cybertext in which textons are dynamic and unpredictable. Roy Christopher;  Interview with Jay David Bolter: FutureText  2001;  http://roychristopher.com/jay-david-bolter-futuretext I don’t know how we could decide whether associative (hypertextual) or linear thinking is more “natural.” Both hypertexts and linear texts are highly artificial forms of writing. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ The alphabet was invented to denote the speaking code (to subjugate it to the clear and distinct rules of linear writing) and to refashion it into an effective tool for a critique of the imagination. Wolfgang Iser;  THE RANGE OF INTERPRETATION  2000;  http://books.google.de/books/about/The_range_of_interpretation.html?id=9IPLzzYy2hAC&redir_esc=y Instead, it is nonlinear insofar as these modes of interpretation are responses to the ever-increasing open-endedness of the world, thus focusing on what appears to be pressing in the situation of the moment. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf This counterpoint, which may be called the Verfremdungsargument, has much merit, but it ignores the fact that the understanding (beyond trivial) of a nonlinear text can never be a consummate understanding, because the realization of its script (and not just its meaning) belongs to the individual user, who is acutely aware of his or her own constructive participation. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf As I have shown, in addition to hypertext there is a wealth of nonlinear text types, from ancient inscriptions to sophisticated computer programs based on the latest semantic research. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ The Crisis of Linearity, the first phases of which we are experiencing, is mainly a challenge to us: We should mobilize the newly emerging power of imagination to overcome the crisis, in us and around us. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ In the first position, he stands in the midst of static images (in myth); in the second position, he stands in the midst of linear progressive concepts (in history); in the third position he stands in the midst of images that order concepts (in “structures”). Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf As we have seen, fundamental structural terms like story, plot, fiction, and narrative are not always suitable to describe the nonlinear textualities.

CHAPTER
SIX

Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ Particularly for the purpose of critique linear writing was invented. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Instead of defining text as a chain of signifiers, as linguists and semioticians do, I use the word for a whole range of phenomena, from short poems to complex computer programs and databases. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html As she also wrote, 'I do not write out of nothing, or from nothing, for I must write with the help of other texts.' Here, she alludes to the complex relationship between creativity, influence, authorship and ownership. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html This fanciful scenario is meant to suggest that the place of writing is again in turmoil, roiled now not by the invention of print books but the emergence of electronic literature. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf Writing, however, stored writing -- no more and no less. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See As the authors put it, their work "shows that the [frog's] eye speaks to the brain in a language already highly organized and interpreted instead of transmitring some more or less accurate copy of the distribution oflight upon the receptors" (1950). Jacques Derrida;  Speech and writing according to Hegel  1993;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida1.htm In assigning limits to universal, that is mute writing, writing not bound to the voice and to natural languages, in assigning limits to the function of the mathematical symbolism and calculus, considered as the work of the formal understanding, Hegel wishes to show that such a reduction of speech would interrupt the movement of Aufhebung, which is the movement of idealisation, of the history of mind and the reappropriation of logos in the presence to itself and infinite parousia. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Yet Christian teaching also presents at its core the written word of God, the Bible, which, back of its human authors, has God as author as no other writing does. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Finally, the sequential processing and spatializing of the word, initiated by writing and raised to a new order of intensity by print, is further intensified by the computer, which maximizes commitment of the word to space and to (electronic) local motion and optimizes analytic sequentiality by making it virtually instantaneous. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf The very Person of the Son is constituted as the Word of the Father. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf This strictly preposterous term remains in circulation today even among scholars now more and more acutely aware how embarrassingly it reveals our inability to represent to our own minds a heritage of verbally organized materials except as some variant of writing, even when they have nothing to do with writing at all. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history In speech as in writing we use words. Marshall McLuhan;  The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man  1962;  http://books.google.de/books/about/The_Gutenberg_Galaxy.html?id=y4C644zHCWgC&redir_esc=y I suggest that it was only when the written, and still more the printed, word appeared on the scene that the stage was set for words to lose their magic powers and vulnerabilities. Michel Foucault;  Author Function  1977;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Foucault-AuthorFunction.html Furthermore, where in mathematics the author has become little more than a handy reference for a particular theorem or group of propositions, the reference to an author in biology or medicine, or to the date of his research has a substantially different bearing. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 Indeed any understanding of contemporary visual mediation that ignores software does so at its own peril, in an age when cinema has become synonymous with Final Cut Pro, photography with Photoshop, writing with Microsoft Word, and on and on. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html (B&G 74) This passage shares common ground with Gysin's permutations, taking the form of simple repetitions with a word being altered in each line. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm Constituting and dislocating it at the same time, writing is other than the subject, in whatever sense the latter is understood. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf For in Christian teaching the Second Person of the One Godhead, who redeemed mankind from sin, is known not only as the Son but also as the Word of God. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Works produced there include Cayley's Torus (2005) in collaboration with Dmitri Lemmerman, Memmott's "E_cephalopedia//novellex" (2002), Noah Wardrip-Fruin's Screen with Josh Carroll, Robert Coover, Shawn Greenlee, and Andrew McClain (2003) , and William Gillespie's Word Museum with programming by Jason Rodriguez and David Dao. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Those who are disturbed by Plato’s misgivings about writing will be even more disturbed to find that print created similar misgivings when it was first introduced. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html In his book Digital Poetics: Hypertext, Visual-Kinetic Text and Writing in Programmable Media, Glazier argues that electronic literature is best understood as a continuation of experimental print literature. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y So ist es für Mallarme zum Beispiel die Sprache, die spricht, und nicht der Autor; das Schreiben wird dann zu einem Akt, in dem sich die Sprache und nicht der Autor präsentiert. Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf The author also serves to neutralize the contradictions that may emerge in a series of texts: there must be - at a certain level of his thought or desire, of his consciousness or unconscious - a point where contradictions are resolved, where incompatible elements are at last tied together or organized around a fundamental or originating contradiction. Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf Clearly, Saint Jerome's four criteria of authenticity (criteria that seem totally insufficient for today's exegetes) do define the four modalities according to which modern criticism brings the author function into play. Lev Manovich;  REMIXABILITY  2005;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CC4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2FRemix_modular.doc&ei=2zqzUdX4Gcem4AT6lYHAAQ&usg=AFQjCNHlaRFP8sddB6-_oH4XEmra5A8NlQ&sig2=FAwD4HxylAODfMkX2J-4ig&bvm=bv.47534661,d.bGE&cad=rja The only fields where sampling and remixing are done openly are music and computer programming, where developers rely on software libraries in writing new software. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Typography had made the word into a commodity. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text The writer of this text employs an unweaned language: imperative, automatic, unaffectionate, a minor disaster of static (those milky phonemes which the remarkable Jesuit, van Ginnekin, posited between writing and language): these are the motions of ungratified sucking, of an undifferentiated orality, intersecting the orality which produces the pleasures of gastrosophy and of language. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf The producer of such a text has to compile a collection of text segments and to define relations between these fragments regardless of the specific medium he is writing for. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf If this is what is meant by writing, the antiquity of writing is perhaps comparable to the antiquity of speech. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm The bird signals its intention to defend a territory by selecting a correlated point along the linguistic dimension of pitch alternation – I use the word “select” loosely, of course. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt As the narrator notes, this body/writing analogy allowed rhetoricians to conclude that writing was bad if it resembled a disproportioned or grotesque body. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Indeed, different versions of a new media object may vary strictly quantitatively, for example in the amount of detail present: for instance, a full size image and its icon, automatically generated by Photoshop; a full text and its shorter version, generated by “Autosummarize” command in Microsoft Word 97; or the different versions which can be created using “Outline” command in Word. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf The readers of manuscripts are less closed off from the author, less absent, than are the readers of those writing for print. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm The very idea of institution — hence of the arbitrariness of the sign — is unthinkable before the possibility of writing and outside of its horizon. Marshall McLuhan;  The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man  1962;  http://books.google.de/books/about/The_Gutenberg_Galaxy.html?id=y4C644zHCWgC&redir_esc=y McLuhan knew Lewis’s observation that the artist is always writing a history of the future because he alone is aware of the nature of the present, and he took this less as an article of faith than as a fact that could be demonstrated by citing and interpreting passages from Lewis, Joyce, Pound, Eliot, and others who showed their insights into the impact of new technologies. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text He can also "dismiss" writing and become a scientist, a scholar, an intellectual theorist, no longer speaking except from a moral site cleansed of any linguistic sensuality. William S. Burroughs;  The Cut-Up Method of Brion Gysin  1963;  http://www.ubu.com/papers/burroughs_gysin.html IF YOU POSED ENTIRELY OF REARRANGED CUT DETERMINED BY RANDOM A PAGE OF WRITTEN WORDS NO ADVANTAGE FROM KNOWING INTO WRITER PREDICT THE MOVE. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm Before being its object, writing is the condition of the epistémè; that historicity itself is tied to the possibility of writing; to the possibility of writing in general, beyond those particular forms of writing in the name of which we have long spoken of peoples without writing and without history. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html According to Calcutt and Shepherd, the uncertainty regarding her age is 'indicative of a contrary writer committed to both the destruction and creation of identity,' a suggestion which is relatively accurate in describing at least one of Acker's primary preoccupations.Although she would later return to an academic environment in a teaching capacity, while initially at college she studied a number of writing courses - all of which she 'hated:' I took a lot of writing courses when I was in college... ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Foucault träumt von einer Kultur, in der ein Diskurs arbeitet, »ohne daß die Funktion Autor jemals erschiene«. EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 In other words, discourse as developed by an author can be changed. T. W. Adorno;  The Essay a s Form  1984;  http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0094-033X%28198421%2F22%290%3A32%3C151%3ATEAF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-C Fictional biographies and all the related commercial writing are no mere degeneration but the perma- nent temptation of a form whose suspicion toward false profundity is no defense against its own turning into skillful superficiality. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm One word of caution is necessary in referring to Lorenz, now that he has been discovered by Robert Ardrey and Joseph Alsop and popularised as a prophet of doom. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html These communications are to remain within the element of a determined "natural" language, which is called French, and which commands certain very particular uses of the word communication. Roland Barthes;  From Work to Text - 1  1971;  http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/From%20Work%20to%20Text.pdf I know the word is fashionable (I am myself often led to use it) and therefore regarded by some with suspicion, but that is exactly why I should like to remind myself of the principal propositions at the intersection of which I see the Text as standing. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm With regard to this unity, writing would always be derivative, accidental, particular, exterior, doubling the signifier: phonetic. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ One can see, in this (admittedly somewhat modernizing) phrasing, the invention of linear writing was given the word as the germ of future, Western culture. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm Although the word “psychic” is not perhaps convenient, except for exercising in this matter a phenomenological caution, the originality of a certain place is well marked. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm Hitherto I seem to have maintained that only the fascination of the unit called word has prevented giving to writing the attention that it merited. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm It is thus the idea of the sign that must be deconstructed through a meditation upon writing which would merge, as it must, with the undoing [sollicitation] of onto-theology, faithfully repeating it in its totality and making it insecure in its most assured evidences. Vilém Flusser;  Betrayal  ca. mid-1980s;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ The masses became capable of deciphering the rules, and somewhat later of writing them themselves (or at least of believing that they did so). Eric A. Havelock;  The Muse Learns to Write  1986;  http://www.thenewhumanities.net/books/Book%20Reviews16.html The word revolution, though convenient and fashionable, is one that can mislead if it is used to suggest the clear-cut substitution of one means of communication for another. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf For a text to convey its message, it does not matter whether the author is dead or alive. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf A literate person, asked to think of the word ‘nevertheless’, will normally (and I strongly suspect always) have some image, at least vague, of the spelled-out word and be quite unable ever to think of the word ‘nevertheless’ for, let us say, 60 seconds without adverting to any lettering but only to the sound. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf Our writing tool not only works on our thoughts, it "is a thing like me." Mechanized and automatic writing refutes the phallocentrism of classical pens. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The electronic writer may embed hierarchical structures inside of larger networks, or networks inside of hierarchies. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm Moreover it is not always certain what is derived and what not; we must not forget that the discovery of alphabetic writing is hidden in prehistory [Bertrand Russell quite rightly calls attention to the fact that we have no means of deciding whether writing or speech is the older form of human expression (An Outline of Philosophy , so that the assertion that it rests on a phonetic analysis is only one of the possible diachronic hypotheses; it may, also be rested on a formal analysis of linguistic structure. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html A writing that was not structurally legibleiterablebeyond the death of the addressee would not be writing. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ The author of the play knows that he is proposing a convention within limits imposed upon him by the theatrical medium, and he tries to give meaning to his convention; his freedom is structural. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The reader is free to make all sorts of misunderstandings that the text separated from its author cannot correct. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html Such that - a paradoxical, but inevitable consequence - a successful performative is necessarily an "impure" performative, to use the word that Austin will employ later on when he recognizes that there is no "pure" performative. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Print also rearranged the relationship of letters to other parts of the social world by, for example, freeing the writer from the need for patronage and the consequent subservience to wealth, by challenging and reducing established authority's control of writing by means of state censorship, and by pushing through a copyright law that made the author the owner of his own writing (4-5). WALTER BENJAMIN;  THE AUTHOR AS PRODUCER  1970;  http://newleftreview.org/I/62/walter-benjamin-the-author-as-producer By the example of two of these movements, ‘activism’ and the ‘new objectivity’, I want to show that however revolutionary this political tendency may appear, it actually functions in a counterrevolutionary manner as long as the writer experiences his solidarity with the proletariat ideologically and not as a producer. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html If, perchance, the predicate thus assumed to characterize the absence proper to writing were itself found to suit every species of sign and communication, there would follow a general displacement: writing no longer would be a species of communication, and all the concepts to whose generality writing was subordinated (the concept itself as meaning, idea, or grasp of meaning and idea, the concept of communication, of sign, etc) would appear as noncritical, illformed concepts, or rather as concepts destined to ensure the authority and force of a certain historic discourse. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html One kind of strategy, evident in Ted Warnell's intricately programmed JavaScript work, TLT vs. LL, is to move from the word as the unit of signification to the letter. Christian Kerslake;  The Vertigo of Philosophy:Deleuze and the Problem of Immanence  2002;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze8.htm This said, I will also suggest that if the word ‘immanence’ appears continuously throughout Deleuze’s work, this is not because it is a sign of philosophical continuity, but because it designates the site of an enduring problem. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt But the analogy was to go only so far; writing was not actually to become the body. Vilém Flusser;  What Is Communication?  1973–74;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ When speaking, “natural” tones do not come out as in a bird’s song, and writing is not a “natural” gesture like a dance of bees. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history So, for example, such early prose authors as Herodotus made use of a technique called “ring composition“. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Because narrative is contextual, it is polysemaus in a way that analytic writing is not. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html It is also as a "parasite" that writing has always been treated by the philosophical tradition, and the rapprochement, here, is not at all fortuitous. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms If we look at contemporary media software – CAD, computer drawing and painting, image editing, word processors – we will see that most of their fundamental principles were already developed by the generation of Sutherland and Kay. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf Muller published a treatise entitled Newly Invented Writing-Machine, with Which Everybody Can Write, Without Light, in Every Language, and Regardless of One's Handwriting; Generate Essays and Bills; the Blind, Too, Can, Unlike with Previous Writing Tablets, Write Not Only with Greater Ease but Even Read Their Own Writing Afterward. Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf It would be just as wrong to equate the author with the real writer as to equate him with the fictitious speaker; the author function is carried out and operates in the scission itself, in this division and this distance. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html As he explains, in what Gregory Ulmer terms "the fundamental generalization of his writing" , there also exists "the possibility of disengagement and citational graft which belongs to the structure of every mark, spoken and written, and which constitutes every mark in writing before and outside of every horizon of semiolinguistic communication. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf For writing surfaces, he had wet clay bricks, animal skins (parchment, vellum) scraped free of fat and hair, often smoothed with pumice and whitened with chalk, frequently reprocessed by scraping off an earlier text (palimpsests). EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 The selectivity found in the death of the author and the author function as defined above is what makes the notion of interactivity easily assimilated because of sampling. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text In short, the word can be erotic on two opposing conditions, both excessive: if it is extravagantly repeated, or on the contrary, if it is unexpected, succulent in its newness (in certain texts, words glisten, they are distracting, incongruous apparitions—it matters little if they are pedantic; thus, I personally take pleasure in this sentence of Leibnitz: "as though pocket watches told time by means of a certain horodeictic faculty, without requiring springs, or as though mills ground grain by means of a fractive quality, without requiring anything on the order of millstones"). N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See These comments suggest that he regards his analytic writing as constituting a kind of closed autopoietic space in itself, secure in its circular organization and insulated against historical contingency. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Rh torik , or rhetoric, basically meant public speaking or oratory, which for centuries even in literate and typographic cultures remained unreflexively pretty much the paradigm of all discourse, including that of writing (Ong 1967b, pp 58–63; Ong 1971, pp 27– 8). George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Derrida's groping for a way to foreground his recognition of the way text operates in a print medium -- he is, after all, the fierce advocate of writing as against orality -- shows the position, possibly the dilemma, of the thinker working with print who sees its shortcomings but for all his brilliance cannot think his way outside this mentalité. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Wie im Kapitel über das Sampling schon ausgeführt, ist in der High-Tech-Kunst der Autor zum einen hinter den Schaltplänen der Beatboxen und Sampler verschwunden, zum anderen verweigerte er mit seiner wilden Nutzung fremder Werke jeglichen Respekt vor der Funktion Autor. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm This logocentrism, this epoch of the full speech, has always placed in parenthesis, suspended, and suppressed for essential reasons, all free reflection on the origin and status of writing, all science of writing which was not technology and the history of a technique, itself leaning upon a mythology and a metaphor of a natural writing. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See As the opening diagram of the chapters indicates, the authors envision each chapter leading into the next, with the final one coming back to the beginning. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm The system of writing in general is not exterior to the system of language in general, unless it is granted that the division between exterior and interior passes through the interior of the interior or the exterior of the exterior, to the point where the immanence of language is essentially exposed to the intervention of forces that are apparently alien to its system. WALTER BENJAMIN;  THE AUTHOR AS PRODUCER  1970;  http://newleftreview.org/I/62/walter-benjamin-the-author-as-producer The bourgeois writer of popular stories does not acknowledge this alternative. EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 Michel Foucault also questions the role of the author in contemporary culture, but unlike Barthes, who only pointed out the necessity to shift our cultural attention from the author to the reader, Foucault concludes that even though the death of the author as a great individual has been claimed, the notions supporting such claim actually have only renegotiated the privilege in authorship. Jacques Derrida;  Speech and writing according to Hegel  1993;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida1.htm Over and beyond the fact of alphabetical writing what is here aimed at is a teleological ideal of this writing. Roy Christopher;  Interview with Jay David Bolter: FutureText  2001;  http://roychristopher.com/jay-david-bolter-futuretext Although Storyspace is capable of incorporating graphics and digitized video, it has principally been used for verbal hypertexts, and frankly, this emphasis on the word puts Storyspace at a disadvantage as we move into an era of multimedia both on and off the Web. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Such considerations alert us to the paradoxes that beset the relationships between the original spoken word and all its technological transformations. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history And in order to be taken seriously, both scholarly and scientific writing must be nonfiction in a linear-hierarchical form. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html Differing from the classical assertion, from the constative utterance, the performative's referent (although the word is inappropriate here, no doubt, such is the interest of Austin's finding) is not outside it, or in any case preceding it or before it. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf High literacy fosters truly written composition, in which the author composes a text which is precisely a text, puts his or her words together on paper. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf The word in its natural, oral habitat is a part of a real, existential present. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html We are not witnessing an end of writing which, to follow McLuhan's ideological representation, would restore a transparency or immediacy of social relations; but indeed a more and more powerful historical unfolding of a general writing of which the system of speech, consciousness, meaning, presence, truth, etc, would only be an effect, to be analyzed as such. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms The systematic practical work on making a computer simulate and extend existing media (Sutherland’s Sketchpad, first interactive word processor developed by Englebart’s group, etc.) came after computers were already put to multiple uses – performing diffirent types of calculations, solving mathematical problems, controlling other machines in real time, running mathematical simulations, simulating some aspects of human intelligence, and so on. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Passages such as this, in the form of 'fake' letters from a 'real' not only blur the boundaries of reality and fiction, but serve to expose the artifice of the format and linearity of 'the novel.' Ultimately, Acker raises more questions than answers, but succeeds in provoking thought concerning the point at which the author and reader engage, and the idea that the authorial voice is only as 'real' as the characters portrayed. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf In Afternoon, however, the relation between narrator and narratee appears relatively normal; while the distance between the user and narratee on one side and narrator and author on the other is stretched to the limit by the unreliable links. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history One word alludes to something earlier in the text or looks ahead to something to come. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Here again something that Derrida and other critical theorists describe as part of a seemingly extravagant claim about language turns out precisely to describe the new economy of reading and writing with electronic virtual, rather than physical, forms. Vilém Flusser;  The Future of Writing  1983–84;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ But now writing is becoming subservient to image making, reason to imagination: one can observe this while analyzing any TV program. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html This iterability (iter, once again, comes from itara, other in Sanskrit, and everything that follows may be read as the exploitation of the logic which links repetition to alterity), structures the mark of writing itself, and does so moreover for no matter what type of writing (pictographic, hieroglyphic, ideographic, phonetic, alphabetic, to use the old categories). Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf In a like vein, where primary orality promotes spontaneity because the analytic reflectiveness implemented by writing is unavailable, secondary orality promotes spontaneity because through analytic reflection we have decided that spontaneity is a good thing. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Cell and nucleus To reflect on this: in writing or speaking I have to use a sentence in which two entities – cell and nucleus – are related by a verb, have, indicating a possessive relation: the cell has something (much like: “I have a car, a house, two kids, etc”). Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf People had to be persuaded that writing improved the old oral methods sufficiently to warrant all the expense and troublesome techniques it involved. EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 The notion of authorship which they examined can now be assessed, especially in relation to new media practice, which is largely dependent on the “reader” or user, as the participants are commonly called. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Particularly problematic was the word nonlinear. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf In 1882, human beings, their thoughts, and their authorship respectively were replaced by two sexes, the text, and blind writing equipment.

