Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Sie muß zunächst alle Texte enthalten, die für den Benutzer wichtig
Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htmThat independence
Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html sind.
Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm is the very principle of glossematics as the formal science of language.
TEXT
Alexander Schierl

INTRODUCTION

Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Whenever I have had the opportunity to present the perspective of ergodic literature and cybertext to a fresh audience of literary critics and theorists, I have almost invariably been challenged on the same issues: that these texts (hypertexts, adventure games, etc.) aren't essentially different from other literary texts, because (1) all literature is to some extent indeterminate, nonlinear, and different for every reading, (2) the reader has to make choices in order to make sense of the text, and finally (3) a text cannot really be nonlinear because the reader can read it only one sequence at a time, anyway. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Of the alphabet, Theuth said, “this invention… will make the Egyptians wiser and will improve their memories, for it is an elixir of memory and wisdom that I have discovered”. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html By linkage I mean not some loose physical connection like discrete books sharing a common physical space in the library. Rick Prelinger;  On the Virtues of Preexisting Material | Contents Magazine  2007;  http://contentsmagazine.com/articles/on-the-virtues-of-preexisting-material/ Get me a recording of everything. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html In my campaign for the study of cybertextuality I soon realized that my terminology was a potential source of confusion. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm Inability to explain a fact does not condemn me to accept an intrinsically repugnant and incomprehensible theory.” But now consider the theory of innate ideas that Goodman regards as “intrinsically repugnant and incomprehensible.” Notice, first, that the theory is obviously not “incomprehensible,” on his terms. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html To this I would add it creates practices that help us know more about the implications of our contemporary situation. Katherine Hayles;  The Power of Simulation: What Virtual Creatures Can Teach Us  1999;  http://www.stanford.edu/class/history34q/readings/Hayles/Simulation.html This passage describes my reactions while watching the videotape of Karl Sims' evolutionary simulation, "Evolved Virtual Creatures."Judging from audiences I have seen viewing the tape, my responses are typical. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf For myself as I imagine myself or hope others may imagine me? Vilém Flusser;  Essays  1967;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ But I insist that the decision comes before the writing and that it definitively influences the climate. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf Or, rather: I need a young person who is intelligent and knowledgeable enough to work with me. WALTER BENJAMIN;  THE AUTHOR AS PRODUCER  1970;  http://newleftreview.org/I/62/walter-benjamin-the-author-as-producer ‘There can be no doubt’, Maublanc writes, ‘that I write almost exclusively for a bourgeois public. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text And is it not the fantasy itself which invokes the "detail," the tiny private scene, in which I can easily take my place? N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Whereas the systems approach Maturana uses presents his theory as an autonomaus entity suflicient in itself, the narrative approach I have been following shows how Maturana's theory both drew on and changed the concepts that preceded it. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 But we approach an impasse, for a tension exists between software, which I suggest is fundamentally a machine, and ideology, which is generally understood as a narrative of some sort or another. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html This is the possibility on which I wish to insist: the possibility of extraction and of citational grafting which belongs to the structure of every mark, spoken or written, and which constitutes every mark as writing even before and outside every horizon of semiolinguistic communication; as writing, that is, as a possibility of functioning cut off, at a certain point, from its "original" meaning and from its belonging to a saturable and constraining context. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Your slap is only the historical occasion for the self-determined processes that I engage in as a result of being structurally coupled to my environment. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See And this has given me room to argue that the very interlocking assumptions used to achieve closure are themselves the result of historical contingencies and embedded contextualities. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html 'From the time of my high school days, I have known, in the way that one knows the streets of one's city and the laws of one's culture, the names of those in the pantheon of great... Vilém Flusser;  Essays  1967;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ In the treatise, the topic is of interest; in the essay, I and we are within the topic. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text Elsewhere, but in the same way, in Flaubert, it is the blossoming apple trees of Normandy which I read according to Proust. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm To my knowledge, the only substantive proposal to deal with the problem of acquisition of knowledge of language is the rationalist conception that I have outlined. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt They will block my view of the domed sky, which I know will bear faint suture marks, the knit junctures between once-soft sectors of sky." In time she supposes that her legs will be dissolved by the acid dripping form the overhanging stomachs: "My bony stumps will sink deep; I will shuffle forward until I tire, then stand still. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm Uldall provides a remarkable formulation of the fact that glossematic criticism operates at the same time thanks to Saussure and against him; that, as I suggested above, the proper space of a grammatology is at the same time opened and closed by The Course in General Linguistics. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt "I believed that if I concentrated on wishing, my body itself would erase its scars and be made new," the narrator confesses, an endeavor that continues in dynamic tension with the simultaneous realization that she is always already fragmented, ruptured, discontinuous (story/falling apart/becoming whole). WALTER BENJAMIN;  THE AUTHOR AS PRODUCER  1970;  http://newleftreview.org/I/62/walter-benjamin-the-author-as-producer At the beginning of my comments on the ‘new objectivity’, I would like to set forth the notion that transmitting an apparatus of production without—as much as possible—transforming it, is a highly debatable procedure even when the content of the apparatus which is transmitted seems to be revolutionary in nature. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text Yet one can make a claim for precisely the opposite (though I am not the one who would make such a claim): repetition itself creates bliss. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html This structural possibility of being severed from its referent or signified (and therefore from communication and its context) seems to me to make of every mark, even if oral, a grapheme in general, that is, as we have seen, the nonpresent remaining of a differential mark cut off from its alleged "production" or origin. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf "Even if it is illusory and Utopian," Dominique Gonzalez-Foerster explains, "what matters is introducing a sort of equality, assuming the same capacities, the possibility of an equal relationship, between me - at the origins of an arrangement, a system - and others, allowing them to organize their own story in response to what they have just seen, with their own references." In this new form of culture, which one might call a culture of use or a culture of activity, the artwork functions as the temporary terminal of a network of interconnected elements, like a narrative that extends and reinterprets preceding narratives. Thomas Bernhard;  From One Catastrophe to the Next (Interview)  1986;  http://www.thomasbernhard.org/interviews/1986intas.shtml I once had four or five, now I have two or three. Thomas Bernhard;  From One Catastrophe to the Next (Interview)  1986;  http://www.thomasbernhard.org/interviews/1986intas.shtml I wasn't healthy, therefore I didn't feel like doing these things. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text And when something follows of itself, I abandon it: that is bliss. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text Just as the pleasure of the text supposes a whole indirect production, so boredom cannot presume it is entitled to any spontaneity: there is no sincere boredom: if the prattle-text bores me personally, it is because in reality I do not like the demand. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm However, a careful look at recent studies of animal communication seems to me to provide little support for these assumptions. Thomas Bernhard;  Old Masters  1985;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Masters_(novel) My God, I often think, sitting here on the settee while the art historians are driving their helpless flocks past me, what a pity about all these people who have all art driven out of them, driven out of them for good, by these very art historians. Thomas Bernhard;  From One Catastrophe to the Next (Interview)  1986;  http://www.thomasbernhard.org/interviews/1986intas.shtml There are months or years when I cannot write. WALTER BENJAMIN;  THE AUTHOR AS PRODUCER  1970;  http://newleftreview.org/I/62/walter-benjamin-the-author-as-producer Before I ask: how does a literary work stand in relation to the relationships of production of a period, I would like to ask: how does it stand in them? Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf Up to this point I have unjustifiably limited my subject. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html As we shall see, the codex format is one of the most flexible and powerful information tools yet invented, with a capacity for change that is probably not exhausted yet, and I (for one) do not expect it to go out of style any time soon. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text The writer of pleasure (and his reader) accepts the letter; renouncing bliss, he has the right and the power to express it: the letter is his pleasure; he is obsessed by it, as are all those who love language (and not speech), logophiles, authors, letter writers, linguists: about texts of pleasure, therefore, it is possible to speak (no argument with the annihilation of bliss): criticism always deals with the texts of pleasure, never the texts of bliss: Flaubert, Proust, Stendhal are discussed inexhaustibly; thus criticism speaks the futile bliss of the tutor text, its past or future bliss: you are about to read, I have read: criticism is always historical or prospective: the constatory present, the presentation of bliss, is forbidden it; its preferred material is thus culture, which is everything in us except our present. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html The concept of representation is indissociable here from the concepts of communication and expression that I have underlined in Condillac's text. Thomas Bernhard;  From One Catastrophe to the Next (Interview)  1986;  http://www.thomasbernhard.org/interviews/1986intas.shtml When I feel like writing I write, when I don't feel like it I don't. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt To measure the difference between the subjectivity envisioned in Patchwork Girl and that associated with the late eighteenth- and nineteenth-century texts it parasitizes, I will find it useful to return to the eighteenth century, when a constellation of economic, class, and literary interests clashed over defining the nature of literary property. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Before discussing Maturana's epistemology, I want to register an objection to the leap he makes when he goes from saying perception is nonrepresentational to claiming it has no connection with the external world. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Since the paradigms and practice of literary theory cannot remain unaffected by its encounter with nonlinear literature, except by pretending it never happened, I both discuss new applications of literary theory and suggest some possible new departures. Lev Manovich;  DEEP REMIXABILITY  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=61 In 1985 when Huyssen book was in preparation for publication I was working for what was then one of the few computer animation companies in the world Digital Effects. Thomas Bernhard;  From One Catastrophe to the Next (Interview)  1986;  http://www.thomasbernhard.org/interviews/1986intas.shtml That's how I exist. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html These characters are so close to our writing that an alphabet simply diminishes the confusion of their number, and is their succinct abbreviation" Having placed in evidence the motif of the economic, homogenous, and mechanical reduction, let us now come back to the notion of absence that I noted in Condillac's text. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms So far I have talked about the history of computational media as series of consecutive “additions.” However this history is not only a a process of accumulation of more and more options. Vilém Flusser;  Waiting for Kafka  1967;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ If I try to articulate this region where language ceases to function, then I must use the method of approach. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html I will take a single example, but I do not believe one could find, in the entire history of philosophy as such, a single counterexample, a single analysis that essentially contradicts the one proposed by Condillac, inspired, strictly speaking, by Warburton, in the Essay on the Origin of Human Knowledge (Essai sur l'origine des connaissances humaines, Paris: Galilée 1973). N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See The future moment when the train will strike the car exists vivirlly in my imagination, anrl I have no rlifficulty foreseeing the causal chain of events that will splatter me anrl my car over the lanrlscape. Thomas Bernhard;  From One Catastrophe to the Next (Interview)  1986;  http://www.thomasbernhard.org/interviews/1986intas.shtml Maybe I haven't seen them, but I know about the situation at a theater, the background in an editorial office, I know publishers, their manuscript readers, their business. Deleuze and Guattari;  How do you make yourself a body without organs?  1947;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze2.htm I too have had false sensations and perceptions and I have believed in them."18 You have to keep enough of the organism for it to reform each dawn; and you have to keep small supplies of signifiance and subjectification, if only to turn them against their own systems when the circumstances demand it, when things, persons, even situations, force you to; and you have to keep small rations of subjectivity in sufficient quantity to enable you to respond to the dominant reality. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf When asked to explain the evolution of his piece Perfect World, he replies: "The really big change in the new work is the car." Driving in his Chevrolet Caprice, he was "in and out of [his] head, and in and out of reality," while the acquisition of a Ferrari modified his relationship to the city and to his work: "Driving between the studio and between various places, I am physically driving, it's a great energy, but it's not this daydream wandering head thing like before." The space of the work is urban space, traversed at a certain speed: the objects that endure are therefore necessarily enormous or reduced to the size of the car's interior, which takes on the role of an optical tool allowing one to select forms. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html It seems to go without saying that the field of equivocality covered by the word communication permits itself to be reduced massively by the limits of what is called a context (and I announce, again between parentheses, that the issue will be, in this communication, the problem of context, and of finding out about writing as concerns context in general).

CHAPTER
ONE

Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Pussy, King of the Pirates: Piracy, Plagiarism and Myth. Jean Baudrillard;  CONTEMPORARY ART: ART CONTEMPORARY WITH ITSELF  2005;  http://www.egs.edu/faculty/jean-baudrillard/articles/contemporary-art-art-contemporary-with-itself/ This vertical and horizontal, aesthetic and commercial diversification is henceforth part of the work, the original core of which cannot be located. Vilém Flusser;  What Is Communication?  1973–74;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ If he has not learned to make use of the instrument of communication (i.e., language), he is an idiot (originally: a “private person”). Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja The examples of such models are the original project Xanadu by Ted Nelson, “freeware,” and “shareware.” In the case of Open Source, the key idea is that one person (or group) writes software code, which can be then modified by another user; the result can be subsequently modified by a new user, and so on. EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 (Let us extend the term “text” here to the visual arts and media at large.) This is the reason why citations are so necessary in academic writing, and certainly is something that is closely monitored in other areas of culture, like the music industry, where sampling is carefully controlled by way of copyright law. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf When an object is inserted into a document (for instance, a media clip inserted into a Word document), it continues to maintain its independence and can always be edited with the program used originally to create it. Vilém Flusser;  On the Theory of Communication  1986–87;  http://www.flusserstudies.net/ When a new continent is discovered, its rivers and mountains become more interesting than the passage to India originally searched for. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html The eleven-minute Flash work playfully brings out, in Concrete fashion, the implications and connotations of the sexually-laden language of the original, as well as new implications that emerge from the juxtapositions created by the alphabetized text. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Mackenzie's work serves as a salutary reminder that just as one cannot understand the evolution of print literature without taking into account such phenomena as the law cases that established legal precedent for copyright and the booksellers and publishers who helped promulgate the ideology of the creative genius authoring the great work of literature (for their own purposes, of course), so electronic literature is evolving within complex social and economic networks that include the development of commercial software, the competing philosophy of open source freeware and shareware, the economics and geopolitical terrain of the Internet and World Wide Web, and a host of other factors that directly influence how electronic literature is created and stored, sold or given away, preserved or allowed to decline into obsolescence. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf With writing, resentment at plagiarism begins to develop. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html More significantly, however, is the strongly implicit concern with influence and theft, or plagiarism, and Acker's choice of Genet as a character is significant for a number of reasons, not least of all because he is one of the authors she cited as a major influence on her work. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The Grey Album goes further because it exposed the tensions of copyright and sampling with emerging technologies: Danger Mouse deliberately used the Internet for distribution and he was pushed by EMI (the copyright holders of the Beatles’ White Album) to take the Grey Album off line. Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst Als erfolgreichstes Projekt der plagiatorischen Subkulturen bezeichnet Cramer die Plunderphonics, zu denen die Tape-beatles, Jon Oswald, das CVS – Copyright Violation Squad Bulletin und Negativland gehörten. Vilém Flusser;  The Future of Writing  1983–84;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ It may be shown through text analysis that the original purpose of writing, namely, the transcoding of two-dimensional codes into a single dimension, is still there: every text, even a very abstract one, means, in the last analysis, an image. Michel Foucault;  T H E A T R U M P H I L 0 S O P H I C U M  1970;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpfoucault5.htm And it does not lead, in spite of itself, to a shameful metaphysics; it leads joyously to metaphysics-a metaphysics freed from its original profundity as well as from a supreme being, but also one that can conceive of the phantasm in its play of surfaces without the aid of models, a metaphysics where it is no longer a question of the One Good but of the absence of God and the epidermic play of perversity. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html [Follow for The Victorian Web, based at Brown University, which contains the latest, much-amplified version of this corpus of interlinked documents originally created for Intermedia.] Writers on hypertext trace the concept to a pioneering article by Vannevar Bush in a 1945 issue of Atlantic Monthly, that called for mechanically linked information-retrieval machines to help scholars and decision makers faced with what was already becoming an explosion of information. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Still tied to the commonplace tradition of the old oral world, it deliberately created texts out of other texts, borrowing, adapting, sharing the common, originally oral, formulas and themes, even though it worked them up into fresh literary forms impossible without writing. Michel Foucault;  T H E A T R U M P H I L 0 S O P H I C U M  1970;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpfoucault5.htm It is the product of a particular metaphysics that designated the separation between the simulacrum on one side and the original and the perfect copy on the other. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See The divorce of perception from external reality is at once the basis for the striking originality of Maturana's epistemology and the Achilles' heel that renders it vulnerable to cogent objections. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 But as Chun and others have pointed out, ‘programming’ a computer originally meant patching circuits together using cables or connectors and thus ‘software’ began historically not as executable software applications as we know them today but as any sort of service labor performed in or on informatic machines; even video was once known as ‘software’, to distinguish it from ‘hard’ playback decks and cameras. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Many originally specific terms have been so generalized in this way. Michel Foucault;  T H E A T R U M P H I L 0 S O P H I C U M  1970;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpfoucault5.htm Sade and Bataille and somewhat later, the/palm upturned in a gesture of defense and invitation, Roberte.7 Moreover, this series of liberated simulacrum is activated, or mimes itself, on two privileged sites: that of psychoanalysis, which should eventually be understood as a metaphysical practice since it concerns itself with phantasms; and that of the theater, which is multiplied, polyscenic, simultaneous, broken into separate scenes that refer to each other, and where we encounter, without any trace of representation (copying or imitating), the dance of masks, the cries of bodies, and the gesturing of hands and fingers. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Mark Rose ends his book (note that I use the media-specific practice of calling it a book and not a text) by suggesting that copyright continues to endure, despite its many problems, because it reinforces "the sense of who we are" (Rose 142). Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 Here, ideology serves as a sort of anthropological ‘explanation’ for all sorts of alienation, exploitation, and false consciousness existing in society, along the lines of the doctrine of original sin or the great theological arguments for the existence of evil as explanation for why the here and now is so inferior to the hereafter. Roy Christopher;  Interview with Jay David Bolter: FutureText  2001;  http://roychristopher.com/jay-david-bolter-futuretext However, I’m proud to say that some of the truly original and important hypertext fictions (including Michael Joyce’s own afternoon, Stuart Moulthrop’s Victory Garden, Shelley Jackson’s Patchwork Girl, and many others) were conceived and executed in Storyspace. Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl Its advertising literally says that “with Plots Unlimited you’ll develop your own original material — stories that sell [emphasis as in the original text].”Other computer programs for artists disguise themselves as mere tools in the hands of artists in more subtle ways. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html Suppose Don Quixote is transported not into a new time but a new medium, and that the word sequences on the computer screen are identical to Cervantes' original print edition. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 An obvious example of this tendency is the popularity of publications like Reader’s Digest, which offer condensed versions of books as well as stories for people who want to be informed but do not have the time to read the original material, which is often more extensive. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 Generally speaking, remix culture can be defined as the global activity consisting of the creative and efficient exchange of information made possible by digital technologies that is supported by the practice of cut/copy and paste. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja In 1972 DJ Tom Moulton mixed his first disco remixes; as Poscard points out, they “show a very chaste treatment of the original song. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Moreover, the phraseology is derived heavily from Treasure Island, and, characters such as Silver are lifted directly- and then altered slightly - from the source text.Other examples of 'plagiarism' include the shanty which recurs throughout Treasure Island. EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 Sampling allows for the death of the author and the author function to take effect once we enter late capitalism, because “writing” is no longer seen as something truly original, but as a complex act of resampling and reinterpreting material previously introduced, which is obviously not innovative but expected in new media. MATTHEW FULLER;  BEHIND THE BLIP - ESSAYS ON THE CULTURE OF SOFTWARE  2003;  http://www.multimedialab.be/doc/citations/matthew_fuller_blip.pdf Free software taps into the dynamics of mutual aid, of shared resources, code conservation, and plagiarism, to get itself made. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 In this case, principles of sampling (cut/copy & paste) are at play for practical reasons. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja For instance, one license (called Gnu Public License) specifies that the programmer have to provide the copy of the new code to the community; another stipulates that the programmer can sell the new code and he does not have to share with the community, but he can’t do things to damage the community. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Nor is it a reftection on Maturana's originality to show that he appropriated ideas from models that preceded his. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Der Remix dient dem Original, ohne die eigenen Interessen zu vergessen. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 Thus we arrive at a paradox: any mediating technology is obliged to erase itself to the highest degree possible in the name of unfettered communication, but in so doing it proves its own virtuosic presence as technology, thereby undoing the original erasure. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf The second Book of Moses, chapter 20, contains a copy of what Jahwe's own finger originally had written on two stone tablets: the law. Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst Während im Wissenschaftsbetrieb der Begriff „Plagiarismus“ durchwegs negativ konnotiert ist und die derzeitige Debatte hauptsächlich darum geht, wie man Plagiate am effektivsten aufdecken und mit welchen Maßnahmen man sie vermeiden bzw. Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst Es geht um Machtverhältnisse, abbildende Repräsentation und die Kritik daran, aber auch um eine Entwertung des „originalen“ und einmaligen Werkes, dessen Warenförmigkeit dadurch verdeutlicht werden soll. Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst Während im Wissenschaftsbetrieb der Begriff „Plagiarismus“ durchwegs negativ konnotiert ist und die derzeitige Debatte hauptsächlich darum geht, wie man Plagiate am effektivsten aufdecken und mit welchen Maßnahmen man sie vermeiden bzw. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html If Burroughs' Cities of the Red Night represented a shift from active piracy (of other texts, in the form of the cut-ups) within the Burroughs oeuvre, then Acker's Pussy makes an explicit and all-encompassing link between plagiaristic piracy and piracy in all other, broader senses. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Eine wachsende Respektlosigkeit, die ihren künstlerischen Niederschlag nicht nur in den wilden Samplesund Coverversionen findet, sondern auch in den zum Teil das Original komplett ignorierenden Remixes durch berühmte DJs wie MK, der auf dem New Music Seminar 1993 in New York bemerkte: »Wenn ich mir jeden Dreck im Original anhören müßte, den ich remixe, würde ich es nicht mehr machen. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Indeed, she comments that 'it's at the end of Blood and Guts in High School when I start really [my italics] using plagiarism, with the Genet stuff.' Having already plagiarised heavily from other sources in the past, Acker can be seen to locate this as the point at which she specifically draws together the act of plagiarism with the creation of 'fiction.' The Janey / Kathy 'parable' bridges the gap between the constructs of the fictional time / space continuum (Janey's actions) and the present (the book itself). Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl Computer-generated music and computer-generated digital instrument programming remains the most systematic elaboration of the original Pythagorean project of finding numerical and arithmetic models for sound. Lev Manovich;  REMIXABILITY  2005;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CC4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2FRemix_modular.doc&ei=2zqzUdX4Gcem4AT6lYHAAQ&usg=AFQjCNHlaRFP8sddB6-_oH4XEmra5A8NlQ&sig2=FAwD4HxylAODfMkX2J-4ig&bvm=bv.47534661,d.bGE&cad=rja And if original Lego (or a typical twentieth century housing project) contains only a few kinds of blocks that make all objects one can design with Lego rather similar in appearance, computers can keep track of unlimited number of different blocks. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja Three decades ago Roland Barthes elegantly defined a cultural text as “a tissue of quotations”: “We know now that a text is not a line of words releasing a single ‘theological’ meaning (the ‘message’ of the Author-God) but a multi-dimensional space in which a variety of writings, none of them original, blend and clash. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html This is nowhere more apparent than in her trial for stealing from Genet: Judge 1: You're a woman. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Mashups are special types of Reflexive Remixes, which at times are regressive—meaning that they simply point back to the “greatness” of the original track by celebrating it as a remix; this tendency to take the listener back to the original song logically leads us to name such remix a Regressive Mashup. Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst In short, plagiarism saves time and effort, improves results and shows considerable initiative on the part of the individual plagiarist. Michel Foucault;  T H E A T R U M P H I L 0 S O P H I C U M  1970;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpfoucault5.htm The philosophy of representation-of the original, the first time, resemblance, imitation, faithfulness-is dissolving; and the arrow of the simulacrum released by the Epicureans is headed in our direction. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm On this point Peirce is undoubtedly closer to the inventor of the word phenomenology: Lambert proposed in fact to “reduce the theory of things to the theory of signs.” According to the “phaneoroscopy” or “Phenomenology” of Peirce, manifestation itself does not reveal a presence, it makes a sign. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading As such, the work is in no way a mere copy of the given world--it constructs a world of its own out of the material available to it. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The third remix is reflexive; it allegorizes and extends the aesthetic of sampling, where the remixed version challenges the “spectacular aura” of the original and claims autonomy even when it carries the name of the original; material is added or deleted, but the original tracks are largely left intact to be recognizable. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html This category of communication is relatively original. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html By inverting the gender aspect of Don Quixote, a whole 'new' and 'original' text is created. Vilém Flusser;  Waiting for Kafka  1967;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ However, original sin is the primitive, “natural” state of man, not the result of human action. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html An jeder Stelle eines Textes können Querverweise eingefügt werden, die auf andere Texte zeigen; anders als im Fall der traditionellen Fußnote wären diese Texte nicht untergeordnet, sondern gleichrangig mit dem Ausgangstext, und anders als im Fall des Zitats bleibt die Passage in ihren Originalkontext eingebettet. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Not because I feel that a film (or any other artistic “work”) has to be the intended and consecutive design of a conscious, creative operator, but because both the original and the heretical sequences are based on the same material potential. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja Moulton sought above all a different weighting of the various soundtracks, and worked the rhythmic elements of the disco songs even more clearly and powerfully…Moulton used the various elements of the sixteen or twenty-four track master tapes and remixed them.” By 1987, “DJs started to ask other DJs for remixes” and the treatment of the original material became much more aggressive. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm The psychic image of which Saussure speaks must not be an internal reality copying an external one. Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst Dazu gehörten die Festivals of Plagiarism (die sich als Plagiate der neoistischen Apartment-Festivals verstanden, die wiederum Plagiate der Fluxus-Festivals waren) ebenso wie die Fanzines VAGUE, SMILE (International Magazin of Multiple Origins), FILE (und dessen Plagiate BILE und VILE) sowie PhotoStatic/ Retrofuturism. Vilém Flusser;  Betrayal  ca. mid-1980s;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Is there a common root to the chicken and the egg, one that would permit us to spot the original betrayal? Lev Manovich;  DEEP REMIXABILITY  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=61 Originally an artifact of lens-based recording, depth of field was simulated in a computer when the main goal of the 3D computer graphics field was to create maximum “photorealism,” for example synthetic scenes not distinguishable from live action cinematography. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf In the face of the economic abstraction that makes daily life unreal, or an absolute weapon of techno-market power, artists reactivate forms by inhabiting them, pirating private property and copyrights, brands and products, museum-bound forms and signatures. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Of course, there is a counterpoint regarding the originality of the 'original' text, the 'original' Don Quixote which needs noting here. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Second, this same ease of cutting, copying, and otherwise manipulating texts permits different forms of scholarly composition, ones in which the researcher's notes and original data exist in experientially closer proximity to the scholarly text than ever before. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Der Remix will dem Original zu neuem Leben verhelfen, will seinen Einfluß stärken und seine Idee retten. Jörg Heiser;  Sight Reading  2009;  https://www.frieze.com/issue/article/sight_reading/ His philosophy of the time broke with the age-old division between original and copy, moving towards the idea that something radically new can only come out of repetition. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history All these conventions of modem printing are significant organizational intrusions into the original work. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Je nach Anlagen des DJs erfahren die Originalkompositionen der Stücke im Laufe des Produktionsprozesses eine deutlich wahrnehmbare Modifizierung, die einem besseren Klang oder einer erhöhten Clubtauglichkeit dienen soll. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Das Großartige an Remixen ist, daß nicht das gesamte Original übernommen werden muß, sondern einfach nur die Teile, die der Remixer liebt und von denen er verführt worden ist, Teile, von denen der Remixer glaubt, daß sie funktionieren werden in dem Zusammenhang, in dem er sie einsetzen will. Lev Manovich;  The Practice of Everyday (Media) Life: From Mass Consumption to Mass Cultural Production?  2009;  http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/596645#fn9 In summary, today strategies used by social media companies often look more like tactics in the original formulation by de Certeau while tactics look like strategies. Thomas Bernhard;  From One Catastrophe to the Next (Interview)  1986;  http://www.thomasbernhard.org/interviews/1986intas.shtml A translation doesn't have a lot to do with the original. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Therefore, the facts are no longer needed; the images can stand for themselves, and thus lose all their original meaning. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Similarly, her plagiarism from a notably broad range of sources, while generating an intertextuality which is integral to her work in a manner which is in keeping with prevailing postmodern modes, represents anything but a celebration of the death of originality. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ For the mass culture, the problem is that the more technically perfect the images become, the richer they become and the more completely they substitute themselves for the facts they may have originally represented. Tristan Tzara;  TO MAKE A DADAIST POEM  1920;  http://www.moma.org/interactives/redstudio/interactives/chance/ Copy conscientiously in the order in which they left the bag. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf So when George Lucas releases a new Star Wars movie, it refers back to the original property — the original Star Wars trilogy. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 Chun’s (2004) claim made at the outset that ‘software is a functional analog to ideology’ contains all of the many strands of this emergent structure: (1) software and ideology are related in a fundamental way; (2) yet it is a relationship of figuration in which the complexities and contradictions of ideology, which itself contains both utopian and repressive instincts, are modeled and simulated out of the formal structure of software itself; (3) further, software is functional in nature and thereby exacerbates and ridicules the tension within itself between the narrative and machinic layers – the strictly functional transcodings of software, via a compiler or a script interpreter for example, fly in the face of the common sense fact that software has both an executable layer, which one assumes would obey the rules of a purely functional aspect of the code (similar to what Genette calls the ‘paratextual’ in literature), and a scriptural layer, which would obey the rules of semantics and expression (in Deleuze, one must remember, it is the nonexpressive that is the machinic). Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history But, like all oral texts, they have no visible structure: nothing in Homer depends on holding a text in one’s hands and moving back and forth through the copy. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Er sollte keine einzigartige, »theologische« Bedeutung (die Botschaft des Autoren-Gottes) mehr offerieren, sondern als multidimensionaler Raum funktionieren, in dem mehrere Schriften verheiratet und zerstritten sind und keine ein Original ist. Vilém Flusser;  The Codified World  1978;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ That is what we mean by “crisis of values”: that we step out of the linear world of explanations and into the techno-imaginary world of “models.” The revolutionary originality of techno-images is not that they move themselves, that they are “audiovisual,” that they shine in light of the cathThe Codified World 41 ode ray, and so on, but that they are “models,” the image of a concept of a scene.

CHAPTER
TWO

Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf History has never comprehended nomadism, the book has never comprehended the outside. MATTHEW FULLER;  BEHIND THE BLIP - ESSAYS ON THE CULTURE OF SOFTWARE  2003;  http://www.multimedialab.be/doc/citations/matthew_fuller_blip.pdf Ullman’s book is the best account of the lived experience of programming that I’ve read, but I’m not quite sure who this “we” is. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history When the book was finally published, the entries were numbered, but Wittgenstein had abandoned the scheme of adding what we would call the links. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html More important, since on Intermedia you would read this hypertext book on a large two-page graphics monitor, you would have the opportunity to place several texts next to one another. Michael Goddard;  Felix and Alice in Wonderland. The Encounter between Guattari and Berardi and the Post-Media Era  2006;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpbifo1.htm The name Felix, of course, also has the meaning of happiness, which this book also poses as a directly political question. WALTER BENJAMIN;  THE AUTHOR AS PRODUCER  1970;  http://newleftreview.org/I/62/walter-benjamin-the-author-as-producer But this phenomenon hides a dialectical moment: the fall of literature in the bourgeois press reveals the formula for its resuscitation in the Soviet Russian press, because the realm of literature gains in width what it loses in depth. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Using the important distinction that Espen J. Aarseth drew in Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic Literature between scriptons ("strings as they appear to readers") and textons ("strings as they exist in the text") (62), Kirschenbaum pioneers in Mechanisms a methodology that connects the deep print reading strategies already in effect with scriptons (letters on the page, in this instance) to the textons (here the code generating the sceenic surface). James J. Pulizzi;  Machine Intelligence and Electronic Literature  http://newhorizons.eliterature.org/essay.php@id=9.html Indeed, the very capacity that differentiates it from print literature is this collaboration and cooperation between human and machine that produces the piece. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html At the same time, because electronic literature is normally created and performed within a context of networked and programmable media, it is also informed by the powerhouses of contemporary culture, particularly computer games, films, animations, digital arts, graphic design, and electronic visual culture. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles Excluding authors like Neil Gaiman, who still creates his novels first on paper, all contemporary literature is created digitally, from start to finish. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html The cutting words and images together in 'The World' functions in the same way as The Book of Breeething, namely to extend writing beyond verbal or alphabetic methods of communication. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html The editors of the archive, as we have seen, take into account the book as a physical object. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt In print fiction, the book as physical object often seems to fade away as the reader's imagination re-creates the vaporous world of the text, so that reading becomes, as Friedrich Kittler puts it, a kind of hallucination. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html The site is informed throughout by an enlightened editorial policy, for the editors state that they take the "work" to be the book considered as a unique physical object. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html This is not a difference between games and literature but rather between games and narratives. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles Normally, definitions of electronic literature exclude print literature that has been digitized, such as the work of Project Gutenberg, and an important distinction for electronic literature is the requirement of “properly executed code,” in order for the work to be accessible. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Just as the twentieth century saw an explosion of interest in the book as a medium, with an impressive canon of artists' books and other experimental practices exploring the potential of the book as an artistic and literary venue, so electronic literature has seen a growing body of work that interrogates networked and programmable media as the material basis for artistic innovation and creation. MATTHEW FULLER;  BEHIND THE BLIP - ESSAYS ON THE CULTURE OF SOFTWARE  2003;  http://www.multimedialab.be/doc/citations/matthew_fuller_blip.pdf Material based around philosophy and literature includes Michael Heim’s Electric Language and the contributions of Friedrich Kittler, despite his assertions that the object of attention here does not exist. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf This is one reason why ‘the book says’ is popularly tantamount to ‘it is true’. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt For some time now writers and artists working in the medium of artist books have delighted in arranging such jolts of surprise, exploring, transgressing, and exploding the conventions of the book while still retaining enough "bookishness" to make clear they remain within its traditions, even as they redefine and expand what "book" means. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Decorum dictated that the barrier between the book as physical object and text as immaterial work be maintained intact. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Collecting innovative, high-quality work is an important step forward in opening electronic literature up to a wider audience and moving it into the classroom. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html The second chief rule is that studying the relations of technology to literature and other aspects of humanistic culture does not produce any mechanical reading of culture, such as that feared by Jameson and others. WALTER BENJAMIN;  THE AUTHOR AS PRODUCER  1970;  http://newleftreview.org/I/62/walter-benjamin-the-author-as-producer I could have started from an older but no less sterile debate: what is the relation between form and content, in political literature in particular? N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html (Atelier de Littérature Assistee par le Mathematique et les Ordinateurs, or Workshop of Literature Assisted by Mathematics and Computers), which includes among others Jean-Pierre Balpe, and the group with which he is associated, L.A.I.R.E (Lecture, Art, Innovation, Recherche, Écriture, or Reading, Art, Innovation, Research, Writing). Roland Barthes;  From Work to Text - 2  1971;  http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/From%20Work%20to%20Text.pdf In particular, the tendency must be avoided to say that the work is classic, the text avant-garde; it is not a question of drawing up a crude honours list in the name of modernity and declaring certain literary productions 'in' and others 'out' by virtue of their chronological situation: there may be 'text' in a very ancient work, while many products of contemporary literature are in no way texts. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms For instance, in the case of a book, Kay and Goldberg point out “It need not be treated as a simulated paper book since this is a new medium with new properties. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html In this sense electronic literature is a "hopeful monster" (as geneticists call adaptive mutations) composed of parts taken from diverse traditions that may not always fit neatly together. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Always a tamperer, Derrida does not find that much of a reason for not tampering with the book, and his questioning begins in the chain of terms that appear as the more-or-less title at the beginning pages of Dissemination: "Hors Livres: Outwork, Hors D'oeuvre, Extratext, Foreplay, Bookend, Facing, and Prefacing." He does so willingly because, as he announced in Of Grammatology , "All appearances to the contrary, this death of the book undoubtedly announces (and in a certain sense always has announced) nothing but a death of speech (of a so-called full speech) and a new mutation in the history of writing, in history as writing. Roland Barthes;  From Work to Text - 1  1971;  http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/From%20Work%20to%20Text.pdf In particular, the tendency must be avoided to say that the work is classic, the text avant-garde; it is not a question of drawing up a crude honours list in the name of modernity and declaring certain literary productions 'in' and others 'out' by virtue of their chronological situation: there may be 'text' in a very ancient work, while many products of contemporary literature are in no way texts. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf Indeed, at first, book printing and then machine type offer advantages and conveniences, and these then unwittingly steer preferences and needs to this kind of written communication. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Is electronic literature really literature at all? N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html In his book Digital Poetics: Hypertext, Visual-Kinetic Text and Writing in Programmable Media, Glazier argues that electronic literature is best understood as a continuation of experimental print literature. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf In opposition to these notions, I argue that the lessons of nonlinear literature show us a textuality different from our readings (and our readings of “reading”), more fundamental than our messages, and, through the evolving rituals and technologies of use and distribution, subject to many types of change. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf Even the book as a natural reality is a taproot, with its pivotal spine and surrounding leaves. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf To attribute the book subject is to overlook this working of matters, and the exteriority of their relations. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html Rather,choices have been made about which aspects of the book to encode, and these choices are heavily weighted toward the linguistic rather than the bibliographic. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf The following – necessarily brief – survey of four centuries of German literature attempts only to give an overview to a more comprehensive picture, which this Yearbook’s articles will present. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Performed in a three-dimensional space in which the user wears virtual reality goggles and manipulates a wand, these works enact literature not as a durably imprinted page but as a full-body experience that includes haptic, kinetic, proprioceptive and dimensional perceptions. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Much as the novel both gave voice to and helped to create the liberal humanist subject in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, so contemporary electronic literature is both reflecting and enacting a new kind of subjectivity characterized by distributed cognition, networked agency that includes human and non-human actors, and fluid boundaries dispersed over actual and virtual locations. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See The Book of Laws is an example, as it permits the addition of new laws whose legal status is as binding as those already included. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt The more abstract the work became, the further removed it was from the commodification inherent in book sales, and consequently the more exalted the cultural status that could be claimed for it. Lev Manovich;  DEEP REMIXABILITY  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=61 In his book After the Great Divide (1986), Andreas Huyssen writes: “All modern and avantgardist techniques, forms and images are now stored for instant recall in the computerized memory banks of our culture. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html While alluding to print predecessors, this time-based work also performs its difference from a codex book in its rhythmic pace synchronized to the music tempo and operating outside the user's control. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Rather, I am concerned to delineate characteristics of digital environments that writers and readers can use as resources in creating literature and responding to it in sophisticated, playful ways. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles Nothing could be further from the truth than to see practitioners of electronic literature as anxious to exterminate print culture. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Die Literatur der Moderne, für die Foucault Flaubert, Proust und Kafka anführt, forderte die Preisgabe des Autors zugunsten der Unsterblichkeit des Textes. Eduardo Navas;  THE FRAMEWORK OF CULTURE: REMIX IN MUSIC, ART, AND LITERATURE  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=651#more-651 As previously noted, creative acts in music, art, and literature function on the second layer of The Framework of Culture. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html The linearity of print also provides the passage with an illusory center whose force is intensified by such selection." Die Linearität der Schrift erscheint als eine 'Verengung', die im guten Sinne eine Konzentration, im schlechten aber den Verlust von Komplexität bedeutet; und Bolz, für eine bündige Zusammenfassung immer gut, kann summieren: "So gilt für unser Zeitalter der Datenflüsse prinzipiell: Das Buch ist der Engpaß menschlicher Kommunikation. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Even within the field of codex literature there is room, as experimentalists from Laurence Sterne to Milorad Pavic have demonstrated, for mediational variation, but these attempts have not, apparently, produced sufficient contrast to provoke a systematic investigation of the aesthetic role of the medium (a notable but much too brief exception being McHale 1987, chap 12). Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf Our esteem for Doyle notwithstanding, it is nonetheless an opticalphilological pleasure to show that typewriting literature began in 1882 with a poem by Friedrich Nietzsche that could well be titled On the Typewriter and Its Relation to Writing. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt (The prime example was the detachment of "Shakespeare" from the historical actor and playwright and the reassignment of his "face" to such august personages as Francis Bacon.) As Rose observes, these developments operated as a chain of deferrals sliding from the embodied to the disembodied, the book to the work, the content to the style, the style to the face, the face to the author's personality, the personality to the author's unique genius. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html As computers have moved out of the desktop and into the environment, other varieties of electronic literature have emerged. Christian Kerslake;  The Vertigo of Philosophy:Deleuze and the Problem of Immanence  2002;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze8.htm Deleuze, Hyppolite and Hegel In 1955 Deleuze wrote a review of his teacher Jean Hyppolite’s book Logic and Existence in which he both makes clear how much he accepts of Hyppolite’s reading of Hegel and provides the only published plan, to my knowledge, in which he lays out the aims of his future philosophical project. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf There are rare successes in this also, for example, on the subject of the Children's Crusades: Marcel Schwob's book multiplies narratives like so many plateaus with variable numbers of dimensions. Jörg Heiser;  Sight Reading  2009;  https://www.frieze.com/issue/article/sight_reading/ The book presents both the best and worst of deconstruction: tireless fine-combing of ambiguities, but also wallowing in faux-profundity apropos the negligible. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles By electronic literature, Hayles means literature that is “digital born.” This includes genres as varied as interactive fiction, hypertext fiction, and digital poetry. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Like the boundary between computer games and electronic literature, the demarcation between digital art and electronic literature is shifty at best, often more a matter of the critical traditions from which the works are discussed than anything intrinsic to the works themselves. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The paged book has a canonical order. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles The plot is based around a fictional book tour undertaken by the members of the Unknown Collective, mostly in America but with stops in Canada and Europe as well, to promote their book The Anthology of the Unknown. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y »Wenn wir zitieren, dann nur aus Liebe«, bekennen der Philosoph und der Psychoanalytiker und fordern dann zum wilden Samplen auf: »Findet die Stellen in einem Buch, mit denen ihr etwas anfangen könnt (...) Die Kombinationen, Permutationen und Gebrauchsweisen sind dem Buch nie inhärent, sondern hängen von seinen Verbindungen mit diesem oder jenem Außen ab. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Paying attention to the ways in which electronic literature both continues and disrupts print conventions is a neat trick, and the criticism is littered with those who have fallen prey to Scylla or Charybdis, ballyhooing its novelty or failing to see the genuine differences that make it distinctive from print. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles In my years as an e-lit adherent, I have met both passive and very active resistance to its very existence, and those who have difficulty embracing electronic literature have been good enough to cite me a number of reasons why: Text on screens is not literary or literature at all. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Electronic literature, generally considered to exclude print literature that has been digitized, is by contrast "digital born," a first-generation digital object created on a computer and (usually) meant to be read on a computer. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html "The end of linear writing," Derrida declares, "is indeed the end of the book," even if, he continues, "it is within the form of a book that the new writings -- literary or theoretical -- allow themselves to be, for better or worse, encased" ( Of Grammatology, 86). N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt If Patchwork Girl insists through its appropriations that the past can never be left behind, it also shows through its transformations that new media create a new kind of literature and a new sense of cyborg subjectivity. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history But the important difference between listening to a story and reading a book is that, while listeners simply allow the words to come to them, readers must themselves make the words move. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html From a critical point of view, works that appear in both print and electronic instantiations, such as Stephanie Strickland's innovative poetry book V: Wave Son.Nets/Losing l'Una and the Web work V:Vniverse, programmed in Director in collaboration with Cynthia Lawson, illustrate that when a work is reconceived to take advantage of the behavioral, visual, and/or sonic capabilities of the Web, the result is not just a Web "version" but an entirely different artistic production that should be evaluated in its own terms with a critical approach fully attentive to the specificity of the medium. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history In a medieval codex the spatial structure is the pattern of rubrication and various sizes of letters; in a printed book it is the arrangement into paragraphed pages; in the computer it is the pattern of textual windows and images on the screen. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Yet, despite the oral roots of all verbalization, the scientific and literary study of language and literature has for centuries, until quite recent years, shied away from orality. Vilém Flusser;  On the Theory of Communication  1986–87;  http://www.flusserstudies.net/ Can one translate a book into a film, or a newspaper article into a TV program? Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html In interviews, she was always wholly open about her drawing from classical literature and 'classics,' even going to far as to suggest that appropriation and the (instinctive) use of other texts is vital for the evolution of literature: If a work is immediate enough, alive enough, the proper response isn't to be academic, to write about it, but to use it, to go on. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html The Electronic Literature Organization, whose mission is to "promote the writing, publishing, and reading of literature in electronic media," convened a committee headed by Noah Wardrip-Fruin, himself a creator and critic of electronic literature, to come up with a definition appropriate to this new field. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html The demarcation between electronic literature and computer games is far from clear; many games have narrative components, while many works of electronic literature have game elements. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Most crucial, perhaps, is the necessity to "think digital," that is, to attend to the specificity of networked and programmable media while still drawing on the rich traditions of print literature and criticism. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles In the spring of 2007 I traveled down to the University of Maryland to attend the Electronic Literature Organization’s annual symposium, “The Future of Electronic Literature,” and at the symposium I first saw Hayles, whom I had read about in numerous footnotes and works-cited lists. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Part of that initiative is realized in the Electronic Literature Collection Volume 1, co-edited by me and Nick Montfort, Scott Rettberg, and Stephanie Strickland. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Imagine a book in which some of the pages appear to be missing, or the print is unreadable every 16 pages, or some of the pages are repeated while an equal number omitted. Michael Goddard;  Felix and Alice in Wonderland. The Encounter between Guattari and Berardi and the Post-Media Era  2006;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpbifo1.htm For Berardi much of this situation corresponds to Guattari’s concepts of mental ecology or ecosophy developed in his last book Chaosmosis. Christian Kerslake;  The Vertigo of Philosophy:Deleuze and the Problem of Immanence  2002;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze8.htm Spinoza and the ‘best plane of immanence’ In the Spinoza book of 1968, Deleuze fashions a history of the philosophy of immanence, from the Neoplatonists through to Duns Scotus, which culminates in Spinoza. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf Any reconstruction of this tradition in German literature has to begin in the Baroque period when the idea of German linguistic primacy was introduced in poetic treatises such as Martin Opitz’s (1597-1639) Buch von der deutschen Poeterey (1624), Philipp von Zesen’s (161989) Hoch-Deutscher Helikon (1640) or Georg Philipp Harsdörffer’ (1607-58) Poetischer Trichter (3 vols., 1647-53). Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history It is no use shouting at a novel whose plot is heading in a direction we do not like: the book cannot adjust itself to our witches as readers. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html Although print readers perform sophisticated cognitive operations when they read a book, the printed lines exist as such before the book is opened, read, or understood. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html This technology -- that of the printed book and its close relations, which include the typed or printed page -- engenders certain notions of authorial property, authorial uniqueness, and a physically isolated text that hypertext makes untenable. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf But all public signs are always written in the alphabet alone, which virtually everyone can read since it is completely mastered in the lower grades of elementary school, whereas the 1800 han, or Chinese characters, minimally needed besides the alphabet for reading most literature in Korean, are not commonly all mastered before the end of secondary school. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf How can the book find an adequate outside with which to assemble in heterogeneity, rather than a world to reproduce? Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl Cage also uses the Chinese I Ching, the Book of Changes, as a compositional algorithm for a number of his works, among them Music of Changes and Roaratorio.For these purposes, he later used a computer software adaption of the called IC, written in C for DOS by Andrew Culver.Cage replaces the cosmologicalmathematical order of Pythagorean Western music with a metaphysical anarchism. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf The users learn to accept their position as agents of the text, sometimes happily, as in the case of the Book of Changes, and sometimes unhappily, as with the forking directions texts. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html With these ground-clearing arguments, new opportunities became available to re-think the specificities of print and electronic literature and to explore their commonalities without collapsing one into the other. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Early hypertext theorists, notably George Landow and Jay David Bolter, stressed the importance of the hyperlink as electronic literature's distinguishing feature, extrapolating from the reader's ability to choose which link to follow to make extravagant claims about hypertext as a liberatory mode that would dramatically transform reading and writing and, by implication, settings where these activities are important such as the literature classroom.

CHAPTER
THREE

N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html Rossetti Hypermedia Archive demonstrate. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Eine relationale Datenbank könnte, anders als ein Karteikasten, eine Vielzahl gleichrangiger Sortierungen enthalten; darüber hinaus wäre eine Anzahl von Unterdateien denkbar, die, durch komplizierte Querverbindungen miteinander verwoben, ein verzweigtes Netz von Informationen bilden, eine 'Architektur', die an die drei Dimensionen des physikalischen Raumes nicht mehr gebunden ist. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf A new media object can be defined as one or more interfaces to a multimedia database (see introduction to “Interface” chapter and “Database” section for more discussion of this principle). EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The Regenerative Remix privileges the ever-present—at the same time, it knows it needs history for legitimation, and the archive can be called upon to suffice as proof of its reliability. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html The database is in principle similar to the filing cabinet but with a level of automation and speed that made radically different textual practices possible. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Jerome McGann, whose work on the Rossetti Archive and contributions to Institute of Advanced Technology in the Humanities (IATH) at the University of Virginia have made him a leading figure in the field, turns this perspective on its head in Radiant Textuality: Literature after the World Wide Web by arguing that print texts also use markup language, for example, paragraphing, italics, indentation, line breaks and so forth. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 This is quite a challenge because as this text demonstrates, the Regenerative Remix is primarily designed for practicality, for the sake of immediate services; and the archive is designed to come to the front at the very moment that a query is made. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html It is no exaggeration to say that theWilliam Blake Archive establishes the gold standard for literary Web sites. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf At first, we may think that this is simply a particular technological implementation of variability principle, but, as I will show in “Database” section, in a computer age database comes to function as a cultural form of its own. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 Here, the archive is similar to analog vinyl records losing their fidelity and being slightly deteriorated every time the needle passes through the groove. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html Thus he is more interested (at least theoretically) in what deformations of Rossetti's images in Photoshop reveal about their composition than in the accomplishments of the William Blake Archive in simulating the color tones and sizes of the paper documents. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Here the archive becomes the field of knowledge to be accessed; it is the archeological ground to be explored by sophisticated researchers and lay-people alike. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html The editors of the archive are meticulous in insisting that even small differences in materiality potentially affect meaning, so they have gone to a great deal of trouble to compile not only different works but extant copies of the same work. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html The Web promises to allow these dual imperatives to be more successfully integrated than ever before, as the William Blake Archive and McGann's work on the D. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf For the libraries, in which the archeologist found so much rich material, collected and catalogued papers that in terms of addressee, distribution technique, degree of secrecy and writing technique had been extremely diverse -- Foucault's archive as the entropy of a post office.[5] Even writing itself, before it ends up in libraries, is a communication medium, the technology of which the archeologist simply forgot. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 But, as previously noted, the archive also functions in market value as the resource’s importance grows as its database grows; when reconfigured properly, it can provide revenue when people use a search engine to buy items online. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The database becomes a delivery device of authority in potentia: when needed, call upon it to verify the reliability of accessed material; but until that time, all that is needed is to know that such archive exists. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 History is here dependent on linear traces that expose the instability of interpretation; much like tree rings, traces are left behind, marking time, leaving us with an allegorical database presenting destruction (death) as an inevitable part of life. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 In “Le Catalogue,” the mastermind behind x-arnDOTorg has created a database of documentary images (an archive) of art projects between 1990-1996 that’s available for public access. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 This particular type of mashup goes deep into the database to access dynamic data. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Yet, even when its archive may be accessible, it does not mean that people will necessarily ever use it directly; most people will stick to the most immediate material, placed on the front pages of any online resource, because the Regenerative Remix encourages the now: the present—for the sake of practicality and functionality.

CHAPTER
FOUR

Vilém Flusser;  On the Theory of Communication  1986–87;  http://www.flusserstudies.net/ The effect of the structure on the message concerns the problem of translation. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm For one thing, the structure of a phonological system is of very little interest as a formal object; there is nothing of significance to be said, from a formal point of view, about a set of forty-odd elements cross-classified in terms of eight or ten features. Eduardo Navas;  THE FRAMEWORK OF CULTURE: REMIX IN MUSIC, ART, AND LITERATURE  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=651#more-651 Much of the production of early hip-hop relied on material sampling and quickly had problems with copyright holders; hip-hop producers were reprimanded with lawsuits. Lev Manovich;  DEEP REMIXABILITY  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=61 For example, 3D modeling software mixes form making techniques which were previously were “hardwired” in to different physical media: the ability to change the curvature of a rounded form as though it is made from clay, the ability to build a structure from simple geometric primitives the way a house can be build from identical rectangular building blocks, etc. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 The activity of the hip hop DJs evolved into sampling bits of music; they eventually evolved from being live performers to music studio producers, which means that based on the principles of sampling, they were cutting/copying and pasting pre-recorded material to create their own music compositions. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 However, when this happens it would not mean that the material produced does not have principles of Remix at play, only that the way the author has framed the content goes against an ethical code placed by culture on intellectual property. Vilém Flusser;  On the Theory of Communication  1986–87;  http://www.flusserstudies.net/ They order their symbols by rules, and the sum of these rules is called the “structure of the code.” Both repertoire and structure are quantifiable. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja According to Ulf Poscardt, “The DJ’s domination of the world started around 1987.” This take-over is closely related to the new freedom in the use of mixing and sampling. Eduardo Navas;  THE FRAMEWORK OF CULTURE: REMIX IN MUSIC, ART, AND LITERATURE  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=651#more-651 This means that remixing material as is commonly known in terms of material sampling has reached a moment in which we produce almost as fast as we speak. Eduardo Navas;  THE FRAMEWORK OF CULTURE: REMIX IN MUSIC, ART, AND LITERATURE  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=651#more-651 So, in a way, this essay aims to evaluate remix as an act of struggle. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf This is another consequence of numerical coding of media (principle 1) and modular structure of a media object (principle 2). EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 For example, the purpose of a typical Web 2,0 mashup is not to allegorize particular applications, but rather, by selectively sampling in dynamic fashion, to subvert applications to perform something they could not do otherwise by themselves. Eduardo Navas;  THE FRAMEWORK OF CULTURE: REMIX IN MUSIC, ART, AND LITERATURE  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=651#more-651 Intertextuality takes effect in two ways, which can also be combined in any creative production; the first is cultural citation and the second is material sampling. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja To note just three differences: musical samples are often arranged in loops; the nature of sound allows musicians to mix pre-existent sounds in a variety of ways, from clearly differentiating and contrasting individual samples (thus following the traditional modernist aesthetics of montage/collage), to mixing them into an organic and coherent whole; finally, the electronic musicians often conceive their works beforehand as something that will be remixed, sampled, taken apart and modified. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf To make an analogy with grammar of a natural language as described in Noam Chomsky’s early linguistic theory, we can compare a hypermedia structure which specifies the connections between the nodes with a deep structure of a sentence; a particular hypermedia text can be then compared with a particular sentence in a natural language. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf The structure of hyperlinks -- typically a branching tree - can be specified independently from the contents of a document. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html And this absence is not a continuous modification of presence; it is a break in presence, "death," or the possibility of the "death" of the addressee, inscribed in the structure of the mark (and it is at this point, I note in passing, that the value or effect of transcendentality is linked necessarily to the possibility of writing and of "death" analyzed in this ,way). Christian Kerslake;  The Vertigo of Philosophy:Deleuze and the Problem of Immanence  2002;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze8.htm The Oedipal structure ‘itself’ cannot be experienced, although it can be completely determined. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm The sound-image is the structure of the appearing of the sound [l'apparaître du son] which is anything but the sound appearing [le son apparaissant]. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 It is one of the most important sampling experiments, along with Marrs’s “Pump Up The Volume” which can be considered an early mashup still relying on the concept of a uniting groove as first experimented on the turntables by Grandmaster Flash. Jacques Derrida;  Speech and writing according to Hegel  1993;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida1.htm But (and this is my last point here before broaching this semiology for itself) Hegel, who at first sight seems to place no limits on the extension of the theory of signs, none the less immediately reduces its import and reinscribes it in the movement and structure of a dialectic that encompasses it. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See The energy generated by these Contradietory propositions rebounds like a loaded spring toward the very term that Maturana's closure was designed to erase, namely "reality." What is enacted rhetorically within the structure of this sentence is formalized in Luhmann's theory by investing the observer with the agency to draw a distinction. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf If in traditional media the elements are "hardwired" into a unique structure and no longer maintain their separate identity, in hypermedia the elements and the structure are separate from each other. Vilém Flusser;  The Future of Writing  1983–84;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Such unimaginable explanations that mirror the structure of literate thought are existentially devoid of meaning, and in such a situation texts begin to constitute a kind of paranoid library wall that triply alienates man from his world. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf As the last example demonstrates, while old media contains level(s) of discrete representation, the samples were never quantified. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The remix is always allegorical following the postmodern theories of Craig Owens, who argues that in postmodernism a deconstruction—a transparent awareness of the history and politics behind the object of art—is always made present as a “preoccupation with reading.” The object of contemplation, in our case Remix (as discourse), depends on recognition (reading) of a pre-existing text (or cultural code). Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html It is this: Austin has not taken into account that which in the structure of locution (and therefore before any illocutory or perlocutory determination) already bears within itself the system of predicates that I call graphematic in general, which therefore confuses all the ulterior oppositions whose pertinence, purity, and rigor Austin sought to establish in vain. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja The introduction of electronic editing equipment such as switcher, keyer, paintbox, and image store made remixing and sampling a common practice in video production towards the end of the decade; first pioneered in music videos, it later took over the whole visual culture of TV. Lev Manovich;  The Practice of Everyday (Media) Life: From Mass Consumption to Mass Cultural Production?  2009;  http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/596645#fn9 But these subcultures themselves rarely develop completely from scratch; rather, they are the result of the cultural appropriation and/or remix of earlier commercial culture AMV subculture is a case in point. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf An algorithm specifies the sequence of steps to be performed on any data, just as a hypermedia structure specifies a set of navigation paths (for example, connections between the nodes) which potentially can be applied to any set of media objects. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm In other words, we can ask the question, What initial structure must be attributed to the mind that enables it to construct such a grammar from the data of sense? EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Kraftwerk and Underworld use Remix as a concept, as a cultural framework rather than a material practice. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 An example of this is Mad Professor’s famous dub/trip hop album No Protection, which is a remix of Massive Attack’s Protection. James J. Pulizzi;  Machine Intelligence and Electronic Literature  http://newhorizons.eliterature.org/essay.php@id=9.html Cognitive science has no specific interest in the physical structure of the brain but is instead interested in how thought processes function. Christian Kerslake;  The Vertigo of Philosophy:Deleuze and the Problem of Immanence  2002;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze8.htm To proceed it is necessary to bring out the general teleological structure of cognition present in Kant’s work right from the first edition Critique. Vilém Flusser;  A Historiography Revised  1982;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ The plot is based on the structure outlined here. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The principle of the Regenerative Remix is to subvert, not to recognize but to be of practical use. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html My name is Charlotte Wood.' The chapter continues with Wood's brief biography, interspersed with fragments that stand at odds with the tone and structure of the linear chronological narrative: 'Do you want me to call you yes. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf In fact, the modular structure of new media makes such deletion and substitution of parts particularly easy. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Flash’s mix does not fit comfortably into any of the Remix definitions I have provided above; instead, it vacillates among them as a transitional song. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf It is our view that genetic axis and profound structure are above all infinitely reproducible principles of tracing. Katherine Hayles;  The Power of Simulation: What Virtual Creatures Can Teach Us  1999;  http://www.stanford.edu/class/history34q/readings/Hayles/Simulation.html Nevertheless, the digital center of the oreo--the dynamics of fragmentation and recombination where digital cognizers are at their best--makes the structure of these distributed cognitive systems operate in distinctively different ways than traditional transmigration. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm My own estimate of the situation is that the real problem for tomorrow is that of discovering an assumption regarding innate structure that is sufficiently rich, not that of finding one that is simple or elementary enough to be “plausible.” There is, as far as I can see, no reasonable notion of “plausibility,” no a priori insight into what innate structures are permissible, that can guide the search for a “sufficiently elementary assumption.” It would be mere dogmatism to maintain without argument or evidence that the mind is simpler in its innate structure than other biological systems, just as it would be mere dogmatism to insist that the mind’s organisation must necessarily follow certain set principles, determined in advance of investigation and maintained in defiance of any empirical findings. Michel Foucault;  T H E A T R U M P H I L 0 S O P H I C U M  1970;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpfoucault5.htm Physics: discourse dealing with the ideal structure of bodies, mixtures, reactions, internal and external mechanisms, metaphysics: discourse dealing with the materiality of incorporeal things-phantasms, idols, and simulacra. Roy Christopher;  Interview with Jay David Bolter: FutureText  2001;  http://roychristopher.com/jay-david-bolter-futuretext (I have used Storyspace to write or revise three of my own books.) Storyspace provides more facilities for writing and editing (it includes a dynamic map of the structure of the links) than for the high-quality display and reading of the eventual hypertext. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html As he explains, in what Gregory Ulmer terms "the fundamental generalization of his writing" , there also exists "the possibility of disengagement and citational graft which belongs to the structure of every mark, spoken and written, and which constitutes every mark in writing before and outside of every horizon of semiolinguistic communication. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Eventually, the new dialectic structure of hypertext will compel us, as Derrida put it, to “reread past writing according to a different organization of space”. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja It seems to me that the models of remixing, sampling and appropriation conceptually are much richer than the Open Source idea. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading The concept of the implied reader is therefore a textual structure anticipating the presence of a recipient without necessarily defining him: this concept prestructures the role to be assumed by each recipient, and this holds true even when texts deliberately appear to ignore their possible recipient or actively exclude him. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 A Regenerative Remix is most common in Software Mashups, although all social media from Google to YouTube rely on its principles. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html It does not seem so, or at very least this distance, division, delay, diffé rance must be capable of being brought to a certain absolute degree of absence for the structure of writing, supposing that writing exists, to be constituted. Lev Manovich;  The Practice of Everyday (Media) Life: From Mass Consumption to Mass Cultural Production?  2009;  http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/596645#fn9 According to de Certeau's original analysis from 1980, tactics do not necessarily result in objects or anything stable or permanent: “Unlike the strategy, it [the tactic] lacks the centralized structure and permanence that would enable it to set itself up as a competitor to some other entity…. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The remix when extended as a cultural practice, as a form of discourse, is a second mix of something pre-existent. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm There have been some attempts to study the structure of other, language-like systems – the study of kinship systems and folk taxonomies comes to mind, for example. Christian Kerslake;  The Vertigo of Philosophy:Deleuze and the Problem of Immanence  2002;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze8.htm But is this a relevant criterion for the structure of problems? EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 To provide a specific example in new media, the Internet as a network relies directly on sampling; some examples include file sharing, downloading open source software, live streaming of video and audio, sending and receiving e-mails. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Both remix projects are produced by the original authors. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 This will make clear the relationship of mashups to Remix at large, and will enhance our understanding of sampling as a critical practice in Remix and Critical Theory. Anthony Burke;  After BitTorrent: Darknets to Native Data  2006;  http://hotfile.com/dl/123907648/e66d7b2/7ad_collective_intelligence_in_design_-_edited_by_christopher_hight__chris_perry.rar.html?lang=de and Steven Strogatz summarise the potentials of small-world networks, stating in their ground-breaking paper ‘Collective dynamics of “small-world” networks’ for Nature magazine in 1998 that: ‘Models of dynamic systems with small-world coupling display enhanced signal propagation speed, computational power, and synchronizability.’That is to say, understanding how to recognise and utilise the dynamics and organisational structure of networks of coupled dynamic systems leads to vastly improved communications, intelligence and coordination within any system – social, technical or chemical. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 This will enable us to understand the dialectics at play within Remix, which at the beginning of the twenty-first century is the ideological foundation for remix culture. Lev Manovich;  REMIXABILITY  2005;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CC4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2FRemix_modular.doc&ei=2zqzUdX4Gcem4AT6lYHAAQ&usg=AFQjCNHlaRFP8sddB6-_oH4XEmra5A8NlQ&sig2=FAwD4HxylAODfMkX2J-4ig&bvm=bv.47534661,d.bGE&cad=rja Now we’re looking to a new set of tools to aggregate and remix microcontent in new and useful ways.” And it is much easier to “aggregate and remix microcontent” if it is not locked by a design. Vilém Flusser;  On the Theory of Communication  1986–87;  http://www.flusserstudies.net/ In one way, that structure will be regarded as the sum of rules that order the symbols physically within the code. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Thus, it is not the plot, or the narrative, or any other wellknown poetic unit that will be our definitive agency but the shape or structure of the text itself. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html It presupposes a general and systematic elaboration of the structure of locution which avoids the endless alternation of essence and accident. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ They impose a very different structure on thought in that they represent the world by means of static images. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm The factual situation is obscure enough to leave room for much difference of opinion over the true nature of this innate mental structure that makes acquisition of language possible. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See The problern comes when the authors try to articulate this circular structure together with evolutionary "lineages"-literaily, the creation oflines. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 In music, architecture, film and video as well as many other areas of the mainstream, the source is sampled to become part of another source in form, while in more dynamic applications developed in Web 2,0 the most effective mashups are updated constantly. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf There are many scales of change in a text’s metamorphosis: unintentional (the blunders of a typesetter or projectionist in the dark), usurpatory (a re-mix of samples from a musical recording, a hacked version of a computer game), plagiary (one composer’s unacknowledged variations on a theme of another), and subversive or estranging (the “cut up” textual experiments of William Burroughs and John Cage), to suggest a few. Lev Manovich;  REMIXABILITY  2005;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CC4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2FRemix_modular.doc&ei=2zqzUdX4Gcem4AT6lYHAAQ&usg=AFQjCNHlaRFP8sddB6-_oH4XEmra5A8NlQ&sig2=FAwD4HxylAODfMkX2J-4ig&bvm=bv.47534661,d.bGE&cad=rja But this fact is not advertised; similarly, the fact that this design (if it is successful) will be inevitably copied and sampled by other designers is not openly acknowledged by the design field. Katherine Hayles;  The Power of Simulation: What Virtual Creatures Can Teach Us  1999;  http://www.stanford.edu/class/history34q/readings/Hayles/Simulation.html In addition to economy of description (because the same module can be used repeatedly with minor variations), the modules also ensure that some structure will persist in the midst of mutation and variation. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See It is the codes, not the agent's conscious thoughts or perceptions, that structure the situation. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Was diese Struktur der signifikanten Kette aufdeckt, ist meine Möglichkeit, genau in dem Maße, wie ihre Sprache mir und anderen Subjekten gemeinsam ist, das heißt, wie diese Sprache existiert, mich ihrer bedienen zu können um alles andere als das damit zu bezeichnen, was sie sagt. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm That is why the movement of “unmotivatedness” passes from one structure to the other when the “sign” crosses the stage of the “symbol.” It is in a certain sense and according to a certain determined structure of the as such” that one is authorised to say that there is vet no immotivation in what Saussure calls “symbol” and which, according to him, does not at least provisionally — interest semiology. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf When musicians use a sample, they know that their own contribution may in turn be taken as the base material of a new composition. Eduardo Navas;  THE FRAMEWORK OF CULTURE: REMIX IN MUSIC, ART, AND LITERATURE  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=651#more-651 It is an evaluation of how an object or type of production may at times consist of citations from, or references to previous production, or be direct samplings that make evident how pre-existing material is present in, or is the content of a new form in terms of appropriation. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Such photograph consist from a number of orderly dots (for example, samples), however the diameters and areas of dots vary continuously. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt The author creates his literary property through the exercise of his original genius, yet it is clear that writing is always a matter of appropriation and transformation, from syntax to literary allusions and the structure of tropes. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html An encyclopedia signifies differently than does a realistic novel in part because its navigational functionalities anticipate and structure different reading patterns (a clash of conventions that Milorad Pavic has great fun exploiting in Dictionary of the Khazars: A Lexicon Novel). NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf IF A VIEWER SAYS, "THE FILM I SAW WAS BAD," I SAY, "IT'S YOUR FAULT; WHAT DID YOU DO SO THAT THE DIALOGUE WOULD BE GOOD?" Throughout the eighties, the democratization of computers and the appearance of sampling allowed for the emergence of a new cultural configuration, whose emblematic figures are the programmer and the DJ. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm The laws that determine possible successful mutation and the nature of complex organisms are as unknown as the laws that determine the choice of hypotheses.” With no knowledge of the laws that determine the organisation and structure of complex biological systems, it is just as senseless to ask what the “probability” is for the human mind to have reached its present state as it is to inquire into the “probability” that a particular physical theory will be devised. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The Reflexive Mashup then is the most basic form of a Regenerative Remix in terms of software. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Thus digital computers have an Oreo-like structure with an analogue bottom, a frothy digital middle, and an analogue top. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja Thus it is more similar to another new fundamental authorship practice that, like remixing, was made possible by electronic technology – sampling. Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst Dazu gehören zum Beispiel: Wiederholung, Imitation, Collage, Détournement, Adaption, Verfremdung, Transmutation, Replikation, Found Footage, Ready-made, Objects trouvés, Re-Präsentation, Reprise, Re-Animation, Re-Mediation, Re-Fotografie, Remix, Sampling, Recycling, Bearbeitung, Cover-Version, Cut-Up, Bootleg, Transformation, Permutation, Bastardisation und Interpretation. Eduardo Navas;  THE FRAMEWORK OF CULTURE: REMIX IN MUSIC, ART, AND LITERATURE  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=651#more-651 And the act of remixing as is often celebrated in remix festivals around the world, consists of sampling of specific material closely informed by the type of material sampling along the lines of photo-collage. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf This required standardization of both image dimensions (size, frame ratio, contrast) and of sampling rate of time (see “Digital Cinema” section for more detail). Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm We must postulate an innate structure that is rich enough to account for the disparity between experience and knowledge, one that can account for the construction of the empirically justified generative grammars within the given limitations of time and access to data. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 The concept of Remix often referenced in popular culture derives from the model of music remixes which were produced around the late 1960s and early 1970s in New York City, with roots in Jamaica’s music. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 This essay will focus on defining remix in relation to these two terms, and then move on to examine its role in media and art. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms Kay was particularly concerned with how to structure programming tools in such a way that would make development of media software possible for ordinary users. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The regressive mashup as an aesthetic depends on the recorded signs that are not mixed but transparently juxtaposed: they are recorded to be repeated, accessed, or looked at perfectly over and over again, while the Reflexive Mashup in Web 2,0 no longer relies on sampling but instead on constant updating, making incidental not only the allegorical reference that validates the Regressive Mashup, but also pushing forward with a constant state of action toward reflection on what is being produced each time the mashup is accessed. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 As previously noted, the remix in music was created and defined by the DJs in the early 1960’s and late 70’s in New York City, Chicago and other parts of the United States. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 While the Regressive Mashup can be commonly understood as a remix in terms of its initial stages in music, the Reflexive Mashup is different. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm It is not a matter of complicating the structure of time while conserving its homogeneity and its fundamental successivity, by demonstrating for example that the past present and the future present constitute originarily, by dividing it, the form of the living present.

CHAPTER
FIVE

Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf What if a textsimply insists on its nonlinearity? N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Freeman and Skarda's data on the olfactory perception of rabbits are akin to Maturana's results, in that the data indicate the rabbit's responses are transformative and highly nonlinear, influenced not only by the experience at hand but also by previous experiences the animal has had, his emotional state at the moment, and a host of other factors. Vilém Flusser;  The Future of Writing  1983–84;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Instead, it proposes to consider a tendency that underlies those problems: namely, the tendency away from linear codes such as writing and toward two-dimensional codes such as photographs, films, and TV, a tendency that may be observed if one glances even superficially at the codified world that surrounds us. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html For instance, the wall inscriptions of the temples in ancient Egypt were often connected two-dimensionally (on one wall) or three-dimensionally (from wall to wall and from room to room), and this layout allowed a nonlinear arrangement of the religious text in accordance with the symbolic architectural layout of the temple (Gundlach 1985). Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Particularly poststructuralism actually critisizes the linearity which it thinks is at the core of the medium book. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html This distinction is inconspicuous in a linear expression text, since when you read from War and Peace, you believe you are reading War and Peace. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ In this phrasing all linear writing appears as a description of images, as a critique of the imagination based on a new mode of thought. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ One can see, in this (admittedly somewhat modernizing) phrasing, the invention of linear writing was given the word as the germ of future, Western culture. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf The shock of discovering that one is not a reader can only happen (and only accidentally) with a linear text, because that is the only text in which the metaphysics of a real reader has any credibility and the only text in which the reader can exist as a reducible, accountable figure. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf This perspective lets us include nonlinear texts, many of which have no author (or even reader) in the traditional sense. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html This achieves a dual result; in the first instance, it reveals character and dialogue to be as much a fictive construct as plot or sequential, linear narrative, while in the second, it also further demystifies the creative process, the way in which a writer does 'choose, edit and rearrange the words at his disposal.' In this way, Acker uses the medium of writing against itself, employing a range of techniques to destabilise the 'author' figure and to promote reading as an activity which requires participation instead of passive observation. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ Here is the answer that would likely be given by someone who thinks historically, in a linear manner: The images that are created by these people are depictions of calculations and can serve as models for changing the world. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ The invention of computation machines made it unnecessary to painstakingly fill in the intervals by artful feats of calculation: the machines spit out numbers automatically, in a quantity that deposes of all linearity. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Offensichtlich ist zunächst, daß innerhalb der Literatur verstärkt Projekte auftreten, die mit der Linearität in offenem Zwiespalt liegen. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ Particularly for the purpose of critique linear writing was invented. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html "Bei [der] ersten Betrachtung des Schreibens ist die Zeile, das lineare Laufen der Schriftzeichen, das Beeindruckendste. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ The new thinking that becomes a contender with the invention of linear writing is poorer by one dimension than pictorial thought, it is more “abstract”, which means: removed by an additional step from the objective world. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Therefore, the messages of linear fiction can no longer be made satisfactorily adequate to the immediate experience we still have of the world. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history While questions of meaning are at the center of both theories, the actual mechanics of reading are neglected, as a text according to those schools of thought is linear per se and the path of reading is predefined. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ The motivations of the inventors of linear writing may, somewhat anachronistically, be phrased like this: imagination is an ontologically doubtful stance, the resulting images are connotative, and they are subject to the inner dialectic inherent in all mediation. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history But, except perhaps in some branches of philosophy, ancient texts continued to be strongly linear. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf If we want to know what is going on between nonlinear texts and their users, we must come up with a concept that implies both more and less than reading and redefines literary satisfaction as well as hermeneutic behavior. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Damit wäre die Software-Struktur von Hypermedien identisch mit der Theorie-Struktur komplexer Sachverhalte: Relationierung von Relationen." Hypertextsysteme sind Maschinen, die Texte quer zum Verlauf des linearen Syntagmas miteinander verknüpfen. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history There is no linear argument that spans the columns, yet the reader’s eye is drawn across, down, and around the page looking for visual and verbal connections. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history It is precisely the lack of a fixed order and commitment to a linear argument that will frustrate those used to working with and writing for the medium of print, just as it will liberate those willing to experiment with a new form of dialogue. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ In the second presentation, the new thinking that is no longer linear comes to bear. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Das Prinzip der Linearität scheint in Konflikt geraten mit einer zunehmend komplexen Realität und den Notwendigkeiten eines zunehmend komplexen Denkens (?); was letztlich bedeutet, daß die Schrift als ein Modus der Abbildung vor dem Abzubildenden versagt. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Wittgenstein could not cast his philosophy in linear-hierarchical form; in had to remain a journey through a network of interrelated topics. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Meist sind es kürzere Textbausteine, die auf diese Weise verknüpft werden; in jedem Fall entsteht ein komplexes Geflecht, das lineare Syntagmen in eine neue, n-dimensionale Netzstruktur überführt. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Daß die Netzmetapher an den etablierten Begriff der Assoziation anzuschließen ist, diesen Begriff aber gleichzeitig entpsychologisiert und an das sprachliche Funktionieren bindet, daß sie die Bestimmung der Linearität einerseits relativiert und andererseits in Richtung einer komplexeren Vorstellung ausbaut, daß sie eine Signifikantenanordnung im Außenraum mit Annahmen über Strukturen im Inneren der Gedächtnisse verbindet und die irreduzible Differenz zwischen beiden Polen gleichzeitig aufrechterhält - all dies macht die Leistungsfähigkeit der Netzmetapher aus. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Agrippa is a unique lesson in textual ontology, a linear text that seems to flirt with nonlinearity, not through its convention or mechanism but through the difference between its used and unused copies. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf A narrative may be perfectly nonlinear (for example describing a sequence of events in a repetitive or nonsequential way) and yet be represented in a totally linear text. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Heinz Pagels's description of a network in The Dreams of Reason suggests why it has such appeal to those leery of hierarchical or linear models. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ In short, the synthesis of linear and surface media may result in a new civilization. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ It may be that what is happening at present is the attempt to incorporate linear thought into surface thought, concept into image, elite media into mass media. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf As the advocates of hypertext enthusiastically remind us, it can be found as fiction, poetry, textbooks, encyclopedias, and so on; so nonlinearity as the superset of hypertext is clearly not a literary genre, or a type of poetic expression or discourse. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html As Andrews, Kearns, and Wardrip-Fruin acknowledge, these works are indebted to William Burroughs's notion of the "cut-up" and "fold-in." They cite as theoretical precedent Burroughs's idea that randomization is a way to break the hold of the viral word and liberate resistances latent in language by freeing it from linear syntax and coherent narrative. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ The objective of linear writing is to critique the imagination. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf In terms of the simplified hierarchy of nonlinear texts, these classes of figures belong to the following levels: forking, found in the spatially nonlinear text; linking/jumping, belonging to the stratum of hypertext; permutation, computation, and polygenesis, all found in both determinate and indeterminate cybertext. Vilém Flusser;  The Future of Writing  1983–84;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Therefore, during history, imagination was the source of reason: the stronger the imagination, the greater the challenge of critical reason, and rich images permit more powerful linear explanations. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf Nietzsche's aphorisms shatter the linear unity of knowledge, only to invoke the cyclic unity of the eternal return, present as the nonknown in thought. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html "Bei der gewöhnlich gebotenen Beweisführung entspricht die verwendete Sprache jenem Fall, bei dem jede Wirkung nur eine Ursache und jede Ursache nur eine Wirkung hat, so daß alle Kausalketten einfache lineare Abfolgen sind. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html All four, like many others who write on hypertext or literary theory, argue that we must abandon conceptual systems founded upon ideas of center, margin, hierarchy, and linearity and replace them with ones of multilinearity, nodes, links, and networks." Die Gleichsetzung als kurzschlüssig zurückzuweisen, wäre einfach. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ Then they subjected this image to a linear critique (the case of the alphanumerical explanation). Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf Most modern methods for making series proliferate or a multiplicity grow are perfectly valid one direction, for example, a linear direction, whereas a unity of totalization asserts itself even more firmly in another, circular or cyclic, dimension. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Derrida suggested that “[t]he end of linear writing is indeed the end of the book”. Vilém Flusser;  Orders of Magnitude and Humanism  1990;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ The new humanism is forced to break out of the linearity of technical progress into the winding. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf As we have seen, the profound challenge of nonlinear texts to the basic concepts of literary theory makes it difficult to discuss them in common literary terms. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Since writing always has been a spatial activity, it is reasonable to assume that ergodic textuality has been practiced as long as linear writing. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Freeman and Skarda's data on the olfactory perception of rabbits are akin to Maturana's results, in that the data indicate the rabbit's responses are transformative and highly nonlinear, influenced not only by the experience at hand but also by previous experiences the animal has had, his emotional state at the moment, and a host of other factors. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ For the elite, the problem is that the more objective and clearer the linear fiction becomes, the more it is impoverished, because it tends to lose contact with the facts it wants to represent (all meaning). Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Rather than accept that this paradoxical result undermines my linear-nonlinear distinction, I contend that by destroying itstraversal function it exposes the inherent instability of the metaphysical concept of “the text itself.” Thus, Agrippa becomes nonlinear only if we choose to accept the “text behind-the-text” as more real than the physical object that can refuse to be read. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm And there is absolutely no mathematical concept of “ease of computation” or “simplicity of algorithm” that even vaguely suggests that such systems may have some advantage over the kinds of automata that have been seriously investigated from this point of view – for example, finite state automata, linear bounded automata, and so on. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ The function of the picture as a plate for orientation is significant here (our intent is to consider what motivates linear writing). Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Der gesamte Kontext der Sprachtheorie scheint zusammengebrochen, sobald es um die Computer geht, und um ihre Fähigkeit, nicht-lineare Strukturen nun im Außen zu repräsentieren. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Wenn es sinnvoll erscheint, das n-dimensionale Netz der Rechner vom psychologischen Assoziationsbegriff zu lösen und auf die sprachlichen Assoziationen zu beziehen, wenn zweitens das sprachliche System als ein Netz negativ-differentieller Verweise begriffen werden muß, und wenn drittens die Sprache die Besonderheit hat, auf zwei Orte verteilt zu sein und ein n- dimensionales Netz in den Köpfen mit linearen Syntagmen im Außenraum zu konfrontieren, so ergibt sich die Folgerung, daß das neue Medium exakt auf dieser Grenze operiert. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Die Linearität von Sprache und Schrift liegt damit sowohl dem historischen Denken als auch, vermittelt, der Kausalitätsvorstellung der Naturwissenschaften zugrunde. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Particularly problematic was the word nonlinear. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ This recoding of calculating thought is most clearly visible in its first emergence from linearity, in photography, and for that reason must be given closer scrutiny. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Our civilization puts two types of media at our disposal: those of linear fiction (e.g., books, scientific publications, and computer printouts) and those of surface fiction (e.g., films, TV pictures, and illustrations). Marshall McLuhan;  The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man  1962;  http://books.google.de/books/about/The_Gutenberg_Galaxy.html?id=y4C644zHCWgC&redir_esc=y Writing transformed space into something bounded, linear, ordered, structured, and rational. Vilém Flusser;  Criteria—Crisis—Criticism  1984;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Critical thinking results from the praxis of linear writing. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Although the output of these generators are linear stories or poems, the systems themselves are clearly ergodic textual machines, with unlimited possibility for variation. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Aslater examples reveal, the position of a single letter or the position of many syntagms strung together can make a text nonlinear. Roy Christopher;  Interview with Jay David Bolter: FutureText  2001;  http://roychristopher.com/jay-david-bolter-futuretext I don’t know how we could decide whether associative (hypertextual) or linear thinking is more “natural.” Both hypertexts and linear texts are highly artificial forms of writing. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html So, if I'm going to do anything that has any relation to my own life, which it has to, I'm not going to write in terms of linear time. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ This closing of the circle of writing (of enlightenment altogether), this post Hegelian critique of natural science and of its technology, is only a young phenomenon that already indicates the crisis of linearity. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm Saussure's entire theory of the “linearity of the signifier” could be interpreted from this point of view. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The storytellers tale is strictly linear, although it need not be fixed from one telling to another. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Die neue Signifikantenanordnung scheint die Beschränkungen aufzuheben, denen die lineare Schrift unterliegt, ihr ausschließender Charakter scheint überwunden und ein lange verfolgtes Desiderat scheint sich plötzlich einzulösen. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Both work self-consciously and deliberately to make obsolete the traditional codex linear book and to replace it with the new multilinear multimedia hypertext that is rapidly becoming the characteristic mode of expression both in culture and in the study of cultural forms. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Why should a writer be forced to produce a single, linear argument or an exclusive analysis of cause and effect, when the writing space allows a writer to entertain and present several lines of thought at once. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Nor do I believe that there is any need to construct a historical tradition of nonlinear literature, as the specimens I have seen so far seem to be different from and isolated from each other rather than belong to anything that can reasonably be characterized as a common genre. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Wittgenstein and Barthes rejected linear argument, but not the physical form, the “look and feel,” of the printed book. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf There are undoubtedly local traditions, but nonlinear strategies appear to rise out of a prevalent and trans-historic need to compose a practical effect, perpendicular to linear textuality, but usually with a specific and constructive or subversive rather than sensationalistic or frivolous objective. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Such a history does not proceed as a linear development toward a distant goal. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf I do not for a moment believe that my constructed binarism of the nonlinear text and the linear text or any of the other perspectives in this essay are any more free of a metaphysics than any previous textual theory, but I hope they are better suited to identifying some of the relevant issues of textual communication. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf It is not difficult to partition any text into graphemes (letters), lexemes (words), or syntagms (phrases or sentences), but none of these elements indicates nonlinearity by its presence. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Amazingly, Eco also claims that the labyrinth of Crete was linear and that Theseus "had no choices to make: he could not but reach the center, and from the center, the way out. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Among these classes we could place the figures of nonlinearity, with the following set of subclasses: forking, linking/jumping, permutation, computation, and polygenesis. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history But instead the new electronic medium redefines the book in a way that can incorporate both linear and nonlinear form. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html In concentrating on non-alphanumeric media, and in apparently confusing analogue and digital technology, Baudrillard misses the opportunity to encounter the fact that digitalization also has the potential to prevent, block, and bypass linearity and binarity, which it replaces with multiplicity, true reader activity and activation, and branching through networks. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ The material world is no longer perceived as a circumstance, but as a bundle of linear processes. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Whereas analogue recording of sound and visual information requires serial, linear processing, digital technology removes the need for sequence by permitting one to go directly to a particular bit of information. Vilém Flusser;  Habit: The True Aesthetic Criterion  1990;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Still: such a linear criticism is no longer feasible where habit is the criterion of judgment. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Since we now regard labyrinthine and linear as incompatible terms, and since the labyrinth no longer denotes linear progress and teleology but only their opposites, its status as a model of narrative text has become inapt for most narratives. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The point deserves emphasis: only the linear-hierarchical style of argument is permitted in orthodox writing today. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf For Barthes, lexies are not the building blocks of textuality but a violent and powerful demonstration of “reading.” In sharp contrast to the playful combinatorics of textual nonlinearity, Barthes’s motto is clearly divide et impera. Vilém Flusser;  On the Theory of Communication  1986–87;  http://www.flusserstudies.net/ This explains the famous sentence “The medium is the message.” We can distinguish, grosso modo, three types of structures: those that order the symbols in linear sequences (the diachronical ones); those that order them in surfaces (the plain synchronical ones); and those that order them in space (the tridimensional synchronical ones). Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Without doubt, the most prominent and popular nonlinear textin history must be the famous Chinese work of oracular wisdom, I Ching or Book of Changes, one of the great classics of antiquity, which was used for thousands of years for meditation and as an oracle. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Umberto Eco (1984, 80) claims that there are three types of labyrinth: the linear, the maze, and the net (or rhizome; cf. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See The dilemma reveals the tension between the conservative circularity of autopoiesis and the linear thrust of evolution. Vilém Flusser;  The Codified World  1978;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Linear codes demand a synchronization of their diachronicity. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf Joyce's words, accurately described as having "multiple roots," shatter the linear unity of the word, even of language, only to posit a cyclic unity of the sentence, text, or knowledge. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf What is left is linear and nonlinear textuality, or better, linear and nonlinear textualities. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Although the fixed multiple text produced by print technology has had enormous effects on modern conceptions of literature, education, and research, it still, as Bush and Nelson emphasize, confronts the knowledge worker with the fundamental problem of an information retrieval system based on physical instantiations of text -- namely, that preserving information in a fixed, unchangeable linear format makes information retrieval difficult. Lev Manovich;  DEEP REMIXABILITY  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=61 Consequently, while NLE (the standard abbreviation for non-linear editing software) gave the editor many tools for adjusting the edits, they took for granted the constant of film language that came from its industrial organization – that all frames have the same size and aspect ratio. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Und umgekehrt wird an dieser Stelle der Übergang zu einem Entwicklungsmodell möglich: nun nämlich erscheint denkbar, daß die linearen Syntagmen etablierte Assoziationen nicht nur nachvollziehen, sondern auch verstärken oder gar bahnen.

CHAPTER
SIX

Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm Spacing as writing is the becoming-absent and the becoming-unconscious of the subject. Vilém Flusser;  The Future of Writing  1983–84;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ In sum, the future of writing is to write pretexts for programs while believing that one is writing for utopia. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html One can almost sense her refusal 'to rewrite,' and that the writing was done 'as fast as possible,' supporting her claim that 'I write to get it out of me. Roland Barthes;  From Work to Text - 1  1971;  http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/From%20Work%20to%20Text.pdf Taking the word literally, it may be said that the Text is always paradoxical. WALTER BENJAMIN;  THE AUTHOR AS PRODUCER  1970;  http://newleftreview.org/I/62/walter-benjamin-the-author-as-producer There you have the key word about which there has long been a debate, as you well know. Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf These authors are in a position that I will call "transdiscursive." This is a recurring phenomenon – certainly as old as our civilization. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm I believe that generalised writing is not just the idea of a system to be invented, an hypothetical characteristic or a future possibility. Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf Clearly, Saint Jerome's four criteria of authenticity (criteria that seem totally insufficient for today's exegetes) do define the four modalities according to which modern criticism brings the author function into play. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf It is also abundantly evident in countless references to writing (and/or print) traceable in printed dictionaries of quotations, from 2 Corinthians 3:6, ‘The letter kills but the spirit gives life’ and Horace’s reference to his three books of Odes as a ‘monument’ (Odes iii301), presaging his own death, on to and beyond Henry Vaughan’s assurance to Sir Thomas Bodley that in the Bodleian Library at Oxford ‘every book is thy epitaph’. Roland Barthes;  From Work to Text - 2  1971;  http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/From%20Work%20to%20Text.pdf The reader of the Text may be compared to someone at a loose end (someone slackened off from any imaginary); this passably empty subject strolls -- it is what happened to the author of these lines, then it was that he had a vivid idea of the Text -- on the side of a valley, a oued flowing down below (oued is there to bear witness to a certain feeling of unfamiliarity); what he perceives is multiple, irreducible, coming from a disconnected, heterogeneous variety of substances and perspectives: lights, colours, vegetation, heat, air, slender explosions of noises, scant cries of birds, children's voices from over on the other side, passages, gestures, clothes of inhabitants near or far away. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm This last terminology was moreover first proposed in the domain of spoken language alone, of linguistics in the narrow sense and not in the domain of semiology (“I propose to retain the word sign [signe] to designate the whole and to replace concept and sound-image respectively by signified [signifié] and signifier [signifiant]”). Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history So, for example, such early prose authors as Herodotus made use of a technique called “ring composition“. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Longstanding oral mental habits of thinking through one’s thoughts aloud encourage dictation, but so did the state of writing technology. Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf As a result, the mark of the writer is reduced to nothing more than the singularity of his absence; he must assume the role of the dead man in the game of writing. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf No signifiance, no subjectification: writing to the nth power (all individuated enunciation remains trapped within the dominant significations, all signifying desire is associated with dominated subjects). Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Since I developed mine in 1991, a new text type has appeared, invented by the science fiction author William Gibson. Katherine Hayles;  The Power of Simulation: What Virtual Creatures Can Teach Us  1999;  http://www.stanford.edu/class/history34q/readings/Hayles/Simulation.html The relation between the word and thing becomes conventional, arbitrary, whereas the relation within language between trace and voice is stronger, more direct". Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm Before being its object, writing is the condition of the epistémè; that historicity itself is tied to the possibility of writing; to the possibility of writing in general, beyond those particular forms of writing in the name of which we have long spoken of peoples without writing and without history. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Text as Vapor In his important book Authors and Owners: The Invention of Copyright, Mark Rose shows that copyright did more than provide a legal basis for intellectual property. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html To express the idea of a man or a horse the form of one or the other will be represented, and the first attempt at writing was but a simple painting" (; my italics). Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html Here I advance the following two propositions or hypotheses: Since every sign, as much in the "language of action" as in articulated language (even before the intervention of writing in the classical sense), supposes a certain absence (to be determined), it must be because absence in the field of writing is of an original kind if any specificity whatsoever of the written sign is to be acknowledged. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text The stereotype is the word repeated without any magic, any enthusiasm, as though it were natural, as though by some miracle this recurring word were adequate on each occasion for different reasons, as though to imitate could no longer be sensed as an imitation: an unconstrained word that claims consistency and is unaware of its own insistence. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html Above all, I will not conclude from this that there is no relative specificity of the effects of consciousness, of the effects of speech (in opposition to writing in the traditional sense), that there is no effect of the performative, no effect of ordinary language, no effect of presence and of speech acts It is simply that these effects do not exclude what is generally opposed to them term by term, but on the contrary presuppose it in dyssemtrical fashion, as the general space of their possibility. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Ontogenetically and phylogenetically, it is the oral word that first illuminates consciousness with articulate language, that first divides subject and predicate and then relates them to one another, and that ties human beings to one another in society. Michel De Certeau;  Vocal Utopias: Glossolalias  1996;  http://ebookbrowse.com/6794-vocal-utopias-glossolalias-pdf-d432092098 But bound to the question of the beginnings of the spoken word [la parole] is the question of its lapsus or its end. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html These commonsense recommendations make available to writers and authors issues they can consider at the beginning of projects, before substantial time and resources are invested in options that may prove damaging to long-term preservation and costly to change, once the work has been implemented. Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl Spoken by the author on a tape recording, this and other permutation poems of Gysin were not solely mathematical computations, but also incantations. EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 The author function is not created by a single individual but rather it is a complex web of power shifts that leads up to the construct of the author. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html The "X-Literature Initiative" makes startlingly clear that the formation we know as "literature" is a complex web of activities that includes much more than conventional images of writing and reading. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Within the context of Acker's writing, then, Tangier is more than simply a location providing a backdrop to her character's activities, as a location with strong associations to the authors she saw as her literary forebears. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf During the past decade, however, such issues have seen a marked increase of attention, perhaps not totally independent of the successful introduction of electronic word processing as an academic tool. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm Origin of the experience of space and time, this writing of difference, this fabric of the trace, permits the difference between space and time to be articulated, to appear as such, in the unity of an experience (of a “same” lived out of a “same” body proper [corps propre]). Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm For the same reason, writing in general is not “image” or “figuration” of language in general, except if the nature, the logic, and the functioning of the image within the system from which one wishes to exclude it be reconsidered. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf On the one hand, this is reflected in the tradition of word games such as anagrams, palindromes or proteus verses, ranging from Baroque writers such as Quirinus Kuhlmann to 20th century avant-garde poets like Unica Zürn or Oskar Pastior. EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 Michel Foucault also questions the role of the author in contemporary culture, but unlike Barthes, who only pointed out the necessity to shift our cultural attention from the author to the reader, Foucault concludes that even though the death of the author as a great individual has been claimed, the notions supporting such claim actually have only renegotiated the privilege in authorship. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf It is impossible to speak a word orally without any intonation. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Only the first of these relationships will be discussed here, and only because of the assumptions about the effects of hypertext upon the figures of author and reader. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See As the opening diagram of the chapters indicates, the authors envision each chapter leading into the next, with the final one coming back to the beginning. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Daher das Entsetzen, von dem die ersten Empfänger von Inschriften ergriffen wurden." "Tatsächlich geht es beim Schreiben um ein Transcodieren des Denkens, um ein Übersetzen aus den zweidimensionalen Flächencodes der Bilder in die eindimensionalen Zeilencodes, aus den kompakten und verschwommenen Bildercodes in die distinkten und klaren Schriftcodes, aus Vorstellungen in Begriffe, aus Szenen in Prozesse, aus Kontexten in Texte." Wenn diese Bestimmung Sinn macht, so würde dies bedeuten, daß die Schrift keineswegs defizitär und aus Armut mit nur einer Raumdimension sich bescheidet, sondern eine bewußte Beschränkung darstellt, ein bewußt restriktives System, das historisch einem 'reicheren', 'kompakten', leider aber 'verschwommenen' System gegenübertritt. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Here again something that Derrida and other critical theorists describe as part of a seemingly extravagant claim about language turns out precisely to describe the new economy of reading and writing with electronic virtual, rather than physical, forms. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Before print, writing itself encouraged some sense of noetic closure. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The ultimate failure of writing did not prevent Plato himself from becoming one of the most influential authors in the ancient world. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html In a moment, a certain concept of writing is bound to intervene, in order to transform itself, and perhaps in order to transform the problematic. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Writing as mode and book as medium have shaped western imagination, forms of knowledge, practices of reading; the technology of writing has shaped the book, and the technology of the book has shaped how writing has developed. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf It is a word game that is based on an interplay of two levels of text that, according to Aarseth, could be called “textons” and “scriptons”: A word or a complete phrase is made by transposing the letters of another word or phrase. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Early writing was paratactic; later, rhetorical writing became periodic, favoring elaborate sentences with many subordinate clauses. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm If I persist in calling that difference writing, it is because, within the work of historical repression, writing was, by its situation, destined to signify the most formidable difference. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Moreover, to dissociate words from writing is psychologically threatening, for literates’ sense of control over language is closely tied to the visual transformations of language: without dictionaries, written grammar rules, punctuation, and all the rest of the apparatus that makes words into something you can ‘look’ up, how can literates live? Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Structural computer programming which became standard in the 1970s involves writing small and self-sufficient modules (called in different computer languages subroutines, functions, procedures, scripts) which are assembled into larger programs. Marshall McLuhan;  The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man  1962;  http://books.google.de/books/about/The_Gutenberg_Galaxy.html?id=y4C644zHCWgC&redir_esc=y McLuhan drew from Innis: “If you look at Harold Innis’s Empire and Communication, you will see the evidence for the fact that phonetic writing destroyed Greek society without their having the slightest notion of how it happened.” Efron concluded: “In my mind The Mechanical Bride is a great work of cultural illumination, but The Gutenberg Galaxy is finally a reversion to a neoclassical or neoscholastic daydream.” “My own approach, following Harold Innis, is a transformation theory, thus homeostasis of the perceptual factors in a rapidly changing environment requires much redistribution of emphasis among the senses. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm Quite simply, that is, outside of the horizon itself, outside the world as space of inscription, as the opening to the emission and to the spatial distribution of signs, to the regulated play of their differences, even if they are “phonic.” Let us now persist in using this opposition of nature and institution, of physis and nomos (which also means, of course, a distribution and division regulated in fact by law) which a meditation on writing should disturb although it functions everywhere as self-evident, particularly in the discourse of linguistics. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms Englebart devotes the first segment of the demo to word processing, but as soon as he briefly demonstrated text entry, cut, paste, insert, naming and saving files – in other words, the set of tools which make a computer into a more versatile typewriter – he then goes on to show in more length the features of his system which no writing medium had before: “view control.” As Englebart points out, the new writing medium could switch at user’s wish between many different views of the same information. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf But in speaking as in writing, some recipient must be present, or there can be no text produced: so, isolated from real persons, the writer conjures up a fictional person or persons. Roland Barthes;  From Work to Text - 2  1971;  http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/From%20Work%20to%20Text.pdf This means that the Text requires that one try to abolish (or at the very least to diminish) the distance between writing and reading, in no way by intensifying the projection of the reader into the work but by joining them in a single signifying practice. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf We are writing this book as a rhizome. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf When we look for ways to describe differences between types of text, the word electronic usually does not get us very far. Roy Christopher;  Interview with Jay David Bolter: FutureText  2001;  http://roychristopher.com/jay-david-bolter-futuretext The system was designed to support hypertext fiction in particular, although it can also be used for organizing and writing fiction and non-fiction intended for print. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y So ist es für Mallarme zum Beispiel die Sprache, die spricht, und nicht der Autor; das Schreiben wird dann zu einem Akt, in dem sich die Sprache und nicht der Autor präsentiert. WALTER BENJAMIN;  THE AUTHOR AS PRODUCER  1970;  http://newleftreview.org/I/62/walter-benjamin-the-author-as-producer Labour itself speaks out for writing it out in words constitutes part of the knowledge necessary to becoming an author. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Nelson, Miller, and almost all authors on hypertext who touch upon the political implications of hypertext assume that the technology is essentially democratizing and that it therefore supports some sort of decentralized, liberated existence. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Ever since the “invention” of alphabetical writing (that is, ever since Western thought began to articulate itself), written lines surrounded men in a way that demanded explanation. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm Its declared purpose indeed confirms, saying what goes without saying, the subordination of grammatology, the historico-metaphysical reduction of writing to the rank of an instrument enslaved to a full and originarily spoken language. Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl Both the permutation poem IN THE BEGINNING WAS THE WORD and The Electronic Revolution contain the magical spell of the Gospel not as an allusive imitation, but as a physical inscription and contagious agent, just like the scalp of an enemy ripped out and worn on the body as an amulet. Jacques Derrida;  Speech and writing according to Hegel  1993;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida1.htm One of the essential arguments of the Hegelian critique is precisely that the word and the name would be dislocated, no longer constituting the irreducible and dialectical unity of language. T. W. Adorno;  The Essay a s Form  1984;  http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0094-033X%28198421%2F22%290%3A32%3C151%3ATEAF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-C Under the spell of such developments, language, where in the sciences it still dares to stir, approximates pseudo-art; and only that scientist proves, negatively, his fidelity to the aesthetic who in general resists language and instead of degrading the word to a mere paraphrase of his calculations prefers the charts that uninhibitedly admit the reification of consciousness and so produces a sort of form for reification without resorting to any apologetic borrowing from art. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Seen from the point of view of the dancer, the actor is a sinner and the author is a devil. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm Finally, if one accepts all the phonologist arguments thus presented, it must still be recognised that they oppose a “scientific” concept of the spoken word to a vulgar concept of writing. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms Only recently, as the general computer literacy has widen and many scripting languages became available – Perl, PHP, Python, ActionScript, Vbscript, JavaScript, etc. – more people started to create their own tools by writing software. Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf In order to "rediscover" an author in a work, modern criticism uses methods similar to those that Christian exegesis employed when trying to prove the value of a text by its author's saintliness. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 The detailed forms of algorithmic interaction and play required today of the computer-using public is, in my mind, so exactly akin to writing code that the division between the two must certainly be ascribed to other ends. Michel De Certeau;  Vocal Utopias: Glossolalias  1996;  http://ebookbrowse.com/6794-vocal-utopias-glossolalias-pdf-d432092098 So it is no surprise to glossolalic traces or moments in the speech of childrenjust as in innumerable literary texts (see Rabelais, Cyrano de Bergerac, and so on) that concern the nature, conditions, and beginnings of the Word la Parold. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Nor could I without writing or indeed without print. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf In antiquity and the early Middle Ages, some writers would use the name of a famous author to get their ideas read and spread—not as a villainous forgery with the goal of short-term benefit but as a way to enhance the endurance and position of their work. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See As the authors put it, their work "shows that the [frog's] eye speaks to the brain in a language already highly organized and interpreted instead of transmitring some more or less accurate copy of the distribution oflight upon the receptors" (1950). Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm Hitherto I seem to have maintained that only the fascination of the unit called word has prevented giving to writing the attention that it merited. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Because we are beginning to write, to write differently, we must reread differently” In all this, Derrida was prescient, but he could not know that electronic writing would be the new writing to which he alluded. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf The word processor has served to familiarize the literary scholar with some aspects of the new text technologies; but, due to its collaborative and emulative nature (the way electronic word processing assumes the goals of the earlier technologies), the more radical potential of textual computing is easily ignored, and the computer is gratefully perceived as less threatening than it actually is. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html On one level, this focus in the self, the author, would appear to contradict the idea that the cut-up approach - applied at whatever level - is primarily a device for removing the author from the creative process. WALTER BENJAMIN;  THE AUTHOR AS PRODUCER  1970;  http://newleftreview.org/I/62/walter-benjamin-the-author-as-producer Tretiakov distinguishes the operative writer from one who gives information. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading In other words, the author, although theoretically the only possible ideal reader, as he has experienced what he has written, does not in fact need to duplicate himself into author and ideal reader, so that the postulate of an ideal reader is, in his case, superfluous. Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf Even today, when we reconstruct the history of a concept, literary genre, or school of philosophy, such categories seem relatively weak, secondary, and superimposed scansions in comparison with the solid and fundamental unit of the author and the work. Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf In the first case, it means that no one has the name Pierre Dupont; in the second, it means that several people were mixed together under one name, or that the true author had none of the traits traditionally ascribed to the personae of Homer or Hermes. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html Speaking specifically of fiction, he argues inRadiant Textuality that "there is no comparison…between the complexity and richness of paper-based fictional works, on the one hand, and their digital counterparts—hypermedia fiction—on the other." Although he is too astute a critic to make comparisons directly, by juxtaposing in the next sentence Stuart Moulthrop with Italo Calvino, McGann implies that Moulthrop, a contemporary pioneer in electronic hypertext, is not as good a writer as Calvino, or at any rate does not produce literature of the same quality. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html One kind of strategy, evident in Ted Warnell's intricately programmed JavaScript work, TLT vs. LL, is to move from the word as the unit of signification to the letter. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Traces of this early attitude toward writing can still show etymologically: the Middle English ‘grammarye’ or grammar, referring to booklearning, came to mean occult or magical lore, and through one Scottish dialectical form has emerged in our present English vocabulary as ‘glamor’ (spell-casting power). Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf To imagine writing as absence seems to be a simple repetition, in transcendental terms, of both the religious principle of inalterable and yet never fulfilled tradition, and the aesthetic principle of the work's survival, its perpetuation beyond the author's death, and its enigmatic excess in relation to him. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf But "it is nothing but the creation of nothing other than signifiers.“ Earth and heaven can do without Elohim's inscription; it exists, prior to God's creation and after God's death, in another holiness, for which the Holy Bible only has the word tohu bohu: the random noise of events. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja I discuss this type of authorship in detail in The Language of New Media; here I just want to note that it applies to both professional designers and the users. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm Science of “the arbitrariness of the sign,” science of the immotivation of the trace, science of writing before speech and in speech, grammatology would thus cover a vast field within which linguistics would, by abstraction, delineate its own area, with the limits that Saussure prescribes to its internal system and which must be carefully re-examined in each speech/writing system in the world and history. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf At such a craft-literacy stage, there is no need for an individual to know reading and writing any more than any other trade. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf Suffice it to say that one day--in Germany, this may have already been the case during the age of Goethe--the homogenous medium of writing also became homogenous in the social sphere. Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf The author is the principle of thrift in the proliferation of meaning. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf Our writing tool not only works on our thoughts, it "is a thing like me." Mechanized and automatic writing refutes the phallocentrism of classical pens. EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 The selectivity found in the death of the author and the author function as defined above is what makes the notion of interactivity easily assimilated because of sampling. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf In oral speech, a word must have one or another intonation or tone of voice—lively, excited, quiet, incensed, resigned, or whatever. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text Tmesis, source or figure of pleasure, here confronts two prosaic edges with one another; it sets what is useful to a knowledge of the secret against what is useless to such knowledge; tmesis is a seam or flaw resulting from a simple principle of functionality; it does not occur at the level of the structure of languages but only at the moment of their consumption; the author cannot predict tmesis: he cannot choose to write what will not be read. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm (The Phaedrus condemned writing precisely as play — paidia — and opposed such childishness to the adult gravity [spoudè] of speech), This play, thought as absence of the transcendental signified, is not a play in the world, as it has always been defined, for the purposes of containing it, by the philosophical tradition and as the theoreticians of play also consider it (or those who, following and going beyond Bloomfield, refer semantics to psychology or some other local discipline). Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf And yet, pantomime, the spoken word, and the written word are nothing but the products of internal, self-regulating mechanisms that are channeled and coordinated through emotions and conceptions, just as one can operate a sewing, typing, or speaking machine without knowing its mechanism. Lev Manovich;  REMIXABILITY  2005;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CC4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2FRemix_modular.doc&ei=2zqzUdX4Gcem4AT6lYHAAQ&usg=AFQjCNHlaRFP8sddB6-_oH4XEmra5A8NlQ&sig2=FAwD4HxylAODfMkX2J-4ig&bvm=bv.47534661,d.bGE&cad=rja Creative Commons offers a special set of Sampling Licenses which “let artists and authors invite other people to use a part of their work and make it new.” Flickr offers multiple tools to combine multiple photos (not broken into parts – at least so far) together: tags, sets, groups, Organizr. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html As Acker comments, writing for her, must have relation to her own life, and to this end strove to represent 'reality.' She saw her work's place, stylistically speaking, as being within the realms of the contemporary 'reality,' and placed her cut-up, montage approach firmly in the postmodern context of the fast cuts, edits and the rapid succession of images which proliferate in pop music videos- after all, 'we all come out of MTV, so what's the problem?' In making this statement, Acker is essentially asserting that her writing, in its non-sequential ordering, in part reflects her life in postmodern society, in which we all now live. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html But in order to articulate and to propose this question, I already had to anticipate the meaning of the word communication: I have had to predetermine communication as the vehicle, transport, or site of passage of a meaning, and of a meaning that is one. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html When we say that writing extends the field and powers of a locutionary or gestural communication, are we not presupposing a kind of homogenous space of communication? T. W. Adorno;  The Essay a s Form  1984;  http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0094-033X%28198421%2F22%290%3A32%3C151%3ATEAF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-C It uses equivocation neither out ofslovenliness nor in ignorance of their proscription by science, but to clarify what usually remains obscure to the critique of equivocation and its mere discrimination of meanings: whenever a word means avariety of things, the differences are not entirely distinct, for the unity of the word points to some unity, no matter how hidden, in the thing itself; however, it is obviously not the case that this unity, as claimed by contemporary restorative philosophies, can itself be taken simply as a unity of linguistic affinities. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm What Saussure saw without seeing, knew without being able to take into account, following in that the entire metaphysical tradition, is that a certain model of writing was necessarily but provisionally imposed (but for the inaccuracy in principle, insufficiency of fact, and the permanent usurpation) as instrument and technique of representation of a system of language. Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf It is easy to see that in the sphere of discourse one can be the author of much more than a book - one can be the author of a theory, tradition, or discipline in which other books and authors will in their turn find a place. Vilém Flusser;  The Future of Writing  1983–84;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ But there is yet another, and more profound, reason for the invention of writing and of historical consciousness. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf The writing provides only a kind of map to the utterance it registers, and it is very difficult to read, even for a skilled scribe (Scribner and Cole 1978, p 456). Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history In alphabetic cultures writing tends to start, in words, grammar and syntax, as the transcription of speech.

CHAPTER
SEVEN

James J. Pulizzi;  Machine Intelligence and Electronic Literature  http://newhorizons.eliterature.org/essay.php@id=9.html To talk about a solitary author distinct from the reader would have little meaning. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Nineteenth century novelists self-consciously intone, ‘dear reader’, over and over again to remind themselves that they are not telling a story but writing one in which both author and reader are having difficulty situating themselves. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Extratextual context is missing not only for readers but also for the writer. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Hypertext here permits one to make explicit, though not necessarily intrusive, the linked materials that an educated reader perceives surrounding it. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading The question is, what kind of reader? Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history For example, there is nothing in storytelling that quite corresponds to the reader’s sense that in turning the pages he or she is coming to the end of the book. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf I have to know the tradition—the intertextuality, if you wish—in which I am working so that I can create for real readers fictional roles that they are able and willing to play. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf (This is not to deny that the writer-reader situation created by writing deeply affects unconscious processes involved in composing in writing, once one has learned the explicit, conscious rules. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Imagine writing a treatise on horses (for people who have never seen a horse) which starts with the concept not of horse but of ‘automobile’, built on the readers’ direct experience of automobiles. Vilém Flusser;  Waiting for Kafka  1967;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ This is precisely why it is successful in calling forth the oscillation and the experience of the absurd in the “sympathetic” reader. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading If, then, we are to try and understand the effects caused and the responses elicited by literary works, we must allow for the reader’s presence without in any way predetermining his character or his historical situation. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Opposite the writerly text, then, is its countervalue, its negative, reactive value: what can be read, but not written: the readerly. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html "Code work," a phrase associated with such writers as Alan Sondheim, MEZ (Mary Ann Breeze), and Talan Memmott and critics such as Florian Cramer, Rita Raley, and Matthew Fuller, names a linguistic practice in which English (or some other natural language) is hybridized with programming expressions to create a creole evocative for human readers, especially those familiar with the denotations of programming languages. Katherine Hayles;  The Power of Simulation: What Virtual Creatures Can Teach Us  1999;  http://www.stanford.edu/class/history34q/readings/Hayles/Simulation.html At this point, some readers may object that however functional narrative may be for everyday social intercourse, it leads to serious mistakes when we use it to understand virtual creatures. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html In this view, readers want a text they can take more or less at face value so that they can get on with the work of interpreting its meaning and explicating its artistic strategies. Roland Barthes;  From Work to Text - 1  1971;  http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/From%20Work%20to%20Text.pdf 'Playing' must be understood here in all its polysemy: the text itself plays (like a door, like a machine with 'play') and the reader plays twice over, playing the Text as one plays a game, looking for a practice which re-produces it, but, in order that that practice not be reduced to a passive, inner mimesis (the Text is precisely that which resists such a reduction), also playing the Text in the musical sense of the term. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Since I wrote this discussion of Bush's memex, Paul Kahn and Ian Adelman have created a sound-enhanced animation of the device, which you can download from another site.] In addition to thus searching and retrieving information, the memex also permits the reader to "add marginal notes and comments, taking advantage of one possible type of dry photography, and it could even be arranged so that he can do this by a stylus scheme, such as is now employed in the telautograph seen in railroad waiting rooms, just as though he had the physical page before him". Mal Ahern;  Deleuze, Gilles. "Nomad Thought"  2003;  http://csmt.uchicago.edu/annotations/deleuzenomad.htm “Such texts are traversed by a movement that comes from without, that does not begin on the page (nor the preceding pages), that is not bounded by the frame of the book; it is entirely different from the imaginary movement of representation or the abstract movement of concepts that habitually take place among words and within the mind of the reader.” Deleuze speaks of traditional philosophy (and, by extension, traditional writing) as something that seeks to code the world and works within the codes of the world: it works within a system of law and lack, that interprets the world through rules and (in its more progressive states) wishes to reform certain rules. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html These emphases appear with particular clarity when he claims that "like any text, the text of 'Plato' couldn't not be involved, or at least in a virtual, dynamic, lateral manner, with all the worlds that composed the system of the Greek language." Derrida in fact here describes extant hypertext systems in which the active reader in the process of exploring a text, probing it, can call into play dictionaries with morphological analyzers that connect individual words to cognates, derivations, and opposites. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html This would suggest that Burroughs' prediction that 'new techniques, such as cut-up, will involve much more the total capacity of the observer' (TM 6) had been fulfilled and that the cut-ups had finally resulted in the re-education of writers, if not readers. Vilém Flusser;  Waiting for Kafka  1967;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ As we approach Kafka’s work, I plead with the reader to focus on the attitude of sympathy—the reader should transform his own intellect into strings, to vibrate in sympathy with Kafka’s strings. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf The nineteenth-century novelists’ nervous apostrophes to the ‘dear reader’, as has already been noted, suggest that the typical reader was felt by the writer to be closer to the old-style listener than most readers commonly are felt to be today. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf Hoffmann) the passion of all writing was the poet's desire to "describe" the hallucinated "picture in your mind with all its vivid colors, the light and the shade," in order to "strike" the "gentle reader" "like an electric shock."[29] Electricity itself put an end to this. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html But we should not indulge in the logical confusion that results when it is assumed that the creation of the display—a process that happens only when the programs that create the text are activated—entails the same operations as a reader's cognitive processing. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf It proceeds to discourse on horses by always referring to them as ‘wheelless automobiles’, explaining to highly automobilized readers who have never seen a horse all the points of difference in an effort to excise all idea of ‘automobile’ out of the concept ‘wheelless automobile’ so as to invest the term with a purely equine meaning. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The new dialogue will be, as Plato demanded, interactive: it will provide different answers to each reader and may also in Plato’s words know “before whom to be silent”. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Der Text/das Kunstwerk als potentiell unendliches Zeichenreservoir, das dann vom Leser, dem für Barthes neuen Regenten nach dem Tod des Autors, auf jeweils eigene Art dekodiert wird. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading This rather general account of the two concepts of ideal and contemporary readers reveals certain presuppositions, which frequently come into play when responses to fictional texts are to be assessed. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading Since the world of the text is bound to have variable degrees of unfamiliarity for its possible readers (if the work is to have any “novelty” for them), they must be placed in a position which enables them to actualise the new view. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html At this point the text on screen and in the computer's memory briefly coincide, but the reader always encounters a virtual image of the stored text and not the original version itself; in fact, in descriptions of electronic word processing, such terms and such distinctions do not make much sense. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html You thus have read the readerly text in several ways not possible with a book: you have chosen your reading path, and since you, like all readers, will choose individualized paths, the hypertext version of this book would probably take a very different form, perhaps suggesting the values of alternate routes and probably devoting less room in the main text to quoted passages. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf The readers of manuscripts are less closed off from the author, less absent, than are the readers of those writing for print. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Although this point somewhat muddies the waters in that it conflates operations performed by the reader with those performed by the computer, it nevertheless establishes common ground between scholars interested in bibliographic and textual criticism of print works and those oriented to close examination of digital texts. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Although memory is equidistant within the computer, such is not the case for human readers. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The written text – as indeed the spoken – forces the reader (and the listener) to stick to its order: the elements have to be read in the sequence in which they occur. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html The lack of punctuation and regular capitalisation produces a jumbled, disorientating narrative, in which is unclear at which point the reader is to 'break' or breathe- an effect also common to cut-up texts. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html If ergodic literature is to make sense as a concept, there must also be nonergodic literature, where the effort to traverse the text is trivial, with no extranoematic responsibilities placed on the reader except (for example) eye movement and the periodic or arbitrary turning of pages. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The same applies to the ‘reading path’ which the reader (now usually called a ‘visitor’) wishes to construct: it too is determined by the reader’s interest. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history In general it is harder to hoodwink a reader than a listener, because the reader can stop at any time, reflect, and refer to a previous section of the text. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html As literature (although not as textual media), MUDs are very different from anything else, with their streams of continuing text and their collective, often anonymous readership and writership. Vilém Flusser;  Essays  1967;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ The reader may argue that I have greatly exaggerated the “treatise– essay” antimony, that Hume’s essays, for instance, are really treatises, and that Wittgenstein’s Tractatus is really an essay. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See In his 1972 essay "Notes on an Epistemology for Living Things," he casts Maturana's theory of autopoiesis into numbered quasi-mathematical propositions and gives it a circular structure, with the last proposition referring the reader back to the beginning (Obseroing Systems). Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf And what is the reader supposed to make himself out to be in Finnegans Wake? EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 This was not so in early modernism, where the work of art suspended its historical code, and the reader could not be held responsible for acknowledging the politics that made the object of art “art.” Updating Owens’s theory, I argue that in terms of discourse, postmodernism (metaphorically speaking) remixed modernism to expose how art is defined by ideologies, and histories that are constantly revised. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Even when the text includes some sort of ceremony of victory, it cannot provide the traditional build-up and release of tension that the readers of fiction normally expect. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf This fall from readership should not be confused with the clever destabilization effects of so-called metafictions, in which the opposite point—readership confirmed—is made. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt The reader inscribes her subjectivity into this text by choosing what links to activate, what scars to trace. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Thus the narrative that follows, in conjunction with the map and the manuscript, presents the reader with a dreamscape in which it is impossible to distinguish the 'facts' from the narrator's imagination. WALTER BENJAMIN;  THE AUTHOR AS PRODUCER  1970;  http://newleftreview.org/I/62/walter-benjamin-the-author-as-producer And this apparatus is better to the degree that it leads consumers to production, in short that it is capable of making co-workers out of readers or spectators. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Because these enactions take place through the agency of the computer, all these bodies--the monster, Mary Shelley, Shelley Jackson, the specificity of the electronic text, the active agency of the digital interface, and we the readers--are made to participate in the mutating configurations of flickering signifiers. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf In the history of literature, this ranged from fragments, paper slips or excerpts which were collected in file boxes and notebooks and then presented to the reader – either in books or in text objects like cases, boxes, sometimes even installations or environments such as Michael Badura’s Zettel-Werke. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history In confronting an ancient papyrus roll, the reader had few choices. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history A hypertextual essay in the computer is always a dialogue between the writer and his or her readers, and the reader has to share the responsibility for the outcome. Vilém Flusser;  Essays  1967;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ It implicates itself in the topic and in its reader. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf The writer must set up a role in which absent and often unknown readers can cast themselves. EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 For Barthes, it is the reader who holds the real potential to make discourse productive. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history If the reader is reading a story or an essay, the words create a rhythm of expectations. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Cent Mille Milliards de Poèmes effectively mocks the theoretical notions of writer and reader, while the power of the text is cleverly demonstrated. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html As a number of critics have pointed out, notably Espen J. Aarseth, the reader/user can only follow the links that the author has already scripted. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html As Heim has argued, electronic word processing inevitably produces linkages, and these linkages move text, readers, and writers into a new writing space: The distinctive features of formulating thought in the psychic framework of word processing combine with the automation of information handling and produce an unprecedented linkage of text. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf The difference between these experiences and my experience with Boorman’s Zardozis that in the latter case I could, based on my cultural competence, deduce the actual existence of a version that was independent of me and the possibility of a proper reading that could be conducted by an easily imagined proper reader, but not by me. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Beginning readers today (like most readers in the ancient world and early Middle Ages) focus on single letters and clusters and spell their way through each line. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history All media offer specific possibilities to the designer, and to the reader/user in their reading and / or use. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html In each case, the reader can follow the link to another text indicated by the note and thus move entirely outside the scholarly article itself. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Where this new adaptation might prove to be a radical departure is in the way we shall use it to define textuality independent of its traditional associates, the reader/receiver/audience and writer/sender/author. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Der Tod des Autors fällt mit der Auferstehung des Lesers zusammen; übertragen auf die Musik, würde der Tod des Komponisten mit der Auferstehung des Hörers zusammenfallen. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles Beyond The Unknown, readers new to the field of hypertext will probably be most comfortable with canonized, link-based works written in Storyspace. Thomas Bernhard;  From One Catastrophe to the Next (Interview)  1986;  http://www.thomasbernhard.org/interviews/1986intas.shtml That's less frustrating with books because you think the reader has her own imagination. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf Reading intently, those among Werther's readers who committed suicide may well have perceived their hero in a real, visible world. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Nabokov's Pale Fire, however, leaves the mode of cursality up to the reader; consisting of a foreword, a 999-line poem, a long commentary of notes addressing individual lines (but really telling the commentator's story), and an index, it can be read either unicursally, straight through, or multicursally, by jumping between the comments and the poem. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html In practice most readers employ the materials developed at Brown University as a text-centered system, since they tend to focus upon individual works, with the result that even if they begin sessions by entering the system to look for information about an individual author, they tend to spend most time with lexias devoted to specific texts, moving, for example, between those about works of fiction and nonfiction (Trollope's The Way We Live Now and Carlyle's "Hudson's Statue) or between lexias about a particular novel, say, Gaskell's North and South and informational and contextual materials (biographies, chronologies, essays on setting and characterization in the novel, Evangelical Anglicanism, public health, working-class diets, and so on). Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Such discontinuity presents little problem in the context of a cut-up narrative, the function of which is to dispense with the need to detail movement, and Burroughs contended that 'the reader can fill those gaps.' Acker's contention, too, was that the transportation of the characters and such things didn't matter. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf However, it appears somewhat awkward to think of the Hebrew letter beth (b) as a syllable when it in fact simply represents the phoneme [b], to which the reader has to add whatever vowel sound the word and context call for. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The earliest ancient writing was strictly linear: it was simply a concentration of letters that the reader turned back into sound. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html In the electronic medium several layers of sophisticated technology must intervene between the writer or reader and the coded text. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt There thus arises a tension between the sequence of lexias chosen by the reader, and the simultaneity of memory space in which all the lexias always already exist. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history But whether the working unit is a single letter or an entire phrase, the reader’s task is to thread these units into a sensible order: to read is to activate verbal elements in time. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Few texts drive home the point of the readerless text more abundantly than Raymond Queneau’s Cent Mille Milliards de Poèmes(1961). Vilém Flusser;  Essays  1967;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ It does not explain its topic, so in this sense it does not inform its readers. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history ‘Glas’ requires the reader to take an active, even aggressive role in constructing the text, and in this way too it anticipates electronic writing. Marshall McLuhan;  The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man  1962;  http://books.google.de/books/about/The_Gutenberg_Galaxy.html?id=y4C644zHCWgC&redir_esc=y Such a reverse perspective of the literate Western world is the one afforded to the reader of Albert Lord’s Singer of Tales. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf Both “writers” and “readers” of such texts are confronted with the “challenge of a read and write memory” (transl. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Although fragmentary, enough of the text is visible to allow the reader to make out that it is giving instructions on how to create links to "interconnect documents and make it easier to move from place to [word obscured]." Thus the text underlying the image points to the software program underlying the text, so the entire image functions as an evocation of the multilayered coding chains flexibly mutating across interfaces to create flickering signifiers. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt As the reader progresses further into the text, a map view of the different parts opens up, displayed in the Storyspace software (in which the text is written) as colored rectangles which, when clicked, contain smaller rectangles representing paragraph-sized blocks of text or lexias. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Of course books also create rich cognitive environments, but they passively embody the cognitions of writer, reader, and book designer rather than actively participate in cognition themselves. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf No matter how accurate and thorough such apophatic description, automobile-driving readers who have never seen a horse and who hear only of ‘wheelless automobiles’ would be sure to come away with a strange concept of a horse. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text Text of bliss: the text that imposes a state of loss, the text that discomforts (perhaps to the point of a certain boredom), unsettles the reader's historical, cultural, psychological assumptions, the consistency of his tastes, values, memories, brings to a crisis his relation with language. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html Translating the words on a scroll into a codex book, for example, radically alters how a reader encounters the work; by changing how the work means, such a move alterswhat it means. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html All hypertext systems permit the individual reader to choose his or her own center of investigation and experience.

CHAPTER
EIGHT

Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms In short, why did these people dedicated their careers to inventing the ultimate “remediation machine”? Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms Kay conceived of “personal dynamic media” as a fundamentally new kind of media with a number of historically unprecedented properties such as the ability to hold all of user’s information, simulate all types media within a single machine, and “involve learner in a two-way conversation.” These properties enable new relationships between the user and the media she may be creating, editing, or viewing on a computer. Vilém Flusser;  A Historiography Revised  1982;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Ever more complex machines, most of them hydraulic, are being designed. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf On the other hand it is presented in mechanical text-generating machines such as Georg Philipp Harsdörffer’s Fünffacher Denckring der Teutschen Sprache (1651), which claims to reproduce the entire German-language word formation in a mechanical apparatus. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 So software is both language and machine, even if the machinic is primary. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html research network ARPANet, the precursor of the Internet, in April 1976.2 As the microcomputer home market exploded around 1980, Adventure was made available on nearly every type of machine and became the first in a short-lived, but influential, textual computer game genre, which ended its commercial life when the graphic adventure games took over in the late eighties. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading But there are texts which can be “consumed” in this way, as is obvious from the mounds of light literature that flow regularly into the pulping machines. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms Slowly, through the work of Sutherland, Englebart, Nelson, Papert and others in the 1960s, the ideas and techniques were developed which made computers into a “cultural machine.” One could create and edit text, made drawings, move around a virtual object, etc. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Cybertext, as now should be clear, is the wide range (or perspective) of possible textualities seen as a typology of machines, as various kinds of literary communication systems where the functional differences among the mechanical parts play a defining role in determining the aesthetic process. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html It is more than this, for any item can be joined into numerous trails."Eine Hypertextmaschine also, entworfen mit dem expliziten Bezug auf die Assoziationsfähigkeit des menschlichen Denkens; und Bolz sagt entschlossen: "Damit tritt das assoziative Denken des Alltags ins Zeitalter seiner technischen Reproduzierbarkeit ein." Aber ist dieser Konnex tatsächlich plausibel? Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf I would even consider a two-year-long marriage for that purpose." With the collapse of his machine, Nietzsche became a man again. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Just as the history of print literature is deeply bound up with the evolution of book technology as it built on wave after wave of technical innovations, so the history of electronic literature is entwined with the evolution of digital computers as they shrank from the room-sized IBM 1401 machine on which I first learned to program (sporting all of 4K memory) to the networked machine on my desktop, thousands of times more powerful and able to access massive amounts of information from around the globe. Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl High-level, machine-independent programming languages and operating systems such as C and Unix gave birth, around the same time, to a culture that gradually detached software from the concept of code running on a machine. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf A sampler, a machine that reprocesses musical products, also implies constant activity; to listen to records becomes work in itself, which diminishes the dividing line between reception and practice, producing new cartographies of knowledge. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms It was only Kay and his generation that extended the idea of simulation to media – thus turning Universal Turing Machine into a Universal Media Machine, so to speak. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf 395) "for 'a machine or artificial method, to print letters continuously one after another while writing, in a fashion so clean and precise that they are indistinguishable from the printing of letters.'" The precision of this concept or premise, namely, to introduce Gutenberg'S reproductive technology into textual production, was contradicted by the vagueness of the patent's phrasing. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Other computer programs can automatically generate 3D objects such as trees, landscapes, human figures and detailed ready-to-use animations of complex natural phenomena such as fire and waterfalls. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf A book itself is a little machine; what is the relation (also measurable) of this literary machine to a war machine, love machine, revolutionary machine, etc.-and an abstract machine that sweeps them along? Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf It is not accidental that modern man writes "with" the typewriter and "dictates" [diktiert] (the same word as "poetize" [dichten]) "into" a machine. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf The MIT Media Lab developed a number of different projects devoted to “high-level” automation of media creation and use: a “smart camera” which can automatically follow the action and frame the shots given a script; ALIVE, a virtual environment where the user interacted with 4 animated characters; a new kind of human-computer interface where the computer presents itself to a user as an animated talking character. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html These networks can take the form of contemporary Local Area Networks (LANs), such as Ethernet, that join sets of machines within an institution or a part of one, such as a department or administrative unit. Wikipedia;  Mashup (web application hybrid)  2013;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mashup_%28web_application_hybrid%29 Especially when performing reasoning (automatically inferring new data from existing data), erroneous data has potentially devastating impact on the overall quality of the resulting dataset. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html The dispersion introduces many possible sources of variation into the production of electronic text that do not exist in the same way with print, for example, when a user's browser displays a text with different colors than those the writer saw on her machine when she was creating it. Vilém Flusser;  Criteria—Crisis—Criticism  1984;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Because the criteria here are lacking for the time being, it is difficult to foresee how they could be automated. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf But the convergence of a profession, a machine, and a sex speaks the truth. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf Neither the storing nor the production of knowledge, however, is ascribed to an author, and the knowledge is not written or printed in syntagmatic chains but machines are designed, which generate the knowledge from a compact source code by combinatorial procedures. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html To demonstrate that print is unstable even at the level of a document, he scans a document with an optical character reader and reports that the machine gives different readings on different scans. Deleuze and Guattari;  How do you make yourself a body without organs?  1947;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze2.htm Are not assemblages necessary to fabricate each BwO, is not a great abstract Machine necessary to construct the plane of consistency? Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Die Sprache erscheint als eine gesellschaftliche Maschinerie, die die linearen Syntagmen im Außenraum mit der nicht-linearen Struktur der empirischen Gedächtnisse in eine regelhafte Verbindung bringt. Rick Prelinger;  On the Virtues of Preexisting Material | Contents Magazine  2007;  http://contentsmagazine.com/articles/on-the-virtues-of-preexisting-material/ Not simply aggressively edited machine-gun-style collages of mainstream news footage. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Nicht mehr zufrieden damit, die unendliche Vielfalt sprachlicher Äußerungen zu generieren und die Narration der einzelnen Texte vorwärts zu drängen, treibt der Mangel nun ganze Signifikantensysteme und Medienkonstellationen aus sich hervor: jene Kette immer neuer und immer komplizierterer symbolischer Maschinen, die uns als 'Mediengeschichte' gegenübertritt und die einer Logik der Eskalation oder zumindest einer quantitativen Überstürzung zu folgen scheint. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Clearly, cognition must emerge from autopoietic processes if it is not to be treated as an ad hoc phenomenon, a soul injected into the machine. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 This is a logic that shines through quite elegantly in the words of Ernst Bloch (2006[1910–29]), writing from an earlier moment in the machine age. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See The homeostat was an instantiation of a goal-seeking machine whose goal was stability. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf In the typewriter the machine appears, i.e., technology appears, in an almost quotidian and hence unnoticed and hence signless relation to writing, i.e., to the word, i.e., to the distinguishing essence of man. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf For that reason, Lacan desigantes "the world of the symbolic the world of the machine."[49] The imaginary, however, comes about as the mirror image of a body that appears to be, in terms of motor control, more perfect than the infant's own body, for in the real everything begins with coldness, dizziness and shortness of breath.[50] Thus, the imaginary implements precisely those optical illusions which were being researched in the early days of cinema. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf Thought is replaced by a Boolean algebra and consciousness by the unconscious, which (at least since Lacan's reading) makes of Poe's "Purloined Letter" a Markoff chain.[.55] And the fact that the symbolic is called the world of the machine undemines the delusion of so-called Man to possess a "quality" called "consciousness," which identifies him as something other and better than a "calculating machine." For both people and computers are "subject to the apeal of the signifier"[56]; that is to say, they are both are run by programs. James J. Pulizzi;  Machine Intelligence and Electronic Literature  http://newhorizons.eliterature.org/essay.php@id=9.html By not attempting to equal human cognitive abilities in all domains, machine intelligence presupposes a complementary relationship between the human and the machine. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Image editing programs such as Photoshop can automatically correct scanned images, improving contrast range and removing noise. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms As theorized by Turing and Von Neuman, computer is a general-purpose simulation machine. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Since the same machine is used as a showroom and a factory, for example, the same computer generates and displays media -- and since the media exists not as a material object but as data which can be sent through the wires with the speed of light, the customized version created in response to user’s input is delivered almost immediately. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Thus automation of media access is the next logical stage of the process which was already put into motion when a first photograph was taken. Vilém Flusser;  Waiting for Kafka  1967;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Kafka teaches that the higher powers are an administrative, hierarchically overorganized machine, a pedantic machine, corrupt, poorly functioning, and repugnant. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms Furthermore, we can automatically (i.e., by running the appropriate algorithms) improve its contrast, make it sharper, and even in some situations remove blur. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Cyberis derived from cybernetics,the name of Norbert Wiener’s science of “control and communication in the animal and the machine,” again derived from the Greek kybernêtês, steersman (compare governor). N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Christened by Norbert Wiener, cybernetics was conceived as a science that would develop a common explanatory framework to talk about animals, machines, and humans by considering them as information processors that encoded and decoded messages, exacerbated or corrected their actions through feedback loops, and demonstrated circular causality (see Heims for an account of the Macy conferences). William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles She states that hypertexts create a “feedback loop” between “human ways of knowing and machine cognition” and that the interaction between humans and computers causes changes in how both work. James J. Pulizzi;  Machine Intelligence and Electronic Literature  http://newhorizons.eliterature.org/essay.php@id=9.html The intelligent machine can be a partner with the human and integral to the creation of the resulting piece of electronic literature. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf However, there have been some similarities between these machines as the algorithmic processing of “literary” signs has already been possible prior to the invention of digital computers. Michael Goddard;  Felix and Alice in Wonderland. The Encounter between Guattari and Berardi and the Post-Media Era  2006;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpbifo1.htm Guattari refers to Alice as a “generalised revolution, a conjunction of sexual, relational, esthetic and scientific revolutions all making cross-overs, markings and currents of deterritorialisation.” Rather than pointing to a new revolutionary form, the experimentation of Radio Alice was a machine for the production of new forms of sensibility and sociability, the very intangible qualities constitutive of both the molecular revolution and the post-media era. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Cultural interfaces try to balance the concept of a surface in painting, photography, cinema, and the printed page as something to be looked at, glanced at, read, but always from some distance, without interfering with it, with the concept of the surface in a computer interface as a virtual control panel, similar to the control panel on a car, plane, or any other complex machine. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Each type of text can be positioned in this multidimensional field according to its functional capabilities…As a theoretical perspective, cybertext shifts the focus from the traditional threesome of author/sender, text/message, and reader/receiver to the cybernetic intercourse between the various part(icipant)s in the textual machine. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf Now all my friends have to do is to invent a reading machine: otherwise I will fall behind myself and won't be able to supply myself with sufficient intellectual nourishment. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 So one must assume that the ‘soft’ comes from the informatic fluidity of these devices, from what Turing meant when he called his machine ‘universal’ rather than ‘discrete’. MATTHEW FULLER;  BEHIND THE BLIP - ESSAYS ON THE CULTURE OF SOFTWARE  2003;  http://www.multimedialab.be/doc/citations/matthew_fuller_blip.pdf Despite the fact that free software makes public the labour which is repressed from visibility under proprietary software, it is still the case that whoever is “closest to the machine” owns the space of possibilities which the relations have been established to explore. Michael Goddard;  Felix and Alice in Wonderland. The Encounter between Guattari and Berardi and the Post-Media Era  2006;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpbifo1.htm Rather he insists that both thinkers constitute equal parts of a rhizomatic machine that was put into motion by their encounter and that leaving one half of this machine in shadow prevents any understanding of its functioning. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms It is possible to put Sutherland’ work on Sketchpad in the center of computational media history; or Englebart and his Research Center for Augmenting Human Intellect which throughout the 1960s developed hypertext (independently of Nelson), the mouse, the window, the word processor, mixed text/graphics displays, and a number of other “firsts.” Or we can shift focus to the work of Architecture Machine Group at The MIT which since 1967 was headed by Nicholas Negroponte (In 1985 this group became The Media Lab). Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Programs are normally written with two kinds of receivers in mind: the machines and other programers. Wikipedia;  Mashup (web application hybrid)  2013;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mashup_%28web_application_hybrid%29 Data quality is a general challenge when automatically integrating data from autonomous sources. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf In the time of the first dominance of the typewriter, a letter written on this machine still stood for a breach of good manners. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf From the Remington via the Turing machine to microelectronics, from mechanization and automatization to the implementation of a writing that is only cypher, not meaning--one century was enough to transfer the age-old monopoly of writing into the omnipotence of integrated circuits. Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl Cultural and political semantics result merely from its dull formalisms and their interference with daily life, from account balance statements to “enduser software.” Formalisms create semantics in a wholly different way than people expect from an allegedly “intelligent machine.” Computers therefore exist, as hacker wisdom says, to solve problems which we would not even be aware of having if not for the computers themselves. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 The difference is that exploits operate intensively within and through the rules of the symbolic system, while natural languages operate extensively as a result of a combinatorial discursive logic ever intent on probing the boundaries of allowable style.) Reflective sandboxing of software code within a machine built to parse it is seen in the case of a computer language like Java which must be compiled and then run as bytecode inside a special runtime environment, or, as with the language C, compiled and then run as ‘native’ machine instructions, or with a simple mark-up language like HTML the specifications for which must be entirely designed into any browser destined to interpret and display it, or also with other interpreted code such as a three-dimensional model whose mathematical values for vertices and textures must be transcoded according to the rules of a given data format and a given style of visual projection. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html The intermixture of code and language on which recombinant flux depends is situated within a more general set of practices in which human thinking and machine execution collaborate to produce literary works that reference both cognitive modes. MATTHEW FULLER;  BEHIND THE BLIP - ESSAYS ON THE CULTURE OF SOFTWARE  2003;  http://www.multimedialab.be/doc/citations/matthew_fuller_blip.pdf Because to describe the synthesiser as terminally as they do the TV would be to give up, to stop making a machine in the machine. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf In Hollywood films, flocks of birds, ant colonies and crowds of people are automatically created by AL (artificial life) software. Katherine Hayles;  The Power of Simulation: What Virtual Creatures Can Teach Us  1999;  http://www.stanford.edu/class/history34q/readings/Hayles/Simulation.html It is a continually evolving complex adaptive system with many interacting cognizers, which these days includes intelligent machines, intelligent programs, intelligent environments, and intelligent humans. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html The machine, of course, is not complete without a third party, the (human) operator, and it is within this triad that the text takes place. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ It is true, though: automatic machines can project some of the created instances of information outside of the conversation and thus change the field of possibilities of the “world”. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Werkzeuge und Maschinen sind als Extensionen des menschlichen Körpers aufgefaßt worden, und die Medien entsprechend als Verlängerungen des menschlichen Sinnesapparats, bis hin zu dem Bild, daß in der weltweiten Verschaltung der Medien 'der' Mensch sein Nervensystem auf den gesamten Globus ausdehne. Vilém Flusser;  Criteria—Crisis—Criticism  1984;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ If we look at the work of most photo critics, we truly get the impression that the automation of photo criticism is close at hand. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Moreover, Bush wished to replace the essentially linear fixed methods that had produced the triumphs of capitalism and industrialism with what are essentially poetic machines -- machines that work according to analogy and association, machines that capture and create the anarchic brilliance of human imagination. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf (The already quoted example of Web pages automatically generated from databases using the templates created by Web designers can be invoke here as well.) Thus the principle of variability is closely connected to automation. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Along with “low-level” and “high-level” automation of media creation, another area of media use which is being subjected to increasing automation is media access. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html In these annotations, which amount to a hyperlinked essay, he meditates on the conjunction of human and machine cognition. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 It is certainly incorrect to divorce one from the other, as authors like Lev Manovich have rightly pointed out (see in particular his essay ‘The Automation of Sight’, 1996). Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf Lull’s machine consists of a stack of three concentric disks mounted on an axis where they are able to rotate independently. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine Introduction One way to understand how computerization changed the media we use to represent the world, record our ideas and communicate with others is to examine the work of the people who invented the paradigms and practical techniques of computer media. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Numerical coding of media (principle 1) and modular structure of a media object (principle 2) allow to automate many operations involved in media creation, manipulation and access. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 As already discussed these two modes are often splayed out into a hierarchical model of two or more layers of code: source code is ‘prior to’ a runtime executable; machine languages are ‘underneath’ programming languages; software applications ‘drive’ the user experience, and so on. Rick Prelinger;  On the Virtues of Preexisting Material | Contents Magazine  2007;  http://contentsmagazine.com/articles/on-the-virtues-of-preexisting-material/ But it takes a really special case to turn an archives into a money machine. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf When the virtual camera is close to the object, a highly detailed model is used; if the object is far away, a lesser detailed version is automatically substituted by a program to save unnecessary computation of detail which can’t be seen anyway. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Replete with puns, neologisms and other creative play, such work enacts a trading zone in which human-only language and machine-readable code are performed as interpenetrating linguistic realms, thus making visible on the screenic surface a condition intrinsic to all electronic textuality, namely the intermediating dynamics between human-only languages and machine-readable code. Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl Among the few exceptions are Plots Unlimited and Band-in-a-Box, a program that automatically creates musical arrangements. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms In short, only when a computer became a cultural medium – rather than only a versatile machine. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 The material substrate of code, which must always exist as an amalgam of electrical signals and logical operations in silicon, however large or small, demonstrates that code exists first and foremost as commands issued to a machine. Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl Hello.”Along the lines of this technological scepticism, Surrealist “automatic writing” for example was not computational, but a psychic automatism that took the unconscious as its source code, not a calculus. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf "Are these humans," Nietzsche already asks himself in 1874, eight years before he buys a typewriter, "or maybe just thinking, writing and speaking machines?"[57] In 1950 Alan Turing, the practitioner among England's mathematicians, gave the answer to Nietzsche's question. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms The reader could not change nether this order nor the level of detail being displayed a la Englebart’s “view control.” Similarly, the film projector combined hardware and what we know call a “media player” software into a single machine. Michael Goddard;  Felix and Alice in Wonderland. The Encounter between Guattari and Berardi and the Post-Media Era  2006;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpbifo1.htm The second part of the book provides a reading of all four of Guattari’s works with Deleuze as well as his sole-authored Chaosmosis and argues strongly against the relative neglect of Guattari’s contribution to the rhizomatic machine he constructed with Deleuze across the works they authored together. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 In both cases we have an ‘object’ imbued with a complex machinery for hiding things, be it the commodity object (or as Guy Debord maniacally demon- strated, the commodity as image) and its ability to mask its own history of production and the social division of labor that generated it, or be it the Java object and its ability to cordon off various functionality into this or that site of inscription and execution, which is no doubt an abstraction or mapping of the actual division of labor globally in the dot-com firm producing it, where one part of the code might spring from a desk in Redmond and another part from a desk in Bangalore without anyone being the wiser. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html The cybertext reader is a player, a gambler; the cybertext is a game-world or world-game; it is possible to explore, get lost, and discover secret paths in these texts, not metaphorically, but through the topological structures of the textual machinery. MATTHEW FULLER;  BEHIND THE BLIP - ESSAYS ON THE CULTURE OF SOFTWARE  2003;  http://www.multimedialab.be/doc/citations/matthew_fuller_blip.pdf It is software which asks itself what kind of currents, what kinds of machine, numerical, social, and other dynamics, it feeds in and out of, and what others can be brought into being. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf If the end is unsuccessful, this too means abandonment of the you, which then remains in the text as a ghost in the machine: not living, not properly buried, and with a cause left unfinished.