Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text The text you write must prove to me that it
Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_TextAnything, rather
Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text desires me.
Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text than the rule (generality, stereotype, ideolect: the consistent language).
TEXT
Alexander Schierl

INTRODUCTION

Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text I recognize that Proust's work, for myself at least, is the reference work, the general mathesis, the mandala of the entire literary cosmogony— as Mme de Sevigne's letters were for the narrator's grandmother, tales of chivalry for Don Quixote, etc.; this does not mean that I am in any way a Proust "specialist": Proust is what comes to me, not what I summon up; not an "authority," simply a circular memory. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Its several pages speak of many a walk, many a drive, and many a conversation, when I was not alone; and my companion was one who, in this world, I shall never see more. Thomas Bernhard;  Extinction  1986;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extinction_(1995_novel) I’ve always found gratification in my fanatical faith in exaggeration, I told Gambetti. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf This may not be the most exciting of lyrical poetry, but it is unique in a very special sense: I have never read it before, and chances are that neither has anybody else. Christian Kerslake;  The Vertigo of Philosophy:Deleuze and the Problem of Immanence  2002;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze8.htm However, I would claim that the argument extends even further, right into the further reaches of the Transcendental Dialectic. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm That the particularity of the example does not interfere with the generality of my argument is a point which I shall occasionally — try not merely to take for granted. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See As I see it, the problern with systems theory is that once a system stands revealed in all its pervasiveness and complexity-whether it be theinvisible workings of power in Foucault's society of surveillance, Lacan's psycholinguistics, or Maturana's autopoiesis-the system, precisely because of its logic and power, is likely to seem inevitable and inescapable. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html The I Ching system also inspired G. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html Although all this appears selfevident, I do not want it to be assumed as such, and will examine the ultimate objection that might be made to this proposition. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Once I pick up a book by Ken Follett, I have already started the interpretation of it, long before I have started on the first page. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text Then, potentially, all linguistics fell, linguistics which believes only in the sentence and has always attributed an exorbitant dignity to predicative syntax (as the form of a logic, of a rationality); I recalled this scientific scandal: there exists no locutive grammar (a grammar of what is spoken and not of what is written; and to begin with: a grammar of spoken French). Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Even in writing to a close friend I have to fictionalize a mood for him, to which he is expected to conform. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm This is the second type of question that I now wish to outlines To develop this question, I should like to approach, as a privileged example, the project and texts of Ferdinand de Saussure. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf For myself as I imagine myself or hope others may imagine me? Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history What the “e” tells me is something about tradition and ‘Englishness’; it relates to many other signs I have seen where the “e” has had similar meanings, as in “Ye olde gifte shoppe”. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html This implies an entire logic of paleonymy which I do not wish to elaborate here. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html This is noted by Peter Woollen, who observes, 'it was not one of the master's more straightforwardly literary works - The Naked Lunch, for example - which intrigued her the most, but a much more formally extreme and experimental text.' Acker herself described how she 'used The Third Mind as experiments to teach myself how to write.' Born in 1948, Acker grew up in New York City. Wolfgang Iser;  THE RANGE OF INTERPRETATION  2000;  http://books.google.de/books/about/The_range_of_interpretation.html?id=9IPLzzYy2hAC&redir_esc=y I am not ashamed to admit that I am defining the old and still valid “hermeneutic circle. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html In this section I will examine her writing's continued evolution, and consider the significance of pirates and piracy, and the question of 'myth.' I will also be addressing the way in which the developments in Acker's later works reflect the ways in which she adapted and evolved her own modes of cutting up narrative. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html On the other hand I will pause over the value of extension to which I have just had recourse. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See And this has given me room to argue that the very interlocking assumptions used to achieve closure are themselves the result of historical contingencies and embedded contextualities. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text Only one way: since I am here a second-degree reader, I must shift my position: instead of agreeing to be the confidant of this critical pleasure—a sure way to miss it—I can make myself its voyeur: I observe clandestinely the pleasure of others, I enter perversion; the commentary then becomes in my eyes a text, a fiction, a fissured envelope. WALTER BENJAMIN;  THE AUTHOR AS PRODUCER  1970;  http://newleftreview.org/I/62/walter-benjamin-the-author-as-producer Yet I chose the example of Tretiakov intentionally, to indicate the breadth of the horizon from which we should rethink our notion of literary forms or genres in line with the given techniques of our current situation, so that we may arrive at the forms of expression to which literary energies should be applied today. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf I should consider the responsibilities of characterization, I should conflate her two children into one, or reverse their genders, or otherwise alter them, I should make her boyfriend a husband, I should explicate all the tributaries of my extended family (its remarriages, its internecine politics), I should novelize the whole thing, I should make it multigenerational, I should work in my forefathers (stonemasons and newspapermen), I should let artifice create an elegant surface, I should make the events orderly, I should wait and write about it later, I should wait until I’m not angry, I shouldn’t clutter a narrative with fragments, with mere recollections of good times, or with regrets, I should make Meredith’s death shapely and persuasive, not blunt and disjunctive, I shouldn’t have to think the unthinkable, I shouldn’t have to suffer, I should address her here directly (these are the ways I miss you), I should write only of affection, I should make our travels in this earthy landscape safe and secure, I should have a better ending, I shouldn’t say her life was short and often sad, I shouldn’t say she had demons, as I do too. James J. Pulizzi;  Machine Intelligence and Electronic Literature  http://newhorizons.eliterature.org/essay.php@id=9.html Nick Montfort has published a thorough and provocative study of IF as a distinct genre within the realm of electronic literature, but I will highlight some of the most salient aspects for this discussion. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf The poststructuralists are fond of discussing this question in (and in relation to) the preface or the foreword, but since I do not have such places at my disposal in this book, but only a chapter, I shall not argue with them. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm The issue is important, and I would like to dwell on it for a moment. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm Thus, I relate this concept oftrace to what is at the center of the latest work of Emmanuel Levinas and his critique of ontology: relationship to the illeity as to the alterity of a past that never was and can never be lived in the originary or modified form of presence. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The way I understand the term Cybertext it is meant as a specific perspective on text. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html One might say that at the moment when I write, the addressee may be absent from my field of present perception. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm It is because I believe that there is a short-of and a beyond of transcendental criticism. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See The future moment when the train will strike the car exists vivirlly in my imagination, anrl I have no rlifficulty foreseeing the causal chain of events that will splatter me anrl my car over the lanrlscape. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Whereas the systems approach Maturana uses presents his theory as an autonomaus entity suflicient in itself, the narrative approach I have been following shows how Maturana's theory both drew on and changed the concepts that preceded it. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Burroughs was clear in the direction his exploration of dreams led: 'I am quite deliberately addressing myself to the whole area of what we call dreams. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text (Pleasure/Bliss: terminologically, there is always a vacillation— I stumble, I err. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 If I may read between the lines of Chun’s essay, it is not exactly the discipline of visual culture that provides a backdrop for her project, despite the use of the term ‘visual’ and despite indications made in her book Control and Freedom (2006). Vilém Flusser;  Essays  1967;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ It is an erudite topic, so I could choose the treatise form. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf When I said that a textcan be nonlinear by convention, the definition is laid open to interference from the interpretable level. Katherine Hayles;  The Power of Simulation: What Virtual Creatures Can Teach Us  1999;  http://www.stanford.edu/class/history34q/readings/Hayles/Simulation.html To develop this idea, I will find it useful to review acccounts that scientific realists and cultural critics give in their respective projects. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm To summarise, it seems to me that neither Goodman nor Putnam offers a serious counter-argument to the proposals concerning innate mental structure that have been advanced (tentatively, of course, as befits empirical hypotheses) or suggests a plausible alternative approach, with empirical content, to the problem of acquisition of knowledge. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html Here I advance the following two propositions or hypotheses: Since every sign, as much in the "language of action" as in articulated language (even before the intervention of writing in the classical sense), supposes a certain absence (to be determined), it must be because absence in the field of writing is of an original kind if any specificity whatsoever of the written sign is to be acknowledged. Lev Manovich;  DEEP REMIXABILITY  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=61 As I was researching what the users and industry reviewers has been saying about After Effects, I came across a somewhat condescending characterization of this software as “Photoshop with keyframes.” I think that this characterization is actually quite useful. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf I do not intend to challenge that idea; I believe that it belongs to a different aspect or level of the same object. Thomas Bernhard;  From One Catastrophe to the Next (Interview)  1986;  http://www.thomasbernhard.org/interviews/1986intas.shtml It was the person everything concerning me related to, of whom I learnt everything. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Acker explained her approach to sequential narrative thus: I certainly don't believe linear time is adequate. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See To recapitulate: the advantage I claim for narrativeisthat it renders the closures systems theory would perform contingent rather than inevitable, thus mitigating the coercive effects that systems theory can sometimes generate. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html For example, Burroughs' pirates, with the exception of the Fuentes (Iguana) Twins, are all essentially 'classic' historical characters: Acker's pirates, on the other hand, are all distinctly unlike any classic or historical characters: part-human, part animal, desocialised mutants who live like wild dogs: A few days later, I saw bad Dog chewing on a rat. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html Without exhausting all the implications and the entire structure of an "event" like this one, which would merit a very long preliminary analysis, the prerequisite I have just recalled appears evident; and for anyone who doubts this, it would suffice to consult our schedule in order to be certain of it. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html To look for traditions, literary genres, and common aesthetics, we must inspect the texts at a much more local level, and I suggest one way to partition the field in chapters 4 through 7, each chapter dealing with a subgroup of ergodic textuality. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text The text supersedes grammatical attitudes: it is the undifferentiated eye which an excessive author (Angelus Silesius) describes: "The eye by which I see God is the same eye by which He sees me." Apparently Arab scholars, when speaking of the text, use this admirable expression: the certain body. Thomas Bernhard;  Extinction  1986;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extinction_(1995_novel) We’re often led to exaggerate, I said later, to such an extent that we take our exaggeration to be the only logical fact, with the result that we don’t perceive the real facts at all, only the monstrous exaggeration. Deleuze and Guattari;  How do you make yourself a body without organs?  1947;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze2.htm Today Hitler I lift the roadblocks I set down! Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text And when something follows of itself, I abandon it: that is bliss. Thomas Bernhard;  From One Catastrophe to the Next (Interview)  1986;  http://www.thomasbernhard.org/interviews/1986intas.shtml There was nothing left for me but to flee into my mind and to start something on that basis, the body didn't have any potential. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html Let me emphasize that this processing is necessarily prior to whatever cognitive processing the user performs to read and interpret the text. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt "I sense a reluctance when I tow a frame forward into the view," the narrator says in an utterance that conflates writer, reader, and character, as if reflecting within the jumble of fiction and metafiction the jumbled time represented by the lexias.

CHAPTER
ONE

Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm An original and rigorously delimited description of this may thus be promised. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 These online activities rely on copying, and deleting (cutting) information from one point to another as data packets. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The second remix is selective; it consists of adding or subtracting material from the original composition. Rick Prelinger;  On the Virtues of Preexisting Material | Contents Magazine  2007;  http://contentsmagazine.com/articles/on-the-virtues-of-preexisting-material/ They face such opposition internally and from copyright holders that they’ve had to take baby steps. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Both remix projects are produced by the original authors. Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl The models reach from simple algorithms like the division of the octave to more recent and complex ones such as Fourier overtone frequency transformations, originally put down by the French mathematician Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier in 1822. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html For example, there is a section explaining that dynamic data arrays are used to generate the screen displays, but there is little or no theoretical exploration of what it means to read an electronic text produced in this fashion rather than the print original. Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst Der Begriff „Plagiat“ wird vom lateinischen Wort „plagium“ (Menschenraub) abgeleitet und taucht zum ersten Mal in der Spätantike auf. Rick Prelinger;  On the Virtues of Preexisting Material | Contents Magazine  2007;  http://contentsmagazine.com/articles/on-the-virtues-of-preexisting-material/ Since we cling to the absurdity that products of the intellect become property at the moment of their fixation into a physical medium, other odd creatures are born, including so-called orphaned works—which form a category of copyrighted works that someone still owns, even though that someone can’t be found. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html This is nowhere more apparent than in her trial for stealing from Genet: Judge 1: You're a woman. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html and put the fake first person next to the true first person.' This practice of directly copying and making minor alterations to existing texts represents the application of a lesson she learned from one of her early mentors, poet David Antin, who, aware of his students' lack of life experience, would tell them, "don't be afraid to copy it out... N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt The decision clearly relied on the notion of the author's "originality" as a key component of an artistic work. Michel Foucault;  T H E A T R U M P H I L 0 S O P H I C U M  1970;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpfoucault5.htm And it does not lead, in spite of itself, to a shameful metaphysics; it leads joyously to metaphysics-a metaphysics freed from its original profundity as well as from a supreme being, but also one that can conceive of the phantasm in its play of surfaces without the aid of models, a metaphysics where it is no longer a question of the One Good but of the absence of God and the epidermic play of perversity. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Asked to respond to a theoretically dense piece by Rachel Blau DuPlessis, Stefans liberated the words from their original context by alphabetizing them and parsing them into 36 groups. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Acker punctuates this section of the book with extensive quotations from Genet's work, and in doing so clearly invites parallels to be drawn between Janey's story and Acker's own theft / plagiarism from her own influencers. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See The divorce of perception from external reality is at once the basis for the striking originality of Maturana's epistemology and the Achilles' heel that renders it vulnerable to cogent objections. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Der Remix dient dem Original, ohne die eigenen Interessen zu vergessen. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Aarseth’s very specific and original viewpoint is most likely related to his background in video game studies and electronic literature, both domains, which put a lot of emphasis on the technical medium. Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl Computer-generated music and computer-generated digital instrument programming remains the most systematic elaboration of the original Pythagorean project of finding numerical and arithmetic models for sound. Lev Manovich;  DEEP REMIXABILITY  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=61 For instance, while particular media techniques continue to be used in relation to their original media, they can also be applied to other media. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Second, this same ease of cutting, copying, and otherwise manipulating texts permits different forms of scholarly composition, ones in which the researcher's notes and original data exist in experientially closer proximity to the scholarly text than ever before. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html [Follow for The Victorian Web, based at Brown University, which contains the latest, much-amplified version of this corpus of interlinked documents originally created for Intermedia.] Writers on hypertext trace the concept to a pioneering article by Vannevar Bush in a 1945 issue of Atlantic Monthly, that called for mechanically linked information-retrieval machines to help scholars and decision makers faced with what was already becoming an explosion of information. Michel Foucault;  T H E A T R U M P H I L 0 S O P H I C U M  1970;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpfoucault5.htm Moreover, we must conceptualize a series, without any original anchor, of simulacra, idols, and phantasms which, in the temporal duality in which they are formed are always the two sides of the fissure from which they are made signs and are put into place as signs. Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst Während im Wissenschaftsbetrieb der Begriff „Plagiarismus“ durchwegs negativ konnotiert ist und die derzeitige Debatte hauptsächlich darum geht, wie man Plagiate am effektivsten aufdecken und mit welchen Maßnahmen man sie vermeiden bzw. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf The elements out of which a term is originally built usually, and probably always, linger somehow in subsequent meanings, perhaps obscurely but often powerfully and even irreducibly. Michel Foucault;  T H E A T R U M P H I L 0 S O P H I C U M  1970;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpfoucault5.htm The philosophy of representation-of the original, the first time, resemblance, imitation, faithfulness-is dissolving; and the arrow of the simulacrum released by the Epicureans is headed in our direction. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf They testify to a willingness to inscribe the work of art within a network of signs and significations, instead of considering it an autonomous or original form. Lev Manovich;  REMIXABILITY  2005;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CC4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2FRemix_modular.doc&ei=2zqzUdX4Gcem4AT6lYHAAQ&usg=AFQjCNHlaRFP8sddB6-_oH4XEmra5A8NlQ&sig2=FAwD4HxylAODfMkX2J-4ig&bvm=bv.47534661,d.bGE&cad=rja In short, a person simply copying parts of a message into the new email she is writing, and the largest media and consumer company recycling designs of other companies are doing the same thing – they practice remixability. Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl There exists no record of Pythagoras’ original philosophy though because it existed only as secret knowledge within an occult society. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt The commitment to originality led to especially strained interpretations when the work was collaborative, for "originality" implied that the work resulted from the unique vision of one gifted individual, not from the joint efforts of a team of skilled craftsmen. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf When an object is inserted into a document (for instance, a media clip inserted into a Word document), it continues to maintain its independence and can always be edited with the program used originally to create it. Lev Manovich;  DEEP REMIXABILITY  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=61 In a number of Ferro’s spots, static images of different letterforms, line drawings, original hand painted artwork, photographs, very short clips from newsreels, and other visuals would come one after another with machine gun speed. Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst Es geht um Machtverhältnisse, abbildende Repräsentation und die Kritik daran, aber auch um eine Entwertung des „originalen“ und einmaligen Werkes, dessen Warenförmigkeit dadurch verdeutlicht werden soll. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf (Diringer 1962, pp 121–2, discusses the two variants of the original alphabet, the North Semitic and the South Semitic.) Every alphabet in the world—Hebrew, Ugaritic, Greek, Roman, Cyrillic, Arabic, Tamil, Malayalam, Korean—derives in one way or another from the original Semitic development, though, as in Ugaritic and Korean script, the physical design of the letters may not always be related to the Semitic design. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Circularity became prominent when the authority of the text was on the wane; recursivity was developed when emergence had to be accounted for; and the differential—originally a mathematical operation—was reactivated when all the umbrella conceptualizations of immeasurabilities had broken down. Roy Christopher;  Interview with Jay David Bolter: FutureText  2001;  http://roychristopher.com/jay-david-bolter-futuretext We could certainly propose a more powerful global hypertext system, but the genius of the Web lay in its (originally) simple link structure and its distributed architecture. Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst Auch lassen die durch Computer ermöglichte unbegrenzte Kopierbarkeit von digitaler Information und ihre durch das Internet fast kostenlose Verbreitung die Proklamation von Plagiarismus in fotokopierten Fanzines heute mehr als anachronistisch erscheinen. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja Gradually the term became more and more broad, today referring to any reworking of an original musical work(s). Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja When it released the original Doom (1993), id software also released detailed descriptions of game files formats and a game editor, thus encouraging the players to expand the game, creating new levels. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf Contemporary art thus presents itself as an alternative editing table that shakes up social forms, reorganizes them, and inserts them into original scenarios. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Instead of valorizing originality, it produces itself and its characters through acts of appropriation and transformation that imply writing and subjectivity are always patchwork quilts of reinscription and innovation. Wikipedia;  Mashup (web application hybrid)  2013;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mashup_%28web_application_hybrid%29 The term implies easy, fast integration, frequently using open application programming interfaces (API) and data sources to produce enriched results that were not necessarily the original reason for producing the raw source data. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf But there is no special Latin word with the exclusive meaning of plagiarist or plagiarism. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf In a universe of products for sale, preexisting forms, signals already emitted, buildings already constructed, paths marked out by their predecessors, artists no longer consider the artistic field (and here one could add television, cinema, or literature) a museum containing works that must be cited or "surpassed," as the modernist ideology of originality would have it, but so many storehouses filled with tools that should be used, stockpiles of data to manipulate and present. Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst Beginnend in der frühen Moderne mit der kubistischen Collage und Dada-Gedichten – die sich erstmals Zeitungsausschnitten bemächtigten, um diese in ihre Bild- oder Textarrangements einzufügen – ziehen sich künstlerische Aneignungen von Bild- und Textmaterial durch die gesamte Moderne und nehmen bestimmte Aspekte postmoderner Infragestellung und Dekonstruktion von Originalität, Authentizität und AutorInnenschaft vorweg. Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst Während im Wissenschaftsbetrieb der Begriff „Plagiarismus“ durchwegs negativ konnotiert ist und die derzeitige Debatte hauptsächlich darum geht, wie man Plagiate am effektivsten aufdecken und mit welchen Maßnahmen man sie vermeiden bzw. Vilém Flusser;  On the Theory of Communication  1986–87;  http://www.flusserstudies.net/ When a new continent is discovered, its rivers and mountains become more interesting than the passage to India originally searched for. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt "In collage, writing is stripped of the pretense of originality," Jackson writes in "Stitch Bitch." "One can be surprised by what one has to say in the forced intercourse between texts or the recombinant potential in one text, by other words that mutter inside the proper names". Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst Für die Institution Kunst erschütternder als die kapitalismuskritische Decodierung des Warenfetischs ist jedoch die Ablehnung der für die Moderne zentralen Begriffe Kreativität, Expressivität und Originalität. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history But we should also remember that the original text was without book or scene divisions, paragraphing, indices, punctuation, or even word division. Vilém Flusser;  Betrayal  ca. mid-1980s;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Is there a common root to the chicken and the egg, one that would permit us to spot the original betrayal? Rick Prelinger;  On the Virtues of Preexisting Material | Contents Magazine  2007;  http://contentsmagazine.com/articles/on-the-virtues-of-preexisting-material/ Do copyright maximalists really think they’re going to retrain an entire generation to ask permission? William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles As with a paperback copy of Gilbert Sorrentino’s Aberration of Starlight, readers of Patchwork Girl were restricted to engaging with that story in ways limited by the constraints inherent to a CDROM: just as we can’t add or substract pages from a printed book, a CDROM-based hypertext like Patchwork Girl is restricted to the contents that are on the physical disc. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Having taken all she can from Genet in terms of discussion and transmitted knowledge, Janey resorts to simply taking - stealing - objects, at which point Genet rejects her, and, once rejected, she in turn rejects him. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ The reactions thus initiated result in a negative copy of the objects from which the light originated. Vilém Flusser;  On the Theory of Communication  1986–87;  http://www.flusserstudies.net/ The second difficulty in saying that codes result from convention is the following one: There are codes that do not seem to have chosen their rules by convention, but in an effort to copy the rules that order the meaning of their symbols. EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 Sampling allows for the death of the author and the author function to take effect once we enter late capitalism, because “writing” is no longer seen as something truly original, but as a complex act of resampling and reinterpreting material previously introduced, which is obviously not innovative but expected in new media. Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst Es geht um Machtverhältnisse, abbildende Repräsentation und die Kritik daran, aber auch um eine Entwertung des „originalen“ und einmaligen Werkes, dessen Warenförmigkeit dadurch verdeutlicht werden soll. Vilém Flusser;  The Codified World  1978;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ That is what we mean by “crisis of values”: that we step out of the linear world of explanations and into the techno-imaginary world of “models.” The revolutionary originality of techno-images is not that they move themselves, that they are “audiovisual,” that they shine in light of the cathThe Codified World 41 ode ray, and so on, but that they are “models,” the image of a concept of a scene. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm Peirce regarded inductive processes as rather marginal to the acquisition of knowledge; in his words, “Induction has no originality in it, but only tests a suggestion already made.” To understand how knowledge is acquired, in the rationalist view that Peirce outlined, we must penetrate the mysteries of what he called “abduction,” and we must discover that which “gives a rule to abduction and so puts a limit upon admissible hypotheses.” Peirce maintained that the search for principles of abduction leads us to the study of innate ideas, which provide the instinctive structure of human intelligence. Eric A. Havelock;  The Muse Learns to Write  1986;  http://www.thenewhumanities.net/books/Book%20Reviews16.html The original Greek says: The city altogether bulges with incense burnings. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Eine wachsende Respektlosigkeit, die ihren künstlerischen Niederschlag nicht nur in den wilden Samplesund Coverversionen findet, sondern auch in den zum Teil das Original komplett ignorierenden Remixes durch berühmte DJs wie MK, der auf dem New Music Seminar 1993 in New York bemerkte: »Wenn ich mir jeden Dreck im Original anhören müßte, den ich remixe, würde ich es nicht mehr machen. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf By cutting out cultural or social forms (votive sculptures, cartoons, theater sets, drawings by abused children) and placing them in another context, Kelley uses forms as cognitive tools, freed from their original packaging. Eduardo Navas;  THE FRAMEWORK OF CULTURE: REMIX IN MUSIC, ART, AND LITERATURE  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=651#more-651 Adding these three cultural areas makes this analysis rather complex because we have to deal with two things that are challenging to cultures (at least cultures considered part of globalization), which is to participate in the act of repurposing, recycling, remmediating (remixing) material that superficially, in terms of history, has been validated by the very idea of being original. Katherine Hayles;  The Power of Simulation: What Virtual Creatures Can Teach Us  1999;  http://www.stanford.edu/class/history34q/readings/Hayles/Simulation.html Drawing on Mark Rose's work on copyright,Poster focuses his discussion of subjectivity on the "cultural figure of the modern author," a figure that emerged in the eighteenth century in a "confluence of print technology, a book market, a legal status, and an ideology of individual as creator" In Poster's view, analogue subjectivity is deeply bound up with the dominance of print culture. Lev Manovich;  DEEP REMIXABILITY  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=61 Similarly, as we saw, After Effects original interface, toolkit, and workflow drew on the techniques of animation and the techniques of graphic design. Roland Barthes;  From Work to Text - 2  1971;  http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/From%20Work%20to%20Text.pdf The author is reputed the father and the owner of his work: literary science therefore teaches respect for the manuscript and the author's declared intentions, while society asserts the legality of the relation of author to work (the 'droit d'auteur' or 'copyright', in fact of recent date since it was only really legalized at the time of the French Revolution). George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html No longer primarily occupied by the task of preserving information in the form of fragile manuscripts that degraded with frequent use, scholars, working with books, developed new conceptions of scholarship, originality, and authorial property. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 In Remix as discourse, allegory is often deconstructed in more advanced remixes following the Reflexive Remix, and quickly moves to be an exercise that at times leads to a “remix” in which the only thing that is recognizable from the original is the title. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Of course, there is a counterpoint regarding the originality of the 'original' text, the 'original' Don Quixote which needs noting here. Vilém Flusser;  What Is Communication?  1973–74;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ One can conclude that they are the most original, most fundamental forms of communication. Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst Beginnend in der frühen Moderne mit der kubistischen Collage und Dada-Gedichten – die sich erstmals Zeitungsausschnitten bemächtigten, um diese in ihre Bild- oder Textarrangements einzufügen – ziehen sich künstlerische Aneignungen von Bild- und Textmaterial durch die gesamte Moderne und nehmen bestimmte Aspekte postmoderner Infragestellung und Dekonstruktion von Originalität, Authentizität und AutorInnenschaft vorweg. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja For instance, one license (called Gnu Public License) specifies that the programmer have to provide the copy of the new code to the community; another stipulates that the programmer can sell the new code and he does not have to share with the community, but he can’t do things to damage the community. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Moreover, the phraseology is derived heavily from Treasure Island, and, characters such as Silver are lifted directly- and then altered slightly - from the source text.Other examples of 'plagiarism' include the shanty which recurs throughout Treasure Island. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 While this is real, it must also be acknowledged that corporations are trying to control this collective movement, which is why they have invested in social media, while trying to hold on strong to pre-established copyright laws. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html The presentation of this section is indicative of Acker's far-ranging interest in language, language formation and language conditioning, as well as her taking not only the original cut-up, but also the variations and extensions of the technique as a starting point for her own exploration. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Er sollte keine einzigartige, »theologische« Bedeutung (die Botschaft des Autoren-Gottes) mehr offerieren, sondern als multidimensionaler Raum funktionieren, in dem mehrere Schriften verheiratet und zerstritten sind und keine ein Original ist. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Frederic Jameson, who attacks Louis Althusser in The Political Unconscious for creating impressions of "facile totalization" and of "a seamless web of phenomena" himself more explicitly and more frequently makes these models the site of error. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The third remix is reflexive; it allegorizes and extends the aesthetic of sampling, where the remixed version challenges the “spectacular aura” of the original and claims autonomy even when it carries the name of the original; material is added or deleted, but the original tracks are largely left intact to be recognizable. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Nor is it a reftection on Maturana's originality to show that he appropriated ideas from models that preceded his. Jean Baudrillard;  The Conspiracy of Art  1996;  http://insomnia.ac/essays/the_conspiracy_of_art/ Raising originality, banality and nullity to the level of values or even to perverse aesthetic pleasure. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 This implies that the originality of the remix is nonexistent, therefore it must acknowledge its source of validation self-reflexively. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Mark Rose ends his book (note that I use the media-specific practice of calling it a book and not a text) by suggesting that copyright continues to endure, despite its many problems, because it reinforces "the sense of who we are" (Rose 142). Lev Manovich;  REMIXABILITY  2005;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CC4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2FRemix_modular.doc&ei=2zqzUdX4Gcem4AT6lYHAAQ&usg=AFQjCNHlaRFP8sddB6-_oH4XEmra5A8NlQ&sig2=FAwD4HxylAODfMkX2J-4ig&bvm=bv.47534661,d.bGE&cad=rja The blocks come with complete information necessary to easily copy and paste them in a new object – either by a human or machine.

CHAPTER
TWO

Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf Therefore a book has no object. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Like the boundary between computer games and electronic literature, the demarcation between digital art and electronic literature is shifty at best, often more a matter of the critical traditions from which the works are discussed than anything intrinsic to the works themselves. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Compared to the flexibility offered by the codex, which offers the reader complete freedom to skip around, go backwards as well as forwards, and open the book wherever she pleases, the looping structures of electronic hypertexts and the resulting repetition forced on the reader/user make these works by comparison more rather than less coercive. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Along with Macintosh's Hypercard, it was the program of choice for many major writers of electronic literature in the late 1980's and 1990's. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Electronic literature, generally considered to exclude print literature that has been digitized, is by contrast "digital born," a first-generation digital object created on a computer and (usually) meant to be read on a computer. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf There is no sense in denying that this crisis of the text (if so pretentious a denotation must be used) is brought about by the digital wonders of the information age—or rather, by the somewhat eschatological claims of the proponents of the so-called new media: “the book is dead,” “this is the Late Age of Print,” “the electronic text will free us from the tyranny of paper,” and “in the future, everyone will be a writer.” No doubt, these are interesting times. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Having been a widely visible presence only for some two decades (although its predecessors stretch back at least to the computer poems of the early 1960s, and far beyond this in the print tradition), electronic literature has already produced many works of high literary merit that deserve and demand the close attention and rigorous scrutiny critics have long practiced with print literature. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Given the major works of electronic literature that then loomed large, particularly Michael Joyce's afternoon: a story and Stuart Moulthrop's Victory Garden, this emphasis was understandable, for these works consist mainly of screens of text with very limited graphics, no animation, and no sound. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf In opposition to these notions, I argue that the lessons of nonlinear literature show us a textuality different from our readings (and our readings of “reading”), more fundamental than our messages, and, through the evolving rituals and technologies of use and distribution, subject to many types of change. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Instantiating a linear narrative that turns into a circle, the book simulates an autopoietic structure in which the details produce the overail organization, and the organization produces the details. Eduardo Navas;  THE FRAMEWORK OF CULTURE: REMIX IN MUSIC, ART, AND LITERATURE  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=651#more-651 It is evident that literature initially explored principles of remix in terms of cultural citation, meaning that unlike remix as popularly understood in terms of music, literature more often than not relies on referencing ideas. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Das Leben, so Barthes, imitiert lediglich das Buch, und das Buch selbst ist nichts als ein Netz Eine Tradition, die dann in der psycho von Zeichen, eine endlose Imitation. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf A book is an assemblage of this kind, and as such is unattributable. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf There is a sizable literature on differences between written and spoken language which compares the written and spoken language of persons who can read and write (Gumperz, Kaltmann and O’Connor 1982 or 1983, bibliography). George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Students of technology and reading practice point to several hundred years of gradual change and accommodation, during which different reading practices, modes of publication, and conceptions of literature obtained. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Als Derrida diesen Satz 1967 in eine Zeile und in ein Buch dennoch niederschrieb, formulierte er eine tiefgreifende Krisenerfahrung. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles Excluding authors like Neil Gaiman, who still creates his novels first on paper, all contemporary literature is created digitally, from start to finish. Michel Foucault;  T H E A T R U M P H I L 0 S O P H I C U M  1970;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpfoucault5.htm They should consequently be freed from the restrictions we impose upon them, freed from the dilemmas of truth and falsehood and of being and nonbeing (the essential difference between simulacrum and copy carried to its logical conclusion); they must be allowed to conduct their dance, to act out their mime, as "extrabeings." The Logic of Sense can be read as the most alien book imaginable from The Phenomenology of Perception.6 In this latter text, the body-organism is linked to the world through a network of primal significations which arise from the perception of things, while, according to Deleuze, phantasms form the impenetrable and incorporeal surface of bodies; and from this process, simultaneously topological and cruel, something is shaped that falsely presents itself as a centered organism and distributes at its periphery the increasing remoteness of things. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles Its place among everyday readers of literature can be seen by how much even a casual acquaintance with e-lit can modify, accentuate, and broaden the horizons of the very books all readers adore. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf The world has become chaos, but the book remains the image of the world: radicle-chaosmos rather than root-cosmos. MATTHEW FULLER;  BEHIND THE BLIP - ESSAYS ON THE CULTURE OF SOFTWARE  2003;  http://www.multimedialab.be/doc/citations/matthew_fuller_blip.pdf The book is at once a rescue of philosophy from its status as doomed élite subculture staffed by the populations of the soon-tobe closed ghost departments of the universities of Europe, and also a restatement of the primary task of philosophy: the invention of concepts. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Is literary quality possible in digital media, or is electronic literature demonstrably inferior to the print canon? Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf I am writing a book which I hope will be read by hundreds of thousands of people, so I must be isolated from everyone. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html This technology -- that of the printed book and its close relations, which include the typed or printed page -- engenders certain notions of authorial property, authorial uniqueness, and a physically isolated text that hypertext makes untenable. Vilém Flusser;  Essays  1967;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ All you need to do is open an “erudite” book to feel that climate. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf In our context, the user/reader functions are the most important variables: According to Aarseth, ergodic literature requires more from a reader/ user than just interpreting what he reads in order to understand a text’s meaning. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html From the vantage point of the current changes in information technology, Barthes's distinction between readerly and writerly texts appears to be essentially a distinction between text based on print technology and electronic hypertext, for hypertext fulfills the goal of literary work (of literature as work) [which] is to make the reader no longer a consumer, but a producer of the text. Marshall McLuhan;  The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man  1962;  http://books.google.de/books/about/The_Gutenberg_Galaxy.html?id=y4C644zHCWgC&redir_esc=y He can’t be bothered with details like that.” Marshall McLuhan introduces his idea of “mosaic” in the very first lines of Gutenberg Galaxy; he places it before his prologue to warn his readers that the book they are about to read is somehow “different” and that the difference is not only in what is discussed but also in how that is done: “The Gutenberg Galaxy develops a mosaic or field approach to its problems. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Looked at within this context, Claude Lévi-Strauss's explanations of preliterate thought in The Savage Mind and in his treatises on mythology appear in part as attempts to de-center the culture of the book -- to show the confinements of our literate culture by getting outside of it, however tenuously and however briefly. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf Rather, an assemblage establishes connections between certain multiplicities drawn from each of these orders, so that a book has no sequel nor the world as its object nor one or several authors as its subject. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Electronic literature tests the boundaries of the literary and challenges us to re-think our assumptions of what literature can do and be. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm If there is something in literature which does not allow itself to be reduced to the voice, to epos or to poetry, one cannot recapture it except by rigorously isolating the bond that links the play of form to the substance of graphic expression. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Initially the most striking feature of the book is the presentation. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html In this sense electronic literature is a "hopeful monster" (as geneticists call adaptive mutations) composed of parts taken from diverse traditions that may not always fit neatly together. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt A literary tradition must precede an author's inscriptions for literature to be possible as such, yet this same appropriation and re-working of an existing tradition is said to produce "original" work. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms For example, the book pages were bound in a particular way that fixed the order of pages. Jörg Heiser;  Sight Reading  2009;  https://www.frieze.com/issue/article/sight_reading/ His small book on René Magritte, This is Not a Pipe (1973), dissects the paradox of Magritte’s series of paintings ‘La Trahison des images’ (The Treachery of Images, 1928–9). George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Conversely, any work of literature -- which for the sake of argument and economy I shall here confine in a most arbitrary way to mean "high" literature of the sort we read and teach in universities -- offers an instance of implicit hypertext in nonelectronic form. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html At the same time, because electronic literature is normally created and performed within a context of networked and programmable media, it is also informed by the powerhouses of contemporary culture, particularly computer games, films, animations, digital arts, graphic design, and electronic visual culture. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Bolter, eager to proclaim the end of “the printed book,” plays along with the metaphysics of logocentrism and reduces print on paper to barely a corner of itsmultiform nature: “A printed book generally speaks with a single voice and assumes a consistent character, a persona, before its audience.” For “the electronic text,” however, this no longer applies, because “it is not a physical artifact.” To go against Bolter’s rhetoric, I would say that instead of having two sets of opposed attributes, one connected to the “printed” and one to the “electronic” text, we have a number of different text types, some paper based and some digital, with the greater variety among the digital ones, and the paper based most centrally placed. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Nevertheless, as conceptual art pushing the boundary of what literature can be, this kind of coterie electronic literature has an impact beyond the technology's limitations. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf The book as assemblage with the outside, against the book as image of the world. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Writing on New Media poetics, Adalaide Morris aptly discusses this aspect of digital literature by commenting that it articulates for us what we already in some sense know. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Moreover, print texts can engage in reflexive play at least as complex as anything in Patchwork Girl, as Michael Snow's wonderful artist book Cover to Cover playfully demonstrates. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Rather than circumscribe electronic literature within print assumptions, Aarseth swept the board clean by positing a new category of "ergodic literature," texts in which "nontrivial effort is required to allow the reader to traverse the text" (1). Lev Manovich;  REMIXABILITY  2005;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CC4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2FRemix_modular.doc&ei=2zqzUdX4Gcem4AT6lYHAAQ&usg=AFQjCNHlaRFP8sddB6-_oH4XEmra5A8NlQ&sig2=FAwD4HxylAODfMkX2J-4ig&bvm=bv.47534661,d.bGE&cad=rja According to the book DJ Culture by Ulf Poscardt, first disco remixes were made in 1972 by DJ Tom Moulton. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading But there are texts which can be “consumed” in this way, as is obvious from the mounds of light literature that flow regularly into the pulping machines. Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl Cage also uses the Chinese I Ching, the Book of Changes, as a compositional algorithm for a number of his works, among them Music of Changes and Roaratorio.For these purposes, he later used a computer software adaption of the called IC, written in C for DOS by Andrew Culver.Cage replaces the cosmologicalmathematical order of Pythagorean Western music with a metaphysical anarchism. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Imagine a book in which some of the pages appear to be missing, or the print is unreadable every 16 pages, or some of the pages are repeated while an equal number omitted. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Working from this assumption, the proposal envisions a set of practices and tools that will enable older electronic literature to be migrated to XML for preservation, facilitate XML compliant authoring, insure the inclusion of appropriate metadata to allow works properly to be identified and archived, develop tools for the easy reading, annotating, and teaching of electronic literature, and provide authors with applications for creating electronic literature in X-Lit formats. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf The second Book of Moses, chapter 20, contains a copy of what Jahwe's own finger originally had written on two stone tablets: the law. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf In the early twentieth century, Paul Valery thought that one might be able to write "a history of the mind as it produces or consumes literature ... without ever uttering the name of a writer." WALTER BENJAMIN;  THE AUTHOR AS PRODUCER  1970;  http://newleftreview.org/I/62/walter-benjamin-the-author-as-producer The World is Beautiful—that is the title of a famous book of photographs by Renger-Patsch, in which we see the photography of the ‘new objectivity’ at its height. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf The war machine's relation to an outside is not another "model"; it is an assemblage that makes thought itself nomadic, and the book a working part in every mobile machine, a stem for a rhizome (Kleist and Kafka against Goethe). N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Located within the humanities by tradition and academic practice, electronic literature also has close affinities with the digital arts, computer games, and other forms associated with networked and programmable media. WALTER BENJAMIN;  THE AUTHOR AS PRODUCER  1970;  http://newleftreview.org/I/62/walter-benjamin-the-author-as-producer But this phenomenon hides a dialectical moment: the fall of literature in the bourgeois press reveals the formula for its resuscitation in the Soviet Russian press, because the realm of literature gains in width what it loses in depth. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf His Agrippa: A Book of the Dead (1992) displays its script at a fixed scrolling pace on the screen and then encrypts it by a technique cryptically known as RSA, rendering it effectively unreadable after that one projection. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Hypertext fiction, network fiction, interactive fiction, locative narratives, installation pieces, "codework," generative art and the Flash poem are by no means an exhaustive inventory of the forms of electronic literature, but they are sufficient to illustrate the diversity of the field, the complex relations that emerge between print and electronic literature, and the wide spectrum of aesthetic strategies that digital literature employs. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf Regarding the arrangement of text segments by the author, two types can be distinguished: Segments can either be put together in succession in a book and highlighted only as loosely associated elements by cuts, numbers, chapter headings or various other paratextual elements or, alternatively, they can be printed on loose leaves such as untacked sheets of paper, cards or lots. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Major genres in the canon of electronic literature emerge not only from different ways in which the user experiences them but also from the structure and specificity of the underlying code. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history But nonlinear writing resurfaced in the literature of the 20th century, when it seemed that the modern experience could not be recorded in the linear way. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html If ergodic literature is to make sense as a concept, there must also be nonergodic literature, where the effort to traverse the text is trivial, with no extranoematic responsibilities placed on the reader except (for example) eye movement and the periodic or arbitrary turning of pages. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf (Cited in Motte 1998: 27)5 The Oulipian activities play a key role in the history of ergodic or net literature, if we regard it as pre-history of literature in computer-based media. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Part of that initiative is realized in the Electronic Literature Collection Volume 1, co-edited by me and Nick Montfort, Scott Rettberg, and Stephanie Strickland. Vilém Flusser;  What Is Communication?  1973–74;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ (For instance, a cloud can be explained by pointing to its causes, and a book can be interpreted by pointing to its meaning.) According to this scheme, communications theory is considered to be an interpretive discipline: it is concerned with meanings. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Is electronic literature really literature at all? Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Without doubt, the most prominent and popular nonlinear textin history must be the famous Chinese work of oracular wisdom, I Ching or Book of Changes, one of the great classics of antiquity, which was used for thousands of years for meditation and as an oracle. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Making a different analytical cut through textual groupings that included computer games, print literature and electronic hypertexts, among others, Aarseth established a grid comprised of eight different operators, many of which have purchase mostly with electronic texts rather than print. Michael Goddard;  Felix and Alice in Wonderland. The Encounter between Guattari and Berardi and the Post-Media Era  2006;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpbifo1.htm The first striking element of this book is its title, Felix not Guattari, thereby indicating that this is an intimate portrait, not an abstract account of a body of thought. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The codex and the printed book both allow the writer to suggest many paths through the same work. Roland Barthes;  From Work to Text - 1  1971;  http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/From%20Work%20to%20Text.pdf In particular, the tendency must be avoided to say that the work is classic, the text avant-garde; it is not a question of drawing up a crude honours list in the name of modernity and declaring certain literary productions 'in' and others 'out' by virtue of their chronological situation: there may be 'text' in a very ancient work, while many products of contemporary literature are in no way texts. Michael Goddard;  Felix and Alice in Wonderland. The Encounter between Guattari and Berardi and the Post-Media Era  2006;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpbifo1.htm The map doesn’t represent these developments but is rather a co-existing rhythm, an operation, a style, which he seeks in this book to reconstruct and so to “make the harmonies, refrains and dissonances of the contemporary planetary rhapsody resonate beginning with this map.” At this point, Berardi poses a crucial problem affecting rhizomatic thought and one of its major critiques; he states that the “Felix Machine” attaches itself to the point of maximum openness of the provisory and nomadic community but doesn’t accompany its dissolution. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf It is quite evident that literature has not only been confronted with the challenge of interactivity since modern computers were invented, but also that a “permanent mutability” of signifiers is a fundamental feature of all creative processes, which do not aim at permanent storage of strings. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf The behavior of some kinds of nonlinear texts can certainly be described in terms of unpredictability, self-organization, and turbulence, but for the definition and basic understanding of nonlinear literature we need not look that far. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html As he and others have argued, notably Matthew Kirschenbaum, John Cayley, and Matthew Fuller, code must be considered as much a part of the "text" of electronic literature as the screenic surface. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Writing as mode and book as medium have shaped western imagination, forms of knowledge, practices of reading; the technology of writing has shaped the book, and the technology of the book has shaped how writing has developed. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles In large part, Hayles’ Electronic Literature lays out the details implicit in this address. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html A later system, the commercial dialogue program Racter, created by William Chamberlain (1984), is even supposed to have written a book, The Policeman's Beard Is Half Constructed, but as it turns out, the book was co-written (at least) by Chamberlain (see Barger 1993 and chapter 6, below). Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf In Tristram Shandy (1760–7), Laurence Sterne uses typographic space with calculated whimsy, including in his book blank pages, to indicate his unwillingness to treat a subject and to invite the reader to fill in. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html The cutting words and images together in 'The World' functions in the same way as The Book of Breeething, namely to extend writing beyond verbal or alphabetic methods of communication. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Having studied classical literature as an undergraduate as Brandeis University, Acker possessed a knowledge of canonical literary texts, and was therefore 'qualified' in academic terms to rebel and experiment. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html In interviews, she was always wholly open about her drawing from classical literature and 'classics,' even going to far as to suggest that appropriation and the (instinctive) use of other texts is vital for the evolution of literature: If a work is immediate enough, alive enough, the proper response isn't to be academic, to write about it, but to use it, to go on. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Such an exegesis shows that the meaning of the text is not authoritative; instead, it is the reading given to the text that endows the Book of Ecclesiastes with authority. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm It showed bow to reach the literary element, to what in literature passes through an irreducibly graphic text, tying the play of form to a determined substance of expression. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Realizing this broader possibility requires that we understand electronic literature not only as an artistic practice (though it is that, of course), but also as a site for negotiations between diverse constituencies and different kinds of expertise. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf “Obviously the possibilities of the book as format are being strained to the limit,” comments William Paulson, who goes on to propose Poèmes as “an ideal candidate for a computerized version.” Contrary to Paulson, I suggest that the fact that it is a book is just as significant; and if it seems easy to implement as a computer program, that is because of the simple and unstrained elegance of its idea. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles This fact should not be confused with a prediction of the demise of print culture, as it is inarguable that electronic literature is a descendant of the bound text and has adopted much from its printed predecessor. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt The more abstract the work became, the further removed it was from the commodification inherent in book sales, and consequently the more exalted the cultural status that could be claimed for it. Marshall McLuhan;  The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man  1962;  http://books.google.de/books/about/The_Gutenberg_Galaxy.html?id=y4C644zHCWgC&redir_esc=y In chapters xv–xxiii of the third book of the De oratore, he offers a history of philosophy from the beginning to his own time, trying to explain how it came about that the professional philosophers had made a breach between eloquence and wisdom, between practical knowledge and knowledge which these men professed to follow for its own sake. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf How could the law of the book reside in nature, when it is what presides over the very division between world and book, nature and art?

CHAPTER
THREE

N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html Rossetti Hypermedia Archive demonstrate. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 Here, the archive is similar to analog vinyl records losing their fidelity and being slightly deteriorated every time the needle passes through the groove. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Here the archive becomes the field of knowledge to be accessed; it is the archeological ground to be explored by sophisticated researchers and lay-people alike. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 In “Le Catalogue,” the mastermind behind x-arnDOTorg has created a database of documentary images (an archive) of art projects between 1990-1996 that’s available for public access. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Eine relationale Datenbank könnte, anders als ein Karteikasten, eine Vielzahl gleichrangiger Sortierungen enthalten; darüber hinaus wäre eine Anzahl von Unterdateien denkbar, die, durch komplizierte Querverbindungen miteinander verwoben, ein verzweigtes Netz von Informationen bilden, eine 'Architektur', die an die drei Dimensionen des physikalischen Raumes nicht mehr gebunden ist. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html The editors of the archive are meticulous in insisting that even small differences in materiality potentially affect meaning, so they have gone to a great deal of trouble to compile not only different works but extant copies of the same work. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The Regenerative Remix privileges the ever-present—at the same time, it knows it needs history for legitimation, and the archive can be called upon to suffice as proof of its reliability. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 But, as previously noted, the archive also functions in market value as the resource’s importance grows as its database grows; when reconfigured properly, it can provide revenue when people use a search engine to buy items online. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html The Web promises to allow these dual imperatives to be more successfully integrated than ever before, as the William Blake Archive and McGann's work on the D. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html It is no exaggeration to say that theWilliam Blake Archive establishes the gold standard for literary Web sites. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Yet, even when its archive may be accessible, it does not mean that people will necessarily ever use it directly; most people will stick to the most immediate material, placed on the front pages of any online resource, because the Regenerative Remix encourages the now: the present—for the sake of practicality and functionality. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The database becomes a delivery device of authority in potentia: when needed, call upon it to verify the reliability of accessed material; but until that time, all that is needed is to know that such archive exists. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf A new media object can be defined as one or more interfaces to a multimedia database (see introduction to “Interface” chapter and “Database” section for more discussion of this principle). N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html Thus he is more interested (at least theoretically) in what deformations of Rossetti's images in Photoshop reveal about their composition than in the accomplishments of the William Blake Archive in simulating the color tones and sizes of the paper documents. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf For the libraries, in which the archeologist found so much rich material, collected and catalogued papers that in terms of addressee, distribution technique, degree of secrecy and writing technique had been extremely diverse -- Foucault's archive as the entropy of a post office.[5] Even writing itself, before it ends up in libraries, is a communication medium, the technology of which the archeologist simply forgot. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf At first, we may think that this is simply a particular technological implementation of variability principle, but, as I will show in “Database” section, in a computer age database comes to function as a cultural form of its own. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 This particular type of mashup goes deep into the database to access dynamic data. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html The database is in principle similar to the filing cabinet but with a level of automation and speed that made radically different textual practices possible. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Jerome McGann, whose work on the Rossetti Archive and contributions to Institute of Advanced Technology in the Humanities (IATH) at the University of Virginia have made him a leading figure in the field, turns this perspective on its head in Radiant Textuality: Literature after the World Wide Web by arguing that print texts also use markup language, for example, paragraphing, italics, indentation, line breaks and so forth. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 This is quite a challenge because as this text demonstrates, the Regenerative Remix is primarily designed for practicality, for the sake of immediate services; and the archive is designed to come to the front at the very moment that a query is made. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 History is here dependent on linear traces that expose the instability of interpretation; much like tree rings, traces are left behind, marking time, leaving us with an allegorical database presenting destruction (death) as an inevitable part of life.

CHAPTER
FOUR

EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 In fact, the Regenerative Remix primarily exists because the market finds it useful. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Technically, a sample is defined as “a measurement made at a particular instant in space and time, according to a specified procedure.” The frequency of sampling is referred to as resolution. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 It is one of the most important sampling experiments, along with Marrs’s “Pump Up The Volume” which can be considered an early mashup still relying on the concept of a uniting groove as first experimented on the turntables by Grandmaster Flash. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Here they fall back on the distinction between structure and organization they had previously used in Autopoiesis and Cognition: "Organimtion denotes those relations that must exist among the components of a system for it to be a member of a specific dass. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf As DJ Mark the 45 King says: "I'm not stealing all their music, I'm using your drum track, I'm using this little 'bip' from him, I'm using your bassline that you don't even like no fucking more." When the crossfader of the mixing board is set in the middle, two samples are played simultaneously: Pierre Huyghe presents an interview with John Giorno and a film by Andy Warhol side by side. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 This contention, as will be noted in one of the following sections, is what keeps the term remix culture relevant, which was largely made popular by Lawrence Lessig to support the production and distribution of derivative works, while doing justice to intellectual property. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 This conceptual model has been extended to web application mashups, in which the Regenerative Remix is fully at play, as will become evident shortly. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The Reflexive Mashup then is the most basic form of a Regenerative Remix in terms of software. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 The activity of the hip hop DJs evolved into sampling bits of music; they eventually evolved from being live performers to music studio producers, which means that based on the principles of sampling, they were cutting/copying and pasting pre-recorded material to create their own music compositions. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles The narrative and structure is broken into five separate segments for readers to explore, and it brings up feminist concerns, theoretical discussions about authorship, and other issues as readers navigate through the text. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 But the Extended Remix is not found in popular culture before the 70s. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf There are many scales of change in a text’s metamorphosis: unintentional (the blunders of a typesetter or projectionist in the dark), usurpatory (a re-mix of samples from a musical recording, a hacked version of a computer game), plagiary (one composer’s unacknowledged variations on a theme of another), and subversive or estranging (the “cut up” textual experiments of William Burroughs and John Cage), to suggest a few. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf An algorithm specifies the sequence of steps to be performed on any data, just as a hypermedia structure specifies a set of navigation paths (for example, connections between the nodes) which potentially can be applied to any set of media objects. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 This essay will focus on defining remix in relation to these two terms, and then move on to examine its role in media and art. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm However, it is pointless to pursue this topic, because what is at stake is not the “simplicity” of phrase structure grammars but rather of transformational grammars with a phrase structure component that plays a role in generating deep structures. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 The concept of Remix often referenced in popular culture derives from the model of music remixes which were produced around the late 1960s and early 1970s in New York City, with roots in Jamaica’s music. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf Such is indeed the principle of roots-trees, or their outcome: the radicle solution, the structure of Power.14 To these centered systems, the authors contrast acentered systems, finite networks of automata in which communication runs from any neigh- bor to any other, the stems or channels do not preexist, and all individuals are interchangeable, defined only by their state at a given moment-such that the local operations are coordinated and the final, global result syn- chronized without a central agency. EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 (Let us extend the term “text” here to the visual arts and media at large.) This is the reason why citations are so necessary in academic writing, and certainly is something that is closely monitored in other areas of culture, like the music industry, where sampling is carefully controlled by way of copyright law. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 I define it as a Regenerative Remix: a recombination of content and form that opens the space for Remix to become a specific discourse intimately linked with new media culture. EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 This particular dynamic is actually an extension of sampling, which started during the early days of modernism with photography and music. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm It has perhaps thus better prepared itself to study the purely graphic stratum within the structure of the literary text within the history of the becoming-literary of literality, notably in its “modernity.” Undoubtedly a new domain is thus opened to new and fecund researches. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The principle of periodic change, of constant updates (for example Google news are regularly updated) found in the Regenerative Remix makes it the most recent and important form that enables Remix as discourse to move across all media, and to eventually become an aesthetic that can be referenced as a tendency. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The Regenerative Remix can only take place when constant change is implemented as an elemental part of communication, while also creating archives. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf He reorganizes human words, fragments of speech, and written traces of conversations, in a sort of intimate sampling, a domestic ecology. Christian Kerslake;  The Vertigo of Philosophy:Deleuze and the Problem of Immanence  2002;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze8.htm To proceed it is necessary to bring out the general teleological structure of cognition present in Kant’s work right from the first edition Critique. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 While the Regressive Mashup can be commonly understood as a remix in terms of its initial stages in music, the Reflexive Mashup is different. Christian Kerslake;  The Vertigo of Philosophy:Deleuze and the Problem of Immanence  2002;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze8.htm For Deleuze, the presentation of absolute difference is ‘an immediate and adequate expression of an absolute Being that comprises in it all beings.’ To cite a phrase Deleuze uses elsewhere, it involves a ‘static genesis’ of the structure of the absolute. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 I will first briefly define mashups and Remix to then examine mashups’ history in music, then briefly consider them in other media, and subsequently examine in detail their usage in web applications. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The validation of the Reflexive Mashup found in web applications does not acquire its cultural authority in popular recognition of pre-existing sources, but instead it is validated based on how well those sources are sampled in order to develop more efficient applications for online activity. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja Electronic music theory brings to the table analysis of mixing, sampling, and synthesis; academic literary theory can also make a contribution, with its theorizations of intertext, paratext, and hyperlinking; the scholars of visual culture can contribute their understanding of montage, collage and appropriation. James J. Pulizzi;  Machine Intelligence and Electronic Literature  http://newhorizons.eliterature.org/essay.php@id=9.html Neuroscience studies the physical and chemical structure of the brain. Katherine Hayles;  The Power of Simulation: What Virtual Creatures Can Teach Us  1999;  http://www.stanford.edu/class/history34q/readings/Hayles/Simulation.html It is no accident that in this scenario a feedback loop appears whose recursive structure resembles the recursive structures of the programs generating Sims's virtual creatures. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf A sampler, a machine that reprocesses musical products, also implies constant activity; to listen to records becomes work in itself, which diminishes the dividing line between reception and practice, producing new cartographies of knowledge. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Here we see how the act of sampling, a key element in actual remixing, is used for different interests beyond Remix’s foundation in music. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 Representation, then, is repeated in a perfect loop—the result is a constant remix of repetition by representation. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Indeed, a film samples continuos time of human existence into discrete frames; a drawing samples visible reality into discrete lines; and a printed photograph samples it into discrete dots. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The Regenerative Remix then is defined in opposition to the allegorical impulse, and in this sense, is the element that, while it liberates the forms that are cited from their original context, opens itself up for ahistoricity, and misinterpretations. Jean Baudrillard;  CONTEMPORARY ART: ART CONTEMPORARY WITH ITSELF  2005;  http://www.egs.edu/faculty/jean-baudrillard/articles/contemporary-art-art-contemporary-with-itself/ Modernity was the golden age of a deconstruction of reality into its simple elements, of a detailed analytics, first of impressionism, then of abstraction, experimentally open to all the aspects of perception, of sensibility, of the structure of the object and the dismemberment of forms. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The music mashups at the beginning of the twenty-first century follow the principle of the eighties megamix, and unlike the Selective or Extended Remixes, they do not remix one particular composition but at least two or more sources. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history In early ancient works of fiction and nonfiction, the dominant structure was usually the line. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 This is not to promote some sort of conspiracy theory for the new economy, simply to note the significant formal similarities between the structure of software as a media technology and the structure of ideology – with the commodity as a waypoint between the two (the commodity and ideology in Debord, or Jean- Joseph Goux, or Roland Barthes, we should remember, are nearly synonymous). Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf After considering some fundamental problems with the concept of textuality, I shall propose a typology of nonlinear texts based on principles extracted from various samples, and then I shall outline the main forms of nonlinearity. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 These examples demonstrate that, a remix will always rely on the authority of the original composition, whether in forms of actual samples, or in form of reference (citation). EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The regressive mashup as an aesthetic depends on the recorded signs that are not mixed but transparently juxtaposed: they are recorded to be repeated, accessed, or looked at perfectly over and over again, while the Reflexive Mashup in Web 2,0 no longer relies on sampling but instead on constant updating, making incidental not only the allegorical reference that validates the Regressive Mashup, but also pushing forward with a constant state of action toward reflection on what is being produced each time the mashup is accessed. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Leaving aside the hand-waving explanations of structure and organization, that something is basically the integrity of a selfcontained, self-perpetuating system that is operationally closed to its environment. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See This is the kind of structure that Luhmann prefers, for he believes it fosters diversity and minimizes coercion. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 For example, the purpose of a typical Web 2,0 mashup is not to allegorize particular applications, but rather, by selectively sampling in dynamic fashion, to subvert applications to perform something they could not do otherwise by themselves. EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 Remix’s dependency on sampling questioned the role of the individual as genius and sole creator, who would “express himself.” Sampling, then, allows for the death of the author; therefore, it is no coincidence that around the time when remixes began to be produced, during the sixties and seventies, authorship—as discourse—was entertained by Roland Barthes and Michel Foucault, respectively. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf First, it represents a collective form, a disordered, proliferating and endlessly renewed conglomeration that does not depend on the command of a single author: a market is not designed, it is a unitary structure composed of multiple individual signs. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf The user-character will be allowed some leeway, but by use of Playwright, an expert system with knowledge of dramatic structure (perhaps not totally unlike an intelligent version of Afternoon’s anti-narrator), the situations and actions would be carefully orchestrated to fit its model of appropriate drama. Lev Manovich;  REMIXABILITY  2005;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CC4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2FRemix_modular.doc&ei=2zqzUdX4Gcem4AT6lYHAAQ&usg=AFQjCNHlaRFP8sddB6-_oH4XEmra5A8NlQ&sig2=FAwD4HxylAODfMkX2J-4ig&bvm=bv.47534661,d.bGE&cad=rja At least, they can already keep track of all the possible samples we can pick from all cultural objects available today. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 But to move further with this argument Remix must be defined in direct relation with modernism and postmodernism, because it is at the crux of these two concepts that Remix was first practiced popularly as an activity with a proper name. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm As to the second point, it is simply untrue that all measures of complexity and speed of computation lead to phrase structure rules as the “simplest possible algorithm.” The only existing results that are even indirectly relevant show that context-free phrase structure grammars (a reasonable model for rules generating deep structures, when we exclude the lexical items and the distributional conditions they meet) receive an automata-theoretic interpretation as non-deterministic push-down storage automata, but the latter is hardly a “natural” notion from the point of view of “simplicity of algorithms” and so forth. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 In this case, principles of sampling (cut/copy & paste) are at play for practical reasons. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history In a medieval codex the spatial structure is the pattern of rubrication and various sizes of letters; in a printed book it is the arrangement into paragraphed pages; in the computer it is the pattern of textual windows and images on the screen. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Numerical coding of media (principle 1) and modular structure of a media object (principle 2) allow to automate many operations involved in media creation, manipulation and access. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The remix is always allegorical following the postmodern theories of Craig Owens, who argues that in postmodernism a deconstruction—a transparent awareness of the history and politics behind the object of art—is always made present as a “preoccupation with reading.” The object of contemplation, in our case Remix (as discourse), depends on recognition (reading) of a pre-existing text (or cultural code). EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 They are cited to note how principles of Remix have become ubiquitous in media, so that we may begin to understand the influence of Remix as discourse. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja In contrast to earlier examples of such practice – for instance the 1980s Star Track fans editing their own video tapes by sampling from various Star Track episodes or writing short stories involving main Star Track characters – now it came into the central place, being legitimized and encouraged by game producers. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm In general, the problem of extending concepts of linguistic structure to other cognitive systems seems to me, for the moment, in not too promising a state, although it is no doubt too early for pessimism. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html First is Alexander Galloway and Eugene Thacker's The Exploit, a work that builds on Gilles Deleuze's notion of the control society and Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri's Empire and Multitude to argue that the materiality, rhetorical force, and structure of the network provide the basis for new kinds of political power and oppression while also opening possibilities for new modes of theoretical analysis and political resistance. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 It is an extension of the copy/cut & paste aesthetic of sampling that moved on to new media with the popularization of computers. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf A genetic axis is like an objective pivotal unity upon which successive stages are organized; a deep structure is more like a base sequence that can be broken down into immediate constituents, while the unity of the product passes into another, transformational and subjective, dimension. Vilém Flusser;  Waiting for Kafka  1967;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ In part, Prague German takes up this structure without ever being able to assimilate it. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The Regenerative Remix consists of juxtaposing two or more elements that are constantly updated, meaning that they are designed to change according to data flow. Vilém Flusser;  On the Theory of Communication  1986–87;  http://www.flusserstudies.net/ A different view is offered if we consider the structure of codes logically. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm Therefore, instead of speculating on the likely course of research into the problems that are coming into focus today, I will concentrate here on some of the issues that arise when we try to develop the study of linguistic structure as a chapter of human psychology. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf This quantification of samples is the crucial step accomplished by digitization. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Whether at the periphery or at the center of culture, it follows that Remix is not only allegorical, but is also dependent on history to be effective. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja The introduction of electronic editing equipment such as switcher, keyer, paintbox, and image store made remixing and sampling a common practice in video production towards the end of the decade; first pioneered in music videos, it later took over the whole visual culture of TV. James J. Pulizzi;  Machine Intelligence and Electronic Literature  http://newhorizons.eliterature.org/essay.php@id=9.html Such a structure would result in a constrained narrative, more akin to the set print of a book than what one would expect from a dynamic device like a computer. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading Textual structure and structured act are related in much the same way as intention and fulfilment, though in the concept of the implied reader they are joined together in the dynamic process we have described. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Whatever recuperations the authors attempt through their title, the tree Darwin used to image descent has a branching structure that remains at odds with the circularity of autopoiesis. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 This type of remix made DJs popular producers in the music mainstream during the 1980’s. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html This essential drifting, due to writing as an iterative structure cut off from all absolute responsibility, from consciousness as the authority of the last analysis, writing orphaned, and separated at birth from the assistance of its father, is indeed what Plato condemned in the Phaedrus. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja It seems to me that the models of remixing, sampling and appropriation conceptually are much richer than the Open Source idea. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Recursive looping as a structure of translatability reveals that the liminal space between the foreign and the familiar, between input and output, between the structural coupling of systems, and between the levels of autonomous systems, cannot be eliminated, although recursivity is powered by the drive to eliminate it. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 In every sense of the word, x-arn’s “Le Catalogue” is a remix of repetition via representation and is in essence a constant loop: the image that is accessed by the individual for viewing will never be repeated, because next time the image will appear with two more lines and therefore be different. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading This is the point where the textual structure of his role begins to affect the reader. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 And codes of a second level remix on Duchamp can be found in Fountain (after Marcel Duchamp) by Sherrie Levine who, in 1991, questioned Duchamp’s privileged position as a man and his urinal as art, leaving intact Duchamp’s aura as an artist but not the Urinal’s spectacular aura as a mass produced object. Lev Manovich;  REMIXABILITY  2005;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CC4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2FRemix_modular.doc&ei=2zqzUdX4Gcem4AT6lYHAAQ&usg=AFQjCNHlaRFP8sddB6-_oH4XEmra5A8NlQ&sig2=FAwD4HxylAODfMkX2J-4ig&bvm=bv.47534661,d.bGE&cad=rja (Mods “can include new items, weapons, characters, enemies, models, modes, textures, levels, and story lines.”) And of course, from the verry beginning of mass culture in early twentieth century, artists have immediately starting sampling and remixing mass cultural products – think of Kurt Schwitters, collage and particularly photomontage practice which becomes popular right after WWI among artists in Russia and Germany. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The Grey Album goes further because it exposed the tensions of copyright and sampling with emerging technologies: Danger Mouse deliberately used the Internet for distribution and he was pushed by EMI (the copyright holders of the Beatles’ White Album) to take the Grey Album off line. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 This is why commercial production relies on remix principles to reintroduce their products in culture with “retro” flair. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Even earlier, in the 1880s, first television systems already involved standardization of sampling both in time and in space. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Die Sprache erscheint als eine gesellschaftliche Maschinerie, die die linearen Syntagmen im Außenraum mit der nicht-linearen Struktur der empirischen Gedächtnisse in eine regelhafte Verbindung bringt. Jacques Derrida;  Speech and writing according to Hegel  1993;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida1.htm The sign would then be a moment or an essential structure of the Idea's return to self-presence, returning to itself in Mind. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf It is our view that genetic axis and profound structure are above all infinitely reproducible principles of tracing. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf In accordance with the concept of textuality developed in the previous section, a more logical name might seem to be scripton, but this term posits that the textual unit belongs to the reading process rather than that it inheres in the textual structure as a strategic potential. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Like software mashups, Remix as discourse, then, offers a double face: it can be regressive or reflexive, depending on how the technology is used. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 The first remix is extended, that is a longer version of the original song containing long instrumental sections making it more mixable for the club DJ. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading The concept of the implied reader is therefore a textual structure anticipating the presence of a recipient without necessarily defining him: this concept prestructures the role to be assumed by each recipient, and this holds true even when texts deliberately appear to ignore their possible recipient or actively exclude him. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm My own estimate of the situation is that the real problem for tomorrow is that of discovering an assumption regarding innate structure that is sufficiently rich, not that of finding one that is simple or elementary enough to be “plausible.” There is, as far as I can see, no reasonable notion of “plausibility,” no a priori insight into what innate structures are permissible, that can guide the search for a “sufficiently elementary assumption.” It would be mere dogmatism to maintain without argument or evidence that the mind is simpler in its innate structure than other biological systems, just as it would be mere dogmatism to insist that the mind’s organisation must necessarily follow certain set principles, determined in advance of investigation and maintained in defiance of any empirical findings. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 New Media, depends on sampling, (cut/copy and paste), an activity that shares the same principles of appropriation that DJ producers performed. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html In S/Z , Roland Barthes describes an ideal textuality that precisely matches that which has come to be called computer hypertext -- text composed of blocks of words (or images) linked electronically by multiple paths, chains, or trails in an open-ended, perpetually unfinished textuality described by the terms link, node, network, web , and path: "In this ideal text," says Barthes, the networks [réseaux ] are many and interact, without any one of them being able to surpass the rest; this text is a galaxy of signifiers, not a structure of signifieds; it has no beginning; it is reversible; we gain access to it by several entrances, none of which can be authoritatively declared to be the main one; the codes it mobilizes extend as far as the eye can reach, they are indeterminable. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 The principle of transcoding, which I am adopting from Manovich, states that new media objects may be converted digitally from one data structure to another, but further that there are entire media formats based entirely on such conver- sions and nothing more.

CHAPTER
FIVE

Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ The linear are becoming more and more abstract, and are losing all meaning. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf I do not for a moment believe that my constructed binarism of the nonlinear text and the linear text or any of the other perspectives in this essay are any more free of a metaphysics than any previous textual theory, but I hope they are better suited to identifying some of the relevant issues of textual communication. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Passages such as this, in the form of 'fake' letters from a 'real' not only blur the boundaries of reality and fiction, but serve to expose the artifice of the format and linearity of 'the novel.' Ultimately, Acker raises more questions than answers, but succeeds in provoking thought concerning the point at which the author and reader engage, and the idea that the authorial voice is only as 'real' as the characters portrayed. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Freeman and Skarda's data on the olfactory perception of rabbits are akin to Maturana's results, in that the data indicate the rabbit's responses are transformative and highly nonlinear, influenced not only by the experience at hand but also by previous experiences the animal has had, his emotional state at the moment, and a host of other factors. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See The dilemma reveals the tension between the conservative circularity of autopoiesis and the linear thrust of evolution. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html An dieser Stelle besteht die Gefahr, daß hinter dem Modell das Ausgangsproblem verschwindet, und in der Rede von Linearität, Simultanität, Aktualisierung und Bahnung die konkrete 'lebendige' Sprache nicht mehr wiederzuerkennen ist. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ For the elite, the problem is that the more objective and clearer the linear fiction becomes, the more it is impoverished, because it tends to lose contact with the facts it wants to represent (all meaning). George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Derrida, more than any other major theorist, understands that electronic computing and other changes in media have eroded the power of the linear model and the book as related culturally dominant paradigms. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf A further classification of the figures of nonlinearity, such as distinguishing between different types of forks, links, random functions, polygenetic modes, and so on, will not be undertaken here. Lev Manovich;  DEEP REMIXABILITY  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=61 Film and video editing systems and the computer simulations of them that came to be known as non-linear editors (today exemplified by Avid and Final Cut ) have conceptualized a media project as a sequence of shots organized in time. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf The weakness of this simplified model is that some nonlinear texts, such as those that are both static and indeterminate, fall between the generalized categories. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ (One is better able to hunt the pony if one has previously made a picture of it for oneself.) For the following reasons, the inventors of linear writing believed that the hunt still did not go well enough: The vision one gains when stepping back from an object is fleeting, and it has to be fixed in a memory to serve as a model for future acting. Wolfgang Iser;  THE RANGE OF INTERPRETATION  2000;  http://books.google.de/books/about/The_range_of_interpretation.html?id=9IPLzzYy2hAC&redir_esc=y Instead, it is nonlinear insofar as these modes of interpretation are responses to the ever-increasing open-endedness of the world, thus focusing on what appears to be pressing in the situation of the moment. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Und verblüffend direkt ergibt sich eine dritte Folgerung für das oben gestellte Problem, wie die linearen Texte zum sprachlichen System sich verhalten. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html This is very different from the ambiguities of a linear text. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Although the output of these generators are linear stories or poems, the systems themselves are clearly ergodic textual machines, with unlimited possibility for variation. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Since the paradigms and practice of literary theory cannot remain unaffected by its encounter with nonlinear literature, except by pretending it never happened, I both discuss new applications of literary theory and suggest some possible new departures. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Since we now regard labyrinthine and linear as incompatible terms, and since the labyrinth no longer denotes linear progress and teleology but only their opposites, its status as a model of narrative text has become inapt for most narratives. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Since literary theorists are trained to uncover literary ambivalence in texts with linear expression, they evidently mistook texts with variable expression for texts with ambiguous meaning. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf The Corruption of the Critic How can literary theory attack the textualities of nonlinearity? Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ (Denotative images, encoded to allow just one reading, become possible only after the invention of linear writing.) If images can be interpreted differently by each receiver, they are not reliable models. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html So, if I'm going to do anything that has any relation to my own life, which it has to, I'm not going to write in terms of linear time. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Konkret wird nun hervorgehoben, daß die Linearität als ein Mechanismus der Ausschließung, ja, der Verdrängung verstanden werden muß. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Vor allem Flusser nämlich hatte betont, daß die lineare Schrift als eine mediengeschichtliche Errungenschaft gegen ein historisch vorgängiges System sich hat durchsetzen müssen, und zwar das System der vortechnischen Bilder. Vilém Flusser;  The Future of Writing  1983–84;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Therefore, during history, imagination was the source of reason: the stronger the imagination, the greater the challenge of critical reason, and rich images permit more powerful linear explanations. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Und die Sprache als System ist zweifellos nicht linear. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Nonlinear texts and literary theories may have a lot to say to each other, but we should not let only one side do all the talking. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html The linearity of print also provides the passage with an illusory center whose force is intensified by such selection." Die Linearität der Schrift erscheint als eine 'Verengung', die im guten Sinne eine Konzentration, im schlechten aber den Verlust von Komplexität bedeutet; und Bolz, für eine bündige Zusammenfassung immer gut, kann summieren: "So gilt für unser Zeitalter der Datenflüsse prinzipiell: Das Buch ist der Engpaß menschlicher Kommunikation. Vilém Flusser;  The Codified World  1978;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Linear codes demand a synchronization of their diachronicity. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf semiotic?) phenomenon is nonlinear textuality? Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Seven years earlier, in ‘Of Grammatology’ (1976b), Derrida was already drawing a contrast between linear and nonlinear writing. Lev Manovich;  DEEP REMIXABILITY  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=61 Consequently, while NLE (the standard abbreviation for non-linear editing software) gave the editor many tools for adjusting the edits, they took for granted the constant of film language that came from its industrial organization – that all frames have the same size and aspect ratio. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html The general importance of non- or antilinear thought appears in the frequency and centrality with which Barthes and other critics employ the terms link, network, web, and path. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf To semiotics, texts are chains of signs, and therefore linear by definition. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Das Bild des Netzes verbindet lineare Achsen oder Vektoren zu einer zwei-, drei- oder mehrdimensionalen Struktur. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ It may be that what is happening at present is the attempt to incorporate linear thought into surface thought, concept into image, elite media into mass media. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ It can be no accident that historical feeling was first articulated by the Jews—the people of the book, that is, of linear writing. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf A nonlinear text is an object of verbal communication that is not simply one fixed sequence of letters, words, and sentences but one in which the words or sequence of words may differ from reading to reading because of the shape, conventions, or mechanisms of the text. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The point deserves emphasis: only the linear-hierarchical style of argument is permitted in orthodox writing today. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf But it should be pointed out that in his fascinating vision—his poetics— nonlinearity is as much a problem (the “maze”) as a solution (the “trail”). NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf And this sense must be organized in a linear narrative. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Since writing always has been a spatial activity, it is reasonable to assume that ergodic textuality has been practiced as long as linear writing. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Linear argument, in other words, forces one to cut off a quoted passage from other, apparently irrelevant contexts that in fact contribute to its meaning. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf When we look at the whole of such a nonlinear text, we cannot read it; and when we read it, wecannot see the whole text. Marshall McLuhan;  The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man  1962;  http://books.google.de/books/about/The_Gutenberg_Galaxy.html?id=y4C644zHCWgC&redir_esc=y There is no limit to the subtleties of phrase, intonation and nuance one may use, except the limits implicit in the creation of a coherent linear organization. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf The shock of discovering that one is not a reader can only happen (and only accidentally) with a linear text, because that is the only text in which the metaphysics of a real reader has any credibility and the only text in which the reader can exist as a reducible, accountable figure. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Wenn wir unser Wort: arbre (Baum) wieder aufgreifen, [sehen wir, daß] es alle symbolischen Kontexte anzieht, in denen es im Hebräisch der Bibel erscheint [und ebenso Verse der Dichtung, die man], glauben wir, mit Recht in den mitklingenden Tönen des Wortes arbre hören kann." Drei Gedanken faßt diese Stelle zusammen: die Kritik einer allzu schlichten Vorstellung von Linearität, das Gegenbild einer Vielstimmigkeit oder Partitur, das die Kopräsenz der 'vertikalen', paradigmatischen Achsen betont, und drittens, wie gleich zu zeigen sein wird, ein Entwicklungsmodell. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Like Barthes, Foucault, and Mikhail Bakhtin, Jacques Derrida continually uses the terms link (liasons) , web (toile) , network (réseau), and interwoven (s'y tissent), which cry out for hypertextuality; but in contrast to Barthes, who emphasizes the writerly text and its nonlinearity, Derrida emphasizes textual openness, intertextuality, and the irrelevance of distinctions between inside and outside a particular text. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ The mood of the eternal return of the same (the magic mood) is replaced by the dramatic mood of linear progress (and it is secondary if this progress is seen as a fall from a perfect original situation or as a rise to utopian situations.) Differently said: the alphabetic critique of the imagination leads to a linear, causal explanation of images. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Although narratologists have almost always emphasized the essential linearity of narrative, critics have recently begun to find it to be nonlinear. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf It is not difficult to partition any text into graphemes (letters), lexemes (words), or syntagms (phrases or sentences), but none of these elements indicates nonlinearity by its presence. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf These hypothetical cases, which are far from impossible, illustrate a peculiar semiotic power of the linear text over the nonlinear: the linear can flirt with nonlinearity, but the nonlinear cannot lie and pretend to be linear. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ But they are better at showing what is meant here by “Crisis of Linearity”. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Aarseth highlights the fact that reading paths through a book are actually less linear and predfined as they are in a hypertext. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Wenn es sinnvoll erscheint, das n-dimensionale Netz der Rechner vom psychologischen Assoziationsbegriff zu lösen und auf die sprachlichen Assoziationen zu beziehen, wenn zweitens das sprachliche System als ein Netz negativ-differentieller Verweise begriffen werden muß, und wenn drittens die Sprache die Besonderheit hat, auf zwei Orte verteilt zu sein und ein n- dimensionales Netz in den Köpfen mit linearen Syntagmen im Außenraum zu konfrontieren, so ergibt sich die Folgerung, daß das neue Medium exakt auf dieser Grenze operiert. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf A narrative may be perfectly nonlinear (for example describing a sequence of events in a repetitive or nonsequential way) and yet be represented in a totally linear text. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Wenn die genannten Autoren die Schrift als ein streng lineares System auffassen, so hat diese Bestimmung für sich, zunächst von den äußeren, material-beobachtbaren Tatsachen auszugehen und sprachliche Phänomene als eine Anordnung von Signifikanten zu beschreiben. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Electronic links connect lexias "external" to a work -- say, commentary on it by another author or parallel or contrasting texts -- as well as within it and thereby create text that is experienced as nonlinear, or, more properly, as multilinear or multisequential. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm Saussure's entire theory of the “linearity of the signifier” could be interpreted from this point of view. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Die linearen Texte nämlich müssen nun als ein 'Durchlauf' durch die Netzstruktur, als eine aktuelle Inanspruchnahme bereits gebahnter Wege erscheinen. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Even when he is concerned with the linear brauehing structures of evolution, he turns this linearity into a circle and tries to invest it with a sense of inevitability. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf If we turn to rhetoric, we see that nonlinearity is clearly not a trope, since it works on the level of words, not meaning; but it could be classified as a type of figure, following Pierre Fontanier’s taxonomy of tropes and figures. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ The alphabet was invented to denote the speaking code (to subjugate it to the clear and distinct rules of linear writing) and to refashion it into an effective tool for a critique of the imagination. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ This closing of the circle of writing (of enlightenment altogether), this post Hegelian critique of natural science and of its technology, is only a young phenomenon that already indicates the crisis of linearity. Vilém Flusser;  Habit: The True Aesthetic Criterion  1990;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Still: such a linear criticism is no longer feasible where habit is the criterion of judgment. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Das Prinzip der Linearität scheint in Konflikt geraten mit einer zunehmend komplexen Realität und den Notwendigkeiten eines zunehmend komplexen Denkens (?); was letztlich bedeutet, daß die Schrift als ein Modus der Abbildung vor dem Abzubildenden versagt. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf The wall-inscriptions of the temples in ancient Egypt were often connected two-dimensionally (on one wall) or three-dimensionally (from wall to wall and from room to room), and this layout allowed a nonlinear arrangement of the religious text in accordance with the symbolic architectural layout of the temple. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Nor does it try to deepen the trenches along the lines of old and new, digital and analog, linear and non-linear, interactive and non-interactive or whatever terminology might be used to describe the changed modalities of text. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The storytellers tale is strictly linear, although it need not be fixed from one telling to another. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf The individual copy-as-text is linear, because there is only one sequence: first, the decrypted scripton once, then the reencrypted one for ever after; but the text-as-copy may turn out to be either of the scriptons and is therefore nonlinear. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history In that sense the book is not linear at all. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html In der Theorie verstärkt sich die Tendenz, ihren eigenen Textcharakter zu reflektieren; es entsteht der Verdacht, daß insbesondere historische Darstellungen eine Linearität in die geschilderten Ereignisse überhaupt erst hineintragen. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm This linearism is undoubtedly inseparable from phonologism; it can raise its voice to the same extent that a linear writing can seem to submit to it. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history A printed encyclopedia lies between these extremes, since each article is meant to be read linearly, but the alphabetized articles themselves can be read in any order. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Nonlinear texts can be very different from each other, at least as different as they are from the linear texts. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Much simpler examples of nonlinear texts are some of Guillaume Apollinaire's "calligrammes" from early in this century (Apollinaire 1966). Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm Such a complication, which is in effect the same that Husserl described, abides, in spite of an audacious phenomenological reduction, by the evidence and presence of a linear, objective, and mundane model. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Whereas analogue recording of sound and visual information requires serial, linear processing, digital technology removes the need for sequence by permitting one to go directly to a particular bit of information. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Offensichtlich ist zunächst, daß innerhalb der Literatur verstärkt Projekte auftreten, die mit der Linearität in offenem Zwiespalt liegen. Vilém Flusser;  The Codified World  1978;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ If one considers scientific thinking as the highest expression of historical consciousness—because it raises the logical and procedural thinking of the linear text up to the level of method—then one can say: the victory of texts over images—of science over magic—is an event of our most recent history and far from being counted as conclusive. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm And there is absolutely no mathematical concept of “ease of computation” or “simplicity of algorithm” that even vaguely suggests that such systems may have some advantage over the kinds of automata that have been seriously investigated from this point of view – for example, finite state automata, linear bounded automata, and so on. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Sobald sie auf Datenträgern gespeichert ist, nämlich wird es möglich, auch die Schrift anders als linear zu verwalten und n-dimensionale Netze nun aus Texten, Textteilen oder schriftförmigen Daten aufzubauen. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf This counterpoint, which may be called the Verfremdungsargument, has much merit, but it ignores the fact that the understanding (beyond trivial) of a nonlinear text can never be a consummate understanding, because the realization of its script (and not just its meaning) belongs to the individual user, who is acutely aware of his or her own constructive participation. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html The fact of hypertext, however, demonstrates quite clearly that digitality does not necessarily lock one into either a linear world or one of binary oppositions. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ What was intended here was to suggest a point of view that counters a widespread cultural pessimism: Doubtlessly, we would lose much if we lost the linear code, and with it historical, process oriented, critical thinking. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Traversing this path, the "doing" of the reader-the linear turning of pages as she reads-becomes also a kind of"knowing," for she experiences the structure ofautopoiesis as weil as comprehends it when the text circles back on itself. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history If linear and hierarchical structures dominate current writing, the computer now adds a third, the network as a visible and operative structure. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history After the invention of the paged book, linear structure of course survived. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Many scripts across the world have been developed independently of one another (Diringer 1953; Diringer 1960; Gelb 1963): Mesopotamian cuneiform 3500 BC (approximate dates here from Diringer 1962), Egyptian hieroglyphics 3000 BC (with perhaps some influence from cuneiform), Minoan or Mycenean ‘Linear B’ 1200 BC, Indus Valley script 3000–2400 BC, Chinese script 1500 BC, Mayan script AD 50, Aztec script AD 1400. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Moreover, Bush wished to replace the essentially linear fixed methods that had produced the triumphs of capitalism and industrialism with what are essentially poetic machines -- machines that work according to analogy and association, machines that capture and create the anarchic brilliance of human imagination. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf I emphasize this point not because I want to distance myself from the claims of literary critics, like Katherine Hayles, who employ the term in its latter sense, but because the influence of nonlinear dynamics on recent literary theory should not be confused with the present formal concept of nonlinear textuality. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html "The end of linear writing," Derrida declares, "is indeed the end of the book," even if, he continues, "it is within the form of a book that the new writings -- literary or theoretical -- allow themselves to be, for better or worse, encased" ( Of Grammatology, 86). Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Die Linearität von Sprache und Schrift liegt damit sowohl dem historischen Denken als auch, vermittelt, der Kausalitätsvorstellung der Naturwissenschaften zugrunde. Katherine Hayles;  The Power of Simulation: What Virtual Creatures Can Teach Us  1999;  http://www.stanford.edu/class/history34q/readings/Hayles/Simulation.html Instead of materialist/discursive, they suggest such pairings as analogue/digital, resemblance/code, linear/recursive, isolated/co-adaptive, visualization/program, abstraction/emergence, complexity at material level/complexity at symbolic level, behavior/function, forms that transmigrate/forms that compute. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Hypertext, when regarded as a type of text, shares with a variety of other textual types a fundamental trait, which we defined as nonlinearity. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm It is a point on which Jakobson disagrees with Saussure decisively by substituting for the homogeneousness of the line the structure of the musical staff, “the chord in music.” What is here in question is not Saussure's affirmation of the temporal essence of discourse but the concept of time that guides this affirmation and analysis: time conceived as linear successivity, as “consecutivity.” This model works by itself and all through the Course, but Saussure is seemingly less sure of it in the Anagrams. Vilém Flusser;  The Future of Writing  1983–84;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Instead, it proposes to consider a tendency that underlies those problems: namely, the tendency away from linear codes such as writing and toward two-dimensional codes such as photographs, films, and TV, a tendency that may be observed if one glances even superficially at the codified world that surrounds us. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history And the papyrus roll with its simple visual layout suited this linear structure.

CHAPTER
SIX

Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf Malling Hansen's writing ball, with its operating difficulties, made Nietzsche into a laconic. Marcel Duchamp;  The Creative Act  1957;  http://www.brainpickings.org/index.php/2012/08/23/the-creative-act-marcel-duchamp-1957/ But before we go further, I want to clarify our understanding of the word ‘art’ — to be sure, without any attempt at a definition. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja Importantly, OPUS, created by Raqs Media Collective (New Delhi), is both a software package and an accompanying “theoretical package.” Thus the theoretical ideas about authorship articulated by Raqs collective do not remain theory but are implemented in software available for everybody to use. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm Then something which was never spoken and which is nothing other than writing itself as the origin of language writes itself within Saussure's discourse. James J. Pulizzi;  Machine Intelligence and Electronic Literature  http://newhorizons.eliterature.org/essay.php@id=9.html Interactive fiction programmed with machine intelligence has the ability to engage with the human interactor in a way that makes the word reader a poor description for what human beings and computers could do in the creation of an electronic piece. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm What Saussure saw without seeing, knew without being able to take into account, following in that the entire metaphysical tradition, is that a certain model of writing was necessarily but provisionally imposed (but for the inaccuracy in principle, insufficiency of fact, and the permanent usurpation) as instrument and technique of representation of a system of language. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf In 1882, human beings, their thoughts, and their authorship respectively were replaced by two sexes, the text, and blind writing equipment. WALTER BENJAMIN;  THE AUTHOR AS PRODUCER  1970;  http://newleftreview.org/I/62/walter-benjamin-the-author-as-producer You may have noticed that the chain of thought whose conclusion we are approaching only presents the writer with a single demand, the demand of reflecting, of thinking about his position in the process of production. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf At this stage writing is a trade practiced by craftsmen, whom others hire to write a letter or document as they might hire a stone-mason to build a house, or a shipwright to build a boat. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf People had to be persuaded that writing improved the old oral methods sufficiently to warrant all the expense and troublesome techniques it involved. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Some societies of limited literacy have regarded writing as dangerous to the unwary reader, demanding a guru-like figure to mediate between reader and text (Goody and Watt 1968, p 13). Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Cultural historians have delved more and more into prehistory, that is, human existence before writing made verbalized records possible. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Asirle from the introrluctions, Autopoiesis and Cognition consists of two essays, "Biology of Cognition" anrl ''Autopoiesis: The Organization ofthe Living." In both essays, the writing is almost exclusively analytic, with one proposition relaterl to another logically in an argument that proceeds by division and subdivision, implication and extension. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ The author of the play knows that he is proposing a convention within limits imposed upon him by the theatrical medium, and he tries to give meaning to his convention; his freedom is structural. Jacques Derrida;  Speech and writing according to Hegel  1993;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida1.htm To see that the word and the name are irreducible for Hegel, and that this has the most important consequences, it is enough to read these lines (Remark in § 459): Alphabetical writing is in and for itself the most intelligent; in it the word - the mode, peculiar to the intellect, of exteriorizing its representations most worthily (eigentamlichste wiirdigste) -is brought to consciousness and made an object of reflection. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf The psychodynamics of writing matured very slowly in narrative. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Only around Plato’s time in ancient Greece, more than three centuries after the introduction of the Greek alphabet, was this stage transcended when writing was finally diffused through the Greek population and interiorized enough to affect thought processes generally (Havelock 1963). Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja Imagine now a situation where an author releases her/his work into the world accompanied by a license that will tell others both what they should not do with this work and also what they can do with it (i.e. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Lack of verifiable context is what makes writing normally so much more agonizing an activity than oral presentation to a real audience. Jacques Derrida;  Speech and writing according to Hegel  1993;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida1.htm 'Alphabetic writing is in and for itself the most intelligent', says Hegel. Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf It is, rather, the result of a complex operation that constructs a certain being of reason that we call "author." Critics doubtless try to give this being of reason a realistic status, by discerning, in the individual, a "deep" motive, a "creative" power, or a "design," the milieu in which writing originates. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Ontogenetically and phylogenetically, it is the oral word that first illuminates consciousness with articulate language, that first divides subject and predicate and then relates them to one another, and that ties human beings to one another in society. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html It does not seem so, or at very least this distance, division, delay, diffé rance must be capable of being brought to a certain absolute degree of absence for the structure of writing, supposing that writing exists, to be constituted. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf In some coded systems the writer can predict only approximately what the reader will read off, as in the system developed by the Vai in Liberia (Scribner and Cole 1978) or even in ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics. Michel Foucault;  Author Function  1977;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Foucault-AuthorFunction.html A "philosopher" and a "poet" are not constructed in the same manner; and the author of an eighteenth-century novel was formed differently from the modern novelist. William S. Burroughs;  The Cut-Up Method of Brion Gysin  1963;  http://www.ubu.com/papers/burroughs_gysin.html Cut the word lines and you will hear their voices. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm What matters here is that in the synchronic structure and systematic principle of alphabetic writing — and phonetic writing in general — no relationship of “natural” representation, none of resemblance or participation, no “symbolic” relationship in the Hegelian-Saussurian sense, no “iconographic” relationship in the Peircian sense, be implied. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html We are not witnessing an end of writing which, to follow McLuhan's ideological representation, would restore a transparency or immediacy of social relations; but indeed a more and more powerful historical unfolding of a general writing of which the system of speech, consciousness, meaning, presence, truth, etc, would only be an effect, to be analyzed as such. Christian Kerslake;  The Vertigo of Philosophy:Deleuze and the Problem of Immanence  2002;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze8.htm In other words, it is because Deleuze attempts to construct an immanent theory of difference which escapes the forms of negation and the concept that he must sacrifice the self-generating and self-validating features of Hegel’s system of immanence, features that make it not only a philosophy about immanence, but a philosophy that demonstrates at every step its own immanence in its very writing and being read. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Yet writing (and especially alphabetic writing) is a technology, calling for the use of tools and other equipment: styli or brushes or pens, carefully prepared surfaces such as paper, animal skins, strips of wood, as well as inks or paints, and much more. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm And the original absence of the subject of writing is also the absence of the thing or the referent. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Nowhere do the authors acknowledge that the reality they report is constructed by their sensory equip ment no less than the frog's is by his. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See As the authors put it, their work "shows that the [frog's] eye speaks to the brain in a language already highly organized and interpreted instead of transmitring some more or less accurate copy of the distribution oflight upon the receptors" (1950). Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf The extensive use of lists and particularly of charts so commonplace in our high-technology cultures is a result not simply of writing, but of the deep interiorization of print (Ong 1958b, pp 307–18, and passim), which implements the use of fixed diagrammatic word-charts and other informational uses of neutral space far beyond anything feasible in any writing culture. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The computer medium encourages a writer to open a new kind of dialogue with the reader. James J. Pulizzi;  Machine Intelligence and Electronic Literature  http://newhorizons.eliterature.org/essay.php@id=9.html For a piece of IF or other electronic literature that employs a machine intelligence, one could reasonably ask to what extent the programmer and author of the base elements of the piece actually authors the work. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf It is demoralizing to remind oneself that there is no dictionary in the mind, that lexicographical apparatus is a very late accretion to language as language, that all languages have elaborate grammars and have developed their elaborations with no help from writing at all, and that outside of relatively hightechnology cultures most users of languages have always got along pretty well without any visual transformations whatsoever of vocal sound. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf If HCI is a general purpose tool which can be used to manipulate any kind of data, both the printed word and cinema are less general, and offer their own ways to organize particular types of data: text in the case of print, audio-visual narrative taking place in a 3-D space in the case of cinema. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles Landow, for instance, understands Barthes’ and Derrida’s ideas about authorship and the multiplicity of texts in terms of e-lit. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text Is today's writer the residual substitute for the beggar, the monk, the bonze: unproductive, but nevertheless provided for? Vilém Flusser;  Criteria—Crisis—Criticism  1984;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ To achieve the distance necessary to observe the apparatus criteria, photo critics in the second sense of the word would have to be people who neither are employed by the apparatus nor work for newspapers, museums, or advertising agencies. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See In addition to its contextuality, narrative differs from analytic writing in its use of historical contingency. EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 Michel Foucault also questions the role of the author in contemporary culture, but unlike Barthes, who only pointed out the necessity to shift our cultural attention from the author to the reader, Foucault concludes that even though the death of the author as a great individual has been claimed, the notions supporting such claim actually have only renegotiated the privilege in authorship. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Because narrative is contextual, it is polysemaus in a way that analytic writing is not. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf The word itself turns into something "typed." Where typewriting, on the contrary, is only a transcription and serves to preserve the writing, or turns into print something already written, there it has a proper, though limited, significance. Mal Ahern;  Deleuze, Gilles. "Nomad Thought"  2003;  http://csmt.uchicago.edu/annotations/deleuzenomad.htm Nietzsche’s writing is used in the text as the paradigmatic example of the confounding and transgression of codes in philosophic writing, though Deleuze’s theories on Nietzsche could be extended to any work that looks to the exterior and traverses its frame (he mentions Kafka’s fiction as another example). Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl It can digest and transform all writing with the singular exception of itself. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html These communications are to remain within the element of a determined "natural" language, which is called French, and which commands certain very particular uses of the word communication. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html According to Calcutt and Shepherd, the uncertainty regarding her age is 'indicative of a contrary writer committed to both the destruction and creation of identity,' a suggestion which is relatively accurate in describing at least one of Acker's primary preoccupations.Although she would later return to an academic environment in a teaching capacity, while initially at college she studied a number of writing courses - all of which she 'hated:' I took a lot of writing courses when I was in college... Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm Quite simply, that is, outside of the horizon itself, outside the world as space of inscription, as the opening to the emission and to the spatial distribution of signs, to the regulated play of their differences, even if they are “phonic.” Let us now persist in using this opposition of nature and institution, of physis and nomos (which also means, of course, a distribution and division regulated in fact by law) which a meditation on writing should disturb although it functions everywhere as self-evident, particularly in the discourse of linguistics. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Thus writing from the beginning did not reduce orality but enhanced it, making it possible to organize the ‘principles’ or constituents of oratory into a scientific ‘art’, a sequentially ordered body of explanation that showed how and why oratory achieved and could be made to achieve its various specific effects. Marshall McLuhan;  The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man  1962;  http://books.google.de/books/about/The_Gutenberg_Galaxy.html?id=y4C644zHCWgC&redir_esc=y Carothers stresses that until phonetic writing split apart thought and action, there was no alternative but to hold all men responsible for their thoughts as much as their actions. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf The typewriter veils the essence of writing and of the script. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Because we are beginning to write, to write differently, we must reread differently” In all this, Derrida was prescient, but he could not know that electronic writing would be the new writing to which he alluded. Lev Manovich;  DEEP REMIXABILITY  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=61 In fact, while the results of these transformations have become fully visible by about 1998, at the time of this writing (early 2006) I am not aware of a single theoretical article discussing them. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html According to Michael Heim, as electronic textuality frees writing from the constraints of paper-print technology, "vast amounts of information, including further texts, will be accessible immediately below the electronic surface of a piece of writing. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Writers, including Coverley and Kate Pullinger, joined in collaborative writing at a Web site preceding the Incubation 2 Conference in Nottingham, riffing on the murder mystery genre to create a story revolving around the "death" of the book. Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf The notion of writing, as currently employed, is concerned with neither the act of writing nor the indication – be it symptom or sign – of a meaning that someone might have wanted to express. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Since the invention of writing and printing, information technology has concentrated on the problem of creating and then disseminating static, unchanging records of language. Marshall McLuhan;  The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man  1962;  http://books.google.de/books/about/The_Gutenberg_Galaxy.html?id=y4C644zHCWgC&redir_esc=y Innis and McLuhan shared a lively sense of humour and a writing style that not only pushed apparent incongruities together but crushed them into punchy phrases. Vilém Flusser;  The Future of Writing  1983–84;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ The purpose of writing is to mean, to explain images, but texts may become opaque, unimaginable, and they then constitute barriers between man and the world. Christian Kerslake;  The Vertigo of Philosophy:Deleuze and the Problem of Immanence  2002;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze8.htm Whilst the complaint is reminiscent of Hegel, the word ‘immediate’ suggests otherwise. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Here again something that Derrida and other critical theorists describe as part of a seemingly extravagant claim about language turns out precisely to describe the new economy of reading and writing with electronic virtual, rather than physical, forms. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text Now paradoxically (so strong is the belief that one need merely go fast in order not to be bored), this second, applied reading (in the real sense of the word "application") is the one suited to the modern text, the limit-text. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm Even supposing that one is not given that modified concept, supposing that one is considering a system of pure writing as an hypothesis for the future or a working hypothesis, faced with that hypothesis, should a linguist refuse himself the means of thinking it and of integrating its formulation within his theoretical discourse? N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Frequently, when he is obliged by custom or literary form to comment on his analytic writing (as in the introduction to Autopoiesis and Cognition or the "Comments" section of a journal article), he will express impatience, claiming that the piece is complete in itself and that to add anything further would be extraneous. Roland Barthes;  From Work to Text - 1  1971;  http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/From%20Work%20to%20Text.pdf I know the word is fashionable (I am myself often led to use it) and therefore regarded by some with suspicion, but that is exactly why I should like to remind myself of the principal propositions at the intersection of which I see the Text as standing. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html If, as Burroughs, and subsequently Acker, argued, there are no 'original' words and that a writer merely edits and assembles using available materials, then Don Quixote itself cannot be considered an 'original' text. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html Before specifying the inevitable consequences of these nuclear traits of all writingto wit: (1) the break with the horizon of communication as the com- munication of consciousnesses or presences, and as the linguistic or semantic transport of meaning; (2) the subtraction of all writing from the semantic horizon or the hermeneutic horizon which, at least as a horizon of meaning, lets itself be punctured by writing; (3) the necessity of, in a way, separating the concept of polysemia from the concept I have elsewhere named dissemination, which is also the concept of writing; (4) the disqualification or the limit of the concept of the "real" or "linguistic" context, whose theoretical determination or empirical saturation are, strictly speaking, rendered impossible or insufficient by writing I would like to demonstrate that the recognizable traits of the classicaland narrowly defined concept of writing are generalizable. MATTHEW FULLER;  BEHIND THE BLIP - ESSAYS ON THE CULTURE OF SOFTWARE  2003;  http://www.multimedialab.be/doc/citations/matthew_fuller_blip.pdf What this work does is make apparent the processes of normalisation operating at many scales within software—the ways in which, for instance, millions of separate writing acts are dedifferentiated by the various layers of a word processing program. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Nonetheless, although hypertext intertextuality would seem to devalue any historic or other reductionism, it in no way prevents those interested in reading in terms of author and tradition from doing so. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm On this point Peirce is undoubtedly closer to the inventor of the word phenomenology: Lambert proposed in fact to “reduce the theory of things to the theory of signs.” According to the “phaneoroscopy” or “Phenomenology” of Peirce, manifestation itself does not reveal a presence, it makes a sign. EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 In other words, discourse as developed by an author can be changed. Roland Barthes;  From Work to Text - 2  1971;  http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/From%20Work%20to%20Text.pdf The word 'proposition' is to be understood more in a grammatical than in a logical sense: the following are not argumentations but enunciations, 'touches', approaches that consent to remain metaphorical. Roland Barthes;  From Work to Text - 1  1971;  http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/From%20Work%20to%20Text.pdf The reader of the Text may be compared to someone at a loose end (someone slackened off from any imaginary); this passably empty subject strolls -- it is what happened to the author of these lines, then it was that he had a vivid idea of the Text -- on the side of a valley, a oued flowing down below (oued is there to bear witness to a certain feeling of unfamiliarity); what he perceives is multiple, irreducible, coming from a disconnected, heterogeneous variety of substances and perspectives: lights, colours, vegetation, heat, air, slender explosions of noises, scant cries of birds, children's voices from over on the other side, passages, gestures, clothes of inhabitants near or far away. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html Nevertheless, we will not say that this nonsemiotic sense of the word communication such as it is at work in ordinary language, in one or several of the so-called natural languages, constitutes the proper or primitive meaning, and that consequently the semantic, semiotic, or linguistic meaning corresponds to a derivation, an extension or a reduction, a metaphoric displacement. Vilém Flusser;  Essays  1967;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ But universities–as the word implies–should not be unilateral if they strive for erudition in the widest sense of the term. WALTER BENJAMIN;  THE AUTHOR AS PRODUCER  1970;  http://newleftreview.org/I/62/walter-benjamin-the-author-as-producer Labour itself speaks out for writing it out in words constitutes part of the knowledge necessary to becoming an author. Roy Christopher;  Interview with Jay David Bolter: FutureText  2001;  http://roychristopher.com/jay-david-bolter-futuretext The system was designed to support hypertext fiction in particular, although it can also be used for organizing and writing fiction and non-fiction intended for print. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm If I persist in calling that difference writing, it is because, within the work of historical repression, writing was, by its situation, destined to signify the most formidable difference. Michel Foucault;  Author Function  1977;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Foucault-AuthorFunction.html Nevertheless, these aspect of an individual, which we designate as an author (or which comprise an individual as an author), are projections, in terms always more or less psychological, of our way of handling texts: in the comparisons we make, the traits we extract as pertinent, the continuities we assign, or the exclusions we practice. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Second, any gathering of lexias, whether assembled by the original author of the verbal text, or by some else gathering together texts created by multiple authors, also takes the form of a network; thus document sets, whose shifting borders make them in some senses the hypertextual equivalent of a work, are called in some present systems a web. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm Even if it were crossed out, without it the concepts of play and writing to which I shall have recourse will remain caught within regional limits and an empiricist, positivist, or metaphysical discourse. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html Is it certain that there corresponds to the word communication a unique, univocalconcept, a concept that can be rigorously grasped and transmitted: a communicable concept? N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See To describe the change that takes place, the authors use the term "natural drift." There seems tobe a natural drift in "natural drift," however, and in later passages it becomes "structural drift." If structure changes, what does it mean to say that autopoiesis is conserved? Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf There have always been collaborative projects such as the parlor games of the Baroque era, the co-operative writing in 18th century literary salons or the Surrealist “cadavres exquis” (“exquisite corpses”). Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html "Assoziative Denkstrukturen in die Apparatur zu verlagern, erschien als ein Vorhaben wirrer Programmierer, die hartnäckig an den Bedürfnissen des Marktes vorbei, an Lösungen für Probleme arbeiteten, die es noch nicht gab." Mit den Hypertextsystemen aber beginnt diese Utopie Wirklichkeit zu werden; "die vernetzte Struktur von Hypertexten kommt assoziativen Gedankenoperationen entgegen" oder, so könnte man ergänzen, vollzieht diese mit technischen Mitteln nach; und in letzter Instanz, schreiben Idensen/Krohn, hat die neue Technik eine "Transformation assoziativer Ideen in reale, verknüpfbare Objektdateien"zum Ziel. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Moreover, the Brown programming team has recently developed a spatial hypertext authoring system that allows authors to create and edit their works using a representation of the CAVE on their laptops, with capabilities to link text, images, 3-D photographs and videos, and 3-models. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html The same content, previously communicated by gestures and sounds, henceforth will be transmitted by writing, and successively by different modes of notation, from pictographic writing up to alphabetic writing, passing through the hieroglyphic writing of the Egyptians and the ideographic writing of the Chinese. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt The multilayered sense of "metaphor" here--a rhetorical trope of writing that is also a Storyspace link and a scar traversing the monster's body--implies that the movement up and down fictional/metafictional levels is not limited to certain moments in the text but pervades the text as a whole, spreading along with (and becoming indistinguishable from) the "true skeleton" of the text/monster/software. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ When observing the development of writing towards the alphabet from the inside (that means: as a writing being), it becomes inevitable. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf No signifiance, no subjectification: writing to the nth power (all individuated enunciation remains trapped within the dominant significations, all signifying desire is associated with dominated subjects). Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Indeed, different versions of a new media object may vary strictly quantitatively, for example in the amount of detail present: for instance, a full size image and its icon, automatically generated by Photoshop; a full text and its shorter version, generated by “Autosummarize” command in Microsoft Word 97; or the different versions which can be created using “Outline” command in Word. T. W. Adorno;  The Essay a s Form  1984;  http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0094-033X%28198421%2F22%290%3A32%3C151%3ATEAF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-C The simple modesty of this word is an arrogant courtesy. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See In one, the authors illustrate the difference between an ordinary and an autopoietic viewpoint by supposing that two teams ofbuilders are put to work constructing a house (53-55). Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf 26] In standardized texts, paper and body, writing and soul fall apart. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text For example: the author may appear in his text (Genet, Proust), but not in the guise of direct biography (which would exceed the body, give a meaning to life, forge a destiny). Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf In his famous essay “The Death of the Author,” Barthes offers an even more radical criticism of the idea of the author as solitary inventor alone responsible for the work’s content. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html In a moment, a certain concept of writing is bound to intervene, in order to transform itself, and perhaps in order to transform the problematic. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf They learned a way of writing that, as an "abuse of language" (according to Goethe), no longer had to struggle with cramped muscles and individual letters, but rather proceeded in rapture or darkness. Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf It would be just as wrong to equate the author with the real writer as to equate him with the fictitious speaker; the author function is carried out and operates in the scission itself, in this division and this distance. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history However, once that order is established, the writer may want to suggest alternatives. Vilém Flusser;  The Future of Writing  1983–84;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ But there is yet another, and more profound, reason for the invention of writing and of historical consciousness. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm The grammatologist least of all can avoid questioning himself about the essence of his object in the form of a question of origin: “What is writing?” means “where and when does writing begin?” The responses generally come very quickly. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Zum zweiten, und dies wird im Begriff des 'Knotens' eher verdeckt, wird das einzelne Wort in dieser Vorstellung als eine Art 'Situation' konzipiert werden müssen. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Why do our discussions of reading and writing largely focus on the author and reader, ignoring the cognitively sophisticated actions of intelligent machines that are active participants in the construction of meaning? Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text The writer is always on the blind spot of systems, adrift; he is the joker in the pack, a mana, a zero degree, the dummy in the bridge game: necessary to the meaning (the battle), but himself deprived of fixed meaning; his place, his (exchange) value, varies according to the movements of history, the tactical blows of the struggle: he is asked all and/or nothing. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm There is one final issue that deserves a word of comment.

CHAPTER
SEVEN

Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Extratextual context is missing not only for readers but also for the writer. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Spread from “The Boy Electrician” Certain texts – novels for instance – encourage the reader to engage in the semiotic work of imagination, following the given order of words on the line but filling the relatively ‘empty’ words with the reader’s meaning. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html For readers who do not themselves program in computational media, the seduction of reading the screen as a page is especially seductive. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 There are quite a few RSS readers available; some, like Vienna, can be downloaded and used as applications on a personal computer; others like Google Reader are web applications that run online, and can be accessed from any computer. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history So, contrary to poststructuralism, Aarseth claims, that these predefined parameters of reading are an essential part of authorship rather than a way of handing authorship to the reader. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf The fictionalizing of readers is what makes writing so difficult. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text With the writer of bliss (and his reader) begins the untenable text, the impossible text. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms The reader could not change nether this order nor the level of detail being displayed a la Englebart’s “view control.” Similarly, the film projector combined hardware and what we know call a “media player” software into a single machine. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Plays took the reader step by step through events; history was written chronologically (with digressions). Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Most readers of English cannot or will not make themselves into the special kind of reader Joyce demands. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The reader[’s] interest determines where he or she wishes to enter the page. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf And most of the companies that place the ads on the Web site track your movements across the Net, ‘remembering’ which ads you’ve seen, exactly when you saw them, whether you clicked on them, where you were at the time and the site you have visited just before.” More generally, every hypertext reader gets her own version of the complete text by selecting a particular path through it. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history From that time until the advent of electronic writing, the referential network has existed “between the lines” of the text—that is, in the minds of readers and writers. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text I must seek out this reader (must "cruise" him) without knowing where he is. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf It is then up to the reader to ergodically recombine the segments in the course of reading. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading It is time now to change the vantage point, turning away from results produced and focusing on that potential in the text which triggers the re-creative dialectics in the reader. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Hypertext, in other words, provides an infinitely re-centerable system whose provisional point of focus depends upon the reader, who becomes a truly active reader in yet another sense. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Poststructuralism on the other side overemphasises the position of the reader, the process of reading and interpretation, thus turning the reader into an author. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history THE NEW DIALOGUE A work like ‘Glas’ provokes traditional readers, to whom it seems wrong or simply pointless to distort the printed page. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading Whenever this happens, i.e., whenever the author turns into reader of his own work, he must therefore revert to the code, which he had already recoded in his work. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history It is no use shouting at a novel whose plot is heading in a direction we do not like: the book cannot adjust itself to our witches as readers. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading Thus the vantage point of the reader and the meeting place of perspectives become interrelated during the ideational activity and so draw the reader inescapably into the world of the text. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Human readers, with sensory capabilities evolved through eons of interacting with three-dimensional environments, are much better at perceiving patterns in analogue shapes than performing rapid calculations with numbers. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Although this absence of a center can create problems for the reader and the writer, it also means that anyone who uses hypertext makes his or her own interests the de facto organizing principle (or center) for the investigation at the moment. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html As readers move through a web or network of texts, they continually shift the center -- and hence the focus or organizing principle -- of their investigation and experience. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Hyperfictions such as Michael Joyce's Afternoon: A Story (1990) engage a modernist poetics to subvert traditional storytelling and present a literary labyrinth for the reader to explore. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Rather, I am concerned to delineate characteristics of digital environments that writers and readers can use as resources in creating literature and responding to it in sophisticated, playful ways. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading A reality that has no existence of its own can only come into being by way of ideation, and so the structure of the text sets off a sequence of mental images which lead to the text translating itself into the reader’s consciousness. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading As a rule there are four main perspectives: those of the narrator, the characters, the plot, and the fictitious reader. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ It is even now technically possible to project films and TV programs that allow the reader to control and manipulate the sequence of the pictures, and to superimpose other pictures upon them. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf Both “writers” and “readers” of such texts are confronted with the “challenge of a read and write memory” (transl. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history This might be the best way for readers to approach the carefully interwoven philosophy of Aristotle: following the electronic links would allow readers to sample from various texts and move progressively deeper into the problems that each text poses. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading The latter is merely one component part of the reader’s role, by which the author exposes the disposition of an assumed reader to interaction with the other perspectives, in order to bring about modifications. EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 He writes, “A text is made of multiple writings, drawn from many cultures and entering into relations of dialogue, parody and contestation, but there is one place where this multiplicity is focused and that place is the reader, not, as was hitherto said, the author.” With this statement he summarizes his argument that we should treat the text not as something coming from a specific person, but as something that takes life according to how the reader interprets the writing as a collage of diverse sources. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf In other words, I rejected my reading because it told me that I was not a real reader, since what I was reading was not the real text. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Second, the written text appears prima facie to be a one-way informational street, for no real recipient (reader, hearer) is present when the texts come into being. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading It denotes the role of the reader, which is definable in terms of textual structure and structured acts. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Nabokov's Pale Fire, however, leaves the mode of cursality up to the reader; consisting of a foreword, a 999-line poem, a long commentary of notes addressing individual lines (but really telling the commentator's story), and an index, it can be read either unicursally, straight through, or multicursally, by jumping between the comments and the poem. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html In the context of literature, this has led to claims that digital technology enables readers to become authors, or at least blurs the (supposedly political) distinction between the two, and that the reader is allowed to create his or her own "story" by "interacting" with "the computer." The ideological forces surrounding new technology produce a rhetoric of novelty, differentiation, and freedom that works to obscure the more profound structural kinships between superficially heterogeneous media. Vilém Flusser;  Essays  1967;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ It implicates itself in the topic and in its reader. Lev Manovich;  DEEP REMIXABILITY  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=61 Nevertheless, I have included references to particular projects below so the reader can see exactly what I am referring to. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading Although the critic’s judgement may well have been honed and