CHAPTER
SEVEN

Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history In that sense the reader loses control. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Both pieces begin with news stories (for Regime Change, President Bush's claim that Saddam Hussein had been killed, and for News Reader, the headlined stories in Yahoo.com), then employ the n-gram technique pioneered by Claude Shannon to find similar strings in the source and target documents, using them as bridges to splice together the two texts. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Although within most of the individual scriptons the voice of a first person narrator relates events to a narratee in a traditional manner, the unpredictable changing of scenes (as one trail of related scriptons abruptly stops and another begins) constantly undermines the would-be reader’s attempt to identify with the narratee, as well as the identification of the narrator and the (implied) author or exo-narrator, as it were. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt The interjection of simultaneity into the sequence of a reader's choices makes clear why different ontological levels (character, writer, reader) mingle so monstrously in this text. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history A hypertextual essay in the computer is always a dialogue between the writer and his or her readers, and the reader has to share the responsibility for the outcome. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html What constitutes the materiality of a given text will always be a matter of interpretation and critical debate; what some readers see as physical properties brought into play may not appear so to other readers. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text On the stage of the text, no footlights: there is not, behind the text, someone active (the writer) and out front someone passive (the reader); there is not a subject and an object. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading So far we have outlined the reader’s role as a textual structure, which, however, will be fully implemented only when it induces structured acts in the reader. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf And the lovers among Goethe's female readers, like Bettina Brentano, may well have died with the heroine of his Elective Affinities only to be "reborn in a more beautiful youth" by virtue of Goethe's "genius."[25] Maybe the perfectly alphabetized readers of 1800 were a living answer to the question with which Chris Marker concludes his film essay Sans Soleil: Lost at the end of the world on my island Sal, in the company of my dogs strutting around, I remember the January in Tokyo, or rather I remember the images I filmed in Tokyo in January. Katherine Hayles;  The Power of Simulation: What Virtual Creatures Can Teach Us  1999;  http://www.stanford.edu/class/history34q/readings/Hayles/Simulation.html Hence my insistence on using the plural first person, despite the risk of indulging in oppressive universalisms, for I want to insist that my readers, like me, participate every day of our lives in the distributed cognitive complex adaptive systems created by digital technologies in conjunction with global capitalism. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Part of the monstrosity, then, is this mingling of the subjectivity we attribute to characters, authors, and ourselves as readers, with the non-anthropomorphic actions of the computer program. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html In terms of the William Blake Archive, we might reasonably ask: if slight color variations affect meaning, how much more does the reader's navigation of the complex functionalities of this site affect what the texts signify? Wolfgang Iser;  THE RANGE OF INTERPRETATION  2000;  http://books.google.de/books/about/The_range_of_interpretation.html?id=9IPLzzYy2hAC&redir_esc=y The problem is that, if one perhaps knows what is meant by the “intention of the reader,” it seems more difficult to define abstractly what is meant by the “intention of the text.”. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Samples geben dem Leser und Nutzer die Möglichkeit, die Erkenntnisse des Autors zu überprüfen, und wer den Text remixen will, kann die Samples für eigene Zwecke nutzen. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf It appears obvious that speech-act theory and reader-response theory could be extended and adapted to throw light on the use of radio and television (and the telephone as well). Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history In a traditional essay, destined for publication, the writer speaks apparently in his or her own voice and is expected to take responsibility for a text that will go out to hundreds or thousands of readers under his or her name. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history From that time until the advent of electronic writing, the referential network has existed “between the lines” of the text—that is, in the minds of readers and writers. Marshall McLuhan;  The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man  1962;  http://books.google.de/books/about/The_Gutenberg_Galaxy.html?id=y4C644zHCWgC&redir_esc=y Such a reverse perspective of the literate Western world is the one afforded to the reader of Albert Lord’s Singer of Tales. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html The differences in teleological orientation--the different ways in which the reader is invited to "complete" a text--and the texts' various self-manipulating devices are what the concept of cybertext is about. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Spread from “The Boy Electrician” Certain texts – novels for instance – encourage the reader to engage in the semiotic work of imagination, following the given order of words on the line but filling the relatively ‘empty’ words with the reader’s meaning. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf The nineteenth-century novelists’ nervous apostrophes to the ‘dear reader’, as has already been noted, suggest that the typical reader was felt by the writer to be closer to the old-style listener than most readers commonly are felt to be today. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history In an electronic encyclopedia, for example, the reader’s queries determine what text will be retrieved and displayed: the queries cut a particular path through the network of encyclopaedic material. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading It is time now to change the vantage point, turning away from results produced and focusing on that potential in the text which triggers the re-creative dialectics in the reader. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf And what is the reader supposed to make himself out to be in Finnegans Wake? Roland Barthes;  From Work to Text - 2  1971;  http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/From%20Work%20to%20Text.pdf The Text is very much a score of this new kind: it asks of the reader a practical collaboration. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history There is no linear argument that spans the columns, yet the reader’s eye is drawn across, down, and around the page looking for visual and verbal connections. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history All texts perform and in digital media the text can even perform partially or wholly without either the reader or the author. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html The cybertext puts its would-be reader at risk: the risk of rejection. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Readers may want to break in and change the course of the discussion, but they would only be shouting at a text. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Bush then provides a scenario of how readers would create "endless trails" of such links: When the user is building a trail, he names it, inserts the name in his code book, and taps it out on his keyboard. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history In nonfiction or anthologies of stories, readers can read the chapters or sections in orders other than the one suggested. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html "By 'hypertext,' " Nelson explains, "I mean non-sequential writing -- text that branches and allows choices to the reader, best read at an interactive screen. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Even when the text includes some sort of ceremony of victory, it cannot provide the traditional build-up and release of tension that the readers of fiction normally expect. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Readers too may feel the limitation of the dialogue: that they cannot truly enter into the staged conversation. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text The writer's perversity (his pleasure in writing is without function), the doubled, the trebled, the infinite perversity of the critic and of his reader. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles In exploratory hypertexts, the relationship between the text and reader is not terribly different from a reader’s relationship to a novel like Ulysses or Tristram Shandy. Eric A. Havelock;  The Muse Learns to Write  1986;  http://www.thenewhumanities.net/books/Book%20Reviews16.html Alphabetized speech, given its ready fluency of recognition, now allowed of novel language and of novel statement (should individual minds be tempted to indulge in such) which a reader, scanning as he read, could recognize at leisure and ‘take in’ and ‘think over.’ Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history What is true of all writing is painfully obvious in a dialogue; the form invites the reader to participate in a conversation and than denies him or her full participation. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles The next genre Hayles discusses is interactive fiction (IF), which may be familiar to readers of a certain age group from computer games like Adventure and Zork, popular in the early ’80s. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html But his argument confuses what happens in the mind of the reader with the stability of print in a given document. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The network can never be fully explicit, however, because the verbal ideas of the textual always reach out beyond any given electronic text to all other texts that the writer and reader know. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf In some coded systems the writer can predict only approximately what the reader will read off, as in the system developed by the Vai in Liberia (Scribner and Cole 1978) or even in ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html In each case, the reader can follow the link to another text indicated by the note and thus move entirely outside the scholarly article itself. James J. Pulizzi;  Machine Intelligence and Electronic Literature  http://newhorizons.eliterature.org/essay.php@id=9.html Interactive fiction programmed with machine intelligence has the ability to engage with the human interactor in a way that makes the word reader a poor description for what human beings and computers could do in the creation of an electronic piece. Roy Christopher;  Interview with Jay David Bolter: FutureText  2001;  http://roychristopher.com/jay-david-bolter-futuretext Many of their systems were more sophisticated than the Web in the sense that they offered better linking protocols and more possibilities for author/reader interaction. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles Joyce has created the terms “exploratory” and “constructive” hypertext in order to denote the differences between pre-Web and Web-based hypertexts, and he considers exploratory hypertexts like Patchwork Girl and Victory Garden to be more in line with the “output” readers would associate with contemporary book culture. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf The reader of Semitic writing had to draw on non-textual as well as textual data: he had to know the language he was reading in order to know what vowels to supply between the consonants. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html As Bolter explains, the most "unusual feature" of electronic writing is that it is "not directly accessible to either the writer or to the reader. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf "How often would a man of good standing write a few lines to save a lost estate or the welfare of whole families, how often would the handwritten letter of a father steer a son back on the right track, if such men could, without restraint and prompting, write in such a way as if they had been endowed with vision." The "writing-machine," in that sense, only brought to light the rules regulating discourses during the age of Goethe: authority and authorship, handwriting and rereading, the narcissism of creation and reader obedience. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Third, the electronic virtual text, whose appearance and form readers can customize as they see fit, also has the potential to add an entire new element -- the electronic or virtual link that reconfigures text as we who have grown up with books have experienced it. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html In practice most readers employ the materials developed at Brown University as a text-centered system, since they tend to focus upon individual works, with the result that even if they begin sessions by entering the system to look for information about an individual author, they tend to spend most time with lexias devoted to specific texts, moving, for example, between those about works of fiction and nonfiction (Trollope's The Way We Live Now and Carlyle's "Hudson's Statue) or between lexias about a particular novel, say, Gaskell's North and South and informational and contextual materials (biographies, chronologies, essays on setting and characterization in the novel, Evangelical Anglicanism, public health, working-class diets, and so on). N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html "Giving the audience access to the raw materials of creation runs the risk of undermining the narrative experience," she writes, while still acknowledging that "calling attention to the process of creation can also enhance the narrative involvement by inviting readers/viewers to imagine themselves in the place of the creator." Marie-Laure Ryan, in Avatars of Story, pioneers a transmedial approach to narrative that seeks to construct a comprehensive framework for narrative in all media, consisting of simulative, emergent, and participatory models. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html There are so many levels of deferral that the reader or writer is hard put to identify the text at all: is it on the screen, in the transistor memory, or on the disk?" (Writing Space , 42-43). George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html These emphases appear with particular clarity when he claims that "like any text, the text of 'Plato' couldn't not be involved, or at least in a virtual, dynamic, lateral manner, with all the worlds that composed the system of the Greek language." Derrida in fact here describes extant hypertext systems in which the active reader in the process of exploring a text, probing it, can call into play dictionaries with morphological analyzers that connect individual words to cognates, derivations, and opposites. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf This move, which might be seen as self-defense, serves two practical purposes: to avoid the rather silly idea that the reader and author are becoming the same person; and to free the text from being identified with its readings and its writings. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html (S/Z , 4) Compare the way the designers of Intermedia, one of the most advanced hypertext systems thus far developed, describe the active reader that hypertext requires and creates: Both an author's tool and a reader's medium, a hypertext document system allows authors or groups of authors to link information together, create paths through a corpus of related material, annotate existing texts, and create notes that point readers to either bibliographic data or the body of the referenced text. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading A further question mark against the concept of the ideal reader lies in the fact that such a being would have to be able to realize in full the meaning potential of the fictional text. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history In that world, authors could confidently speak and act on behalf of the reader, as did the author of the example in Figure 3, The Boy Electrician: “The prime instinct of almost any boy is to make and to create… At seven he will wire the whole house with his telephone system made from empty tins connected with varying lengths of string. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf Once memories and dreams, the dead and ghosts become technically reproducible, readers and writers are no longer in need of the powers of hallucination. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf A discussion of MUDs in terms of authors and readers is irrelevant: a MUD cannot be read, only experienced from the very narrow perspective of one or more of the user’s characters, with a lot of simultaneous scriptons being beyond reach; and the user cannot be sure that a particular contribution will ever be experienced by more than a few people, or, since the other characters might all be artificial persons or controlled by the same real person, by anyone at all. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt We can now see that the construction of multiple subjectivities in this text and the reconfiguration of consciousness to body are both deeply bound up with what I have been calling flickering signification, constituted through the fluidly mutating connections between writer, interface, and reader. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history To him, the shortcoming of structuralism is that it treats any text as a sequence of signs, irrespective of the reader’s position or the material that is read from. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The new dialogue will be, as Plato demanded, interactive: it will provide different answers to each reader and may also in Plato’s words know “before whom to be silent”. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles As with a paperback copy of Gilbert Sorrentino’s Aberration of Starlight, readers of Patchwork Girl were restricted to engaging with that story in ways limited by the constraints inherent to a CDROM: just as we can’t add or substract pages from a printed book, a CDROM-based hypertext like Patchwork Girl is restricted to the contents that are on the physical disc. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Electronic linking shifts the boundaries between one text and another as well as between the author and the reader and between and the teacher and the student. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Yet this apparent abdication gives Plato a subtler control over his reader. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt "I sense a reluctance when I tow a frame forward into the view," the narrator says in an utterance that conflates writer, reader, and character, as if reflecting within the jumble of fiction and metafiction the jumbled time represented by the lexias. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html As readers move through a web or network of texts, they continually shift the center -- and hence the focus or organizing principle -- of their investigation and experience. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt In print fiction, the book as physical object often seems to fade away as the reader's imagination re-creates the vaporous world of the text, so that reading becomes, as Friedrich Kittler puts it, a kind of hallucination. Marshall McLuhan;  The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man  1962;  http://books.google.de/books/about/The_Gutenberg_Galaxy.html?id=y4C644zHCWgC&redir_esc=y Print also fostered a sense of private identity (by making copies available to individual readers in such large numbers) and imposed a level of standardization in language that had not prevailed until then, thus making “correct” spelling and grammar a measure of literacy. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf Since 1865 (according to European accounts) or 1868 (according to American), writing is no longer the ink or pencil trace of a body whose optical and acoustic signals were irretrievably lost, only to reappear (in readers' minds) in the surrogate sensuality of handwriting. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading The real reader is invoked mainly in studies of the history of responses, i.e., when attention is focused on the way in which a literary work has been received by a specific reading public. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading Textual structure and structured act are related in much the same way as intention and fulfilment, though in the concept of the implied reader they are joined together in the dynamic process we have described. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf They are programmable machines, which are able to process signifiers according to a program and thus generate an output that can neither be predicted nor kept under control by writers or by readers. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Moreover, when as literary critics weexamine a hypertextual text, we should take care not to confuse its interpretation with the author-reader relationship made possible by the ideology of its hypertext system and then assign the conclusions to a general theory of literary hypertext. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html As both Mats Dahlström and McGann point out, the two imperatives guiding most textual criticism are, if not contradictory, at least in tension with one another: editors want to converge on the ideal work and at the same time provide readers as much information as possible about textual variants. Vilém Flusser;  Waiting for Kafka  1967;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ In the reader, it brings something unthinkable and inarticulable back to life—as a contradiction. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history This etymology reflects a belief that reading is a derived form of speech, that the reader is an intepreter who can make mute texts speak. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Whenever I have had the opportunity to present the perspective of ergodic literature and cybertext to a fresh audience of literary critics and theorists, I have almost invariably been challenged on the same issues: that these texts (hypertexts, adventure games, etc.) aren't essentially different from other literary texts, because (1) all literature is to some extent indeterminate, nonlinear, and different for every reading, (2) the reader has to make choices in order to make sense of the text, and finally (3) a text cannot really be nonlinear because the reader can read it only one sequence at a time, anyway. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Yes, the elements are there in certain spatial relations, but how the reader reconstitutes them is largely up to the reader. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text Now this anti-hero exists: he is the reader of the text at the moment he takes his pleasure. Katherine Hayles;  The Power of Simulation: What Virtual Creatures Can Teach Us  1999;  http://www.stanford.edu/class/history34q/readings/Hayles/Simulation.html No doubt an experienced programmer such as Karl Sims can look at a program's functions and "see" the morphologies and behaviors of his creatures with no more difficulty than an experienced novel reader can "see" Isabel Archer in Henry James' tellingly entitled novel, The Portrait of a Lady. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history In ‘Glas’ Derrida lays down a textual space and challenges his reader to find a path through it. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Although fragmentary, enough of the text is visible to allow the reader to make out that it is giving instructions on how to create links to "interconnect documents and make it easier to move from place to [word obscured]." Thus the text underlying the image points to the software program underlying the text, so the entire image functions as an evocation of the multilayered coding chains flexibly mutating across interfaces to create flickering signifiers. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 This was not so in early modernism, where the work of art suspended its historical code, and the reader could not be held responsible for acknowledging the politics that made the object of art “art.” Updating Owens’s theory, I argue that in terms of discourse, postmodernism (metaphorically speaking) remixed modernism to expose how art is defined by ideologies, and histories that are constantly revised. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html American explorations of generative text include Noah Wardrip-Fruin's Regime Change and News Reader, created in collaboration with David Durand, Brion Moss, and Elaine Froehlich, works that Wardrip-Fruin calls "textual instruments" (a designation to which we will return). Roland Barthes;  From Work to Text - 2  1971;  http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/From%20Work%20to%20Text.pdf Just as Einsteinian science demands that the relativity of the frames of reference be included in the object studied, so the combined action of Marxism, Freudianism and structuralism demands, in literature, the relativization of the relations of writer, reader and observer (critic). N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html Indeed, it is normal procedure for literary scholars to consider a "text" as something negotiated among a community of readers, infinitely interpretable and debatable. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Second, the written text appears prima facie to be a one-way informational street, for no real recipient (reader, hearer) is present when the texts come into being.

CHAPTER
EIGHT

MATTHEW FULLER;  BEHIND THE BLIP - ESSAYS ON THE CULTURE OF SOFTWARE  2003;  http://www.multimedialab.be/doc/citations/matthew_fuller_blip.pdf It creates transversal connections between data, machines, and networks. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Along with “low-level” and “high-level” automation of media creation, another area of media use which is being subjected to increasing automation is media access. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 As already discussed these two modes are often splayed out into a hierarchical model of two or more layers of code: source code is ‘prior to’ a runtime executable; machine languages are ‘underneath’ programming languages; software applications ‘drive’ the user experience, and so on. Michael Goddard;  Felix and Alice in Wonderland. The Encounter between Guattari and Berardi and the Post-Media Era  2006;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpbifo1.htm There is no need to think of power as a cold machine composed of decisions and wills. Jean Baudrillard;  The Conspiracy of Art  1996;  http://insomnia.ac/essays/the_conspiracy_of_art/ The only question is: How can such a machine continue to operate in the midst of critical disillusion and commercial frenzy? Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl Ever since computer programmers referred to written algorithmic machine instructions as “code” and programming as “coding,” “code” not only refers to cryptographic codes, but to what makes up software, either as a source code in a high-level programming language or as compiled binary code, but in either case as a sequence of executable instructions. James J. Pulizzi;  Machine Intelligence and Electronic Literature  http://newhorizons.eliterature.org/essay.php@id=9.html Indeed, the very capacity that differentiates it from print literature is this collaboration and cooperation between human and machine that produces the piece. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms Kay conceived of “personal dynamic media” as a fundamentally new kind of media with a number of historically unprecedented properties such as the ability to hold all of user’s information, simulate all types media within a single machine, and “involve learner in a two-way conversation.” These properties enable new relationships between the user and the media she may be creating, editing, or viewing on a computer. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text Now, encratic language (the language produced and spread under the protection of power) is statutorily a language of repetition; all official institutions of language are repeating machines: school, sports, advertising, popular songs, news, all continually repeat the same structure, the same meaning, often the same words: the stereotype is a political fact, the major figure of ideology. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms It was only Kay and his generation that extended the idea of simulation to media – thus turning Universal Turing Machine into a Universal Media Machine, so to speak. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Word processors and other text management software for a long time provided the abilities to search for specific strings of text and automatically index documents. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 The difference is that exploits operate intensively within and through the rules of the symbolic system, while natural languages operate extensively as a result of a combinatorial discursive logic ever intent on probing the boundaries of allowable style.) Reflective sandboxing of software code within a machine built to parse it is seen in the case of a computer language like Java which must be compiled and then run as bytecode inside a special runtime environment, or, as with the language C, compiled and then run as ‘native’ machine instructions, or with a simple mark-up language like HTML the specifications for which must be entirely designed into any browser destined to interpret and display it, or also with other interpreted code such as a three-dimensional model whose mathematical values for vertices and textures must be transcoded according to the rules of a given data format and a given style of visual projection. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf In contrast to centered (even polycentric) systems with hierarchical modes of communication and preestablished paths, the rhizome is an acentered, nonhierarchical, nonsignifying system without a General and without an organizing memory or central automaton, defined solely by a circulation of states. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms In short, only when a computer became a cultural medium – rather than only a versatile machine. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See "Instead of seaching for mechanisms in the environment that turn organisms into trivial machines, we have to find the mechanisms within the organisms that enable them to turn their environment into a trivial machine" (171). MATTHEW FULLER;  BEHIND THE BLIP - ESSAYS ON THE CULTURE OF SOFTWARE  2003;  http://www.multimedialab.be/doc/citations/matthew_fuller_blip.pdf In Ellen Ullman’s Close to the Machine, she states: I’d like to think that computers are neutral, a tool like any other, a hammer that can build a house or smash a skull. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html To this end, the schizophrenic state is, if not an 'ideal' state, then one which is closely linked to postmodern society, in which advertisers or 'production machines' require the consumer to act as a 'desiring machine,' and to assume and dissolve identities at a pace in keeping with the rate that images and advertisements are bombarded at them. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf In rotation, the triumph of the machine comes to the fore. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Die Sprache erscheint als eine gesellschaftliche Maschinerie, die die linearen Syntagmen im Außenraum mit der nicht-linearen Struktur der empirischen Gedächtnisse in eine regelhafte Verbindung bringt. MATTHEW FULLER;  BEHIND THE BLIP - ESSAYS ON THE CULTURE OF SOFTWARE  2003;  http://www.multimedialab.be/doc/citations/matthew_fuller_blip.pdf Because to describe the synthesiser as terminally as they do the TV would be to give up, to stop making a machine in the machine. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf On the contrary, the beginning of our age was marked by separation or differentiation.[44] On the one hand, we have two technological media that, for the first time, fix unwritable data flows, on the other, there is an ">intermediate' thing, between a tool and a machine," as Heidegger wrote so precisely about the typewriter.[45] On the one hand, we have the entertainment industry with its new sensualities, on the other, there is a writing which (unlike Gutenberg's movable types) separated paper and body already during the production of texts. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf Aufknacken von Wörtern und Wendungen in Bedeutungsklumpen von unbestimmter mittlerer Größe (sozusagen ein molekulares Cracking) und dann Zusammenfügen in irgendwo stupenden, aber exotisch einleuchtenden neuen semantischen Verbindungen” Viele Gedichte aus der ‘Wolkenpumpe’ sind automatischen Gedichten verwandt. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 So software is both language and machine, even if the machinic is primary. James J. Pulizzi;  Machine Intelligence and Electronic Literature  http://newhorizons.eliterature.org/essay.php@id=9.html The research program commonly referred to as artificial intelligence has been superceded by cognitive science, machine intelligence, and neuroscience. Jean Baudrillard;  CONTEMPORARY ART: ART CONTEMPORARY WITH ITSELF  2005;  http://www.egs.edu/faculty/jean-baudrillard/articles/contemporary-art-art-contemporary-with-itself/ Similarly, old objects, being obsolete and hence useless, automatically acquire an aesthetic aura. Vilém Flusser;  Criteria—Crisis—Criticism  1984;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ On the other hand, the daily life of industrial society was flooded with a great number of scientifically true insights and good machines and products that were inhuman, because they were robbed of their beauty. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf (This is paralleled by the use of phone or Web-based automated menu systems by all big companies to handle their customers; while the companies are doing this in the name of “choice” and “freedom,” one of the effects of this automation is that labor to be done is passed from company’s employees to the customer. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ The invention of computation machines made it unnecessary to painstakingly fill in the intervals by artful feats of calculation: the machines spit out numbers automatically, in a quantity that deposes of all linearity. Vilém Flusser;  Criteria—Crisis—Criticism  1984;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ If we look at the work of most photo critics, we truly get the impression that the automation of photo criticism is close at hand. Roland Barthes;  From Work to Text - 2  1971;  http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/From%20Work%20to%20Text.pdf 'Playing' must be understood here in all its polysemy: the text itself plays (like a door, like a machine with 'play') and the reader plays twice over, playing the Text as one plays a game, looking for a practice which re-produces it, but, in order that that practice not be reduced to a passive, inner mimesis (the Text is precisely that which resists such a reduction), also playing the Text in the musical sense of the term. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 By contrast, code running in a digital computer causes changes in machine behavior and, through networked ports and other interfaces, may initiate other changes, all implemented through transmission and execution of code. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf These wordgenerating machines are the missing link between the langue of the German language and Lull’s ars combinatoria. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Doch während in der alten Schriftkultur, die nur den einsamen Schreiber und dessen Schreibmaschine oder Computer kennt, der Akt der »Schöpfung« im Kopf des Schreibers stattfindet und damit dessen Tod immer auch eine apokalyptische Vorstellung ist, gibt es in der DJ-Culture die Idee des einen Schöpfer-Gottes zuerst einmal nicht. MATTHEW FULLER;  BEHIND THE BLIP - ESSAYS ON THE CULTURE OF SOFTWARE  2003;  http://www.multimedialab.be/doc/citations/matthew_fuller_blip.pdf In Close to the Machine, the narrator worries about a new payroll system that she’s just been hired to work on: I’ll wonder what I’m doing helping the IRS collect taxes. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms Slowly, through the work of Sutherland, Englebart, Nelson, Papert and others in the 1960s, the ideas and techniques were developed which made computers into a “cultural machine.” One could create and edit text, made drawings, move around a virtual object, etc. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf They also come with filters which can automatically modify an image, from creating simple variations of color to changing the whole image as though it was painted by Van Gog, Seurat or other brand-name artist. Lev Manovich;  DEEP REMIXABILITY  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=61 The machine that could do that – Quantel Paintbox – cost over USD 160,000, which we could not afford. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Word processing, page layout, presentation and Web creation programs come with "agents" which can automatically create the layout of a document. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 The turntable became a machine with which pre-existing material could be distorted to the point that, if the skills were developed, the DJ was able to perform solos as complex as those of a guitarist. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf One response was the popular idea of software “agents” designed to automate searching for relevant information. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf (From a letter to Turing: "Pardon the use of the typewriter: I have come to prefer discrete machines to continuos ones."[62]) The mathematical model of 1936 is no longer a hermaphrodite between a machine and a mere tool. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Instead of evenly surfaced machine-made paper and relatively durable ball-point pens, the early writer had more recalcitrant technological equipment. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Mamber’s software generates a still for every shot of the film; it then automatically combines all the stills into a rectangular matrix. Jean Baudrillard;  CONTEMPORARY ART: ART CONTEMPORARY WITH ITSELF  2005;  http://www.egs.edu/faculty/jean-baudrillard/articles/contemporary-art-art-contemporary-with-itself/ The end of this history saw the banality of art merge with the banality of the real world -- Duchamp's act, with its automatic transference of the object, being the inaugural (and ironic) gesture in this process. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 The result of this is a presentism, admittedly parroted by me later, where software is understood only in its late 20th-century definition as a symbolic machine language and not in an earlier definition in which software might rightly be understood as pre- or non-linguistic. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html By implication, such works also reference the complex hybridization now underway between human cognition and the very different and yet interlinked cognitions of intelligent machines, a condition that Talan Memmott has brilliantly evoked in Lexia to Perplexia with neologisms like "remotional," and "I-terminal." The conjunction of language with code has stimulated experiments in the formation and collaboration of different kinds of languages. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf In the 1890s cinema combined automatically produced images (via photography) with a mechanical projector. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html The intermixture of code and language on which recombinant flux depends is situated within a more general set of practices in which human thinking and machine execution collaborate to produce literary works that reference both cognitive modes. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf A book itself is a little machine; what is the relation (also measurable) of this literary machine to a war machine, love machine, revolutionary machine, etc.-and an abstract machine that sweeps them along? Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms What differentiates a modern digital computer from any other machine – including industrial media machines for capturing and playing media – is separation of hardware and software. T. W. Adorno;  The Essay a s Form  1984;  http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0094-033X%28198421%2F22%290%3A32%3C151%3ATEAF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-C The slightly yield ing quality of the essayist's thought forces him to greater intensity than discursive thought can offer; for the essay, unlike discursive thought, does not proceed blindly, automatically, but at every moment it must reflect on itself. Deleuze and Guattari;  How do you make yourself a body without organs?  1947;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze2.htm All we are saying is that the identity of effects, the continuity of genera, the totality of all BwO's, can be obtained on the plane of consistency only by means of an abstract machine capable of covering and even creating it, by assemblages capable of plugging into desire, of effectively taking charge of desires, of assuring their continuous connections and transversal tie-ins. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf Writing weds a war machine and lines of flight, abandoning the strata, segmentarities, sedentarity, the State apparatus. Vilém Flusser;  Waiting for Kafka  1967;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ The message automatically takes on the character of a code. Lev Manovich;  DEEP REMIXABILITY  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=61 In a number of Ferro’s spots, static images of different letterforms, line drawings, original hand painted artwork, photographs, very short clips from newsreels, and other visuals would come one after another with machine gun speed. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history A few quotes from Cybertext: Cybertext, as now should be clear, is the wide range (or perspective) of possible textualities seen as a typology of machines, as various kinds of literary communication systems where the functional differences among the mechanical parts play a defining role in determining the aesthetic process. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 ‘What is software’, Chun (2004) writes, ‘if not the very effort of making something explicit, or making something intangible visible, while at the same time rendering the visible (such as the machine) invisible?’. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Other computer programs can automatically generate 3D objects such as trees, landscapes, human figures and detailed ready-to-use animations of complex natural phenomena such as fire and waterfalls. Wikipedia;  Mashup (web application hybrid)  2013;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mashup_%28web_application_hybrid%29 Human language is often ambiguous - the same company might be referred to in several variations (e.g. IBM, International Business Machines, and Big Blue). Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Beginning with version 3 (1997), Apple’s QuickTime format also made possible to imbed a number of different versions which differ in size within a single QuickTime movie; when a Web user accesses the movie, a version is automatically selected depending on connection speed. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html As Heim has argued, electronic word processing inevitably produces linkages, and these linkages move text, readers, and writers into a new writing space: The distinctive features of formulating thought in the psychic framework of word processing combine with the automation of information handling and produce an unprecedented linkage of text. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf All data streams flow into a state of n of Turing's universal machine; notwithstanding Romanticism, numbers and figures become the key to all creatures. MATTHEW FULLER;  BEHIND THE BLIP - ESSAYS ON THE CULTURE OF SOFTWARE  2003;  http://www.multimedialab.be/doc/citations/matthew_fuller_blip.pdf In this machine composed by its materiality and force, thought travels, becomes mobile, synthesises. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Replete with puns, neologisms and other creative play, such work enacts a trading zone in which human-only language and machine-readable code are performed as interpenetrating linguistic realms, thus making visible on the screenic surface a condition intrinsic to all electronic textuality, namely the intermediating dynamics between human-only languages and machine-readable code. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ It is true, though: automatic machines can project some of the created instances of information outside of the conversation and thus change the field of possibilities of the “world”. Vilém Flusser;  Criteria—Crisis—Criticism  1984;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ For example, these automated photo critics could be programmed with equations drawn from information sciences and function according to the principle of Maxwell’s demon. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 When basic logic gate functionality is abstracted and strung together into machine commands, translated into assembly op-codes, and then later articulated in a higher-level computer language such as C, the argument from Kittler is that one should never understand this ‘higher’ symbolic machine as anything empirically different from the ‘lower’ symbolic interactions of voltages through logic gates. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms In addition, each program was designed to run on a particular machine. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf (The already quoted example of Web pages automatically generated from databases using the templates created by Web designers can be invoke here as well.) Thus the principle of variability is closely connected to automation. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms This is its uniqueness and its difference from all other machines and previous media. Lev Manovich;  The Practice of Everyday (Media) Life: From Mass Consumption to Mass Cultural Production?  2009;  http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/596645#fn9 This, in fact, is a standard feature of the YouTube interface (Note that all examples of interfaces, features, and common uses of social media sites refer to early 2008; obviously details may change by the date of this essay's publication.) Though social media sites contain huge numbers of such conversations through media, for me the most interesting case so far is a five-minute theoretical video, “Web 2.0…The Machine Is Us/ing Us,” posted by a cultural anthropologist, Michael Wesch, on 31 January 2007 A year later this video had been watched 4,638,265 times. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Clearly, cognition must emerge from autopoietic processes if it is not to be treated as an ad hoc phenomenon, a soul injected into the machine. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Clearly, cognition must emerge from autopoietic processes if it is not to be treated as an ad hoc phenomenon, a soul injected into the machine. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Image editing programs such as Photoshop can automatically correct scanned images, improving contrast range and removing noise. Vilém Flusser;  The Codified World  1978;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Architecture and machinery, books and tools, clothes and food, all of these things were comparably colorless. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf I would even consider a two-year-long marriage for that purpose." With the collapse of his machine, Nietzsche became a man again. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf Remington, and not Edison, took over Sholes' discourse machine gun. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Problematisch ist diese Konzeption vor allem deshalb, weil sie 'den' Menschen in den Mittelpunkt der Konstruktion stellt, und ihn als den Quellpunkt und Ursprung zunächst seiner Sprache und dann der Maschinenwelt begreift. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf But the game remains open-ended, because each time the machine gives itself away--be it by making a mistake, or, more likely, by not making any--it will refine its program through learning.[58] In the Turing game, so-called Man coincides with his simulation. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf Of course, computer programs could simulate the so-called individuality of the human hand, with its routines and mistakes, but Turing, as the inventor of the universal discrete machine, was a typist. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Although the term hypertextwas first used by Theodor H Nelson in 1965 (compare Nelson 1987), the modern origin of the idea is generally accepted to stem from Vannevar Bush, whose article “As We May Think” (1945) described a possible solution to the scientist’s problem of keeping up with the “growing mountain of research,” in the form of a “sort of mechanized private file and library,” a machine for storing, annotating, retrieving, and linking information: the memex. Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl Among the few exceptions are Plots Unlimited and Band-in-a-Box, a program that automatically creates musical arrangements. Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl That their codeworks rarely execute properly, being imaginary code and conflations of machine code with human conversational language, reflects this understanding. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Cyberis derived from cybernetics,the name of Norbert Wiener’s science of “control and communication in the animal and the machine,” again derived from the Greek kybernêtês, steersman (compare governor). Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf Sie sind wie die surrealistischen automatischen Gedichte unmittelbar niedergeschrieben, ohne Überlegung oder Überarbeitung. Vilém Flusser;  A Historiography Revised  1982;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Ever more complex machines, most of them hydraulic, are being designed. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms (This situation is the direct opposite of modernist media paradigm of the early twentieth century which was focused on discovering a unique language of each artistic medium.) Alan Turing theoretically defined a computer as a machine that can simulate a very large class of other machines, and it is this simulation ability that is largely responsible for the proliferation of computers in modern society. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf Lull’s machine consists of a stack of three concentric disks mounted on an axis where they are able to rotate independently. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt We become hybrids, chimeras, centaurs ourself: steaming flanks and solid redoubtable hoofs galloping under a vaporous machinery. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms The reader could not change nether this order nor the level of detail being displayed a la Englebart’s “view control.” Similarly, the film projector combined hardware and what we know call a “media player” software into a single machine. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf This binary information can be read or (in Turing's technospeak) scanned by the machine. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Why do our discussions of reading and writing largely focus on the author and reader, ignoring the cognitively sophisticated actions of intelligent machines that are active participants in the construction of meaning? Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html As the cyber prefix indicates, the text is seen as a machine--not metaphorically but as a mechanical device for the production and consumption of verbal signs. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 The fields of computer vision and computer graphics are also but a fraction of computer science as a whole which occupies almost all of its time with algorithms, data structures, cryptography, robotics, bioinformatics, networking, machine learning, and other nonvisual applications of symbolic systems.2 Leaving this discussion of the visual somewhat unresolved, I continue by offering the first of two general observations on software and ideology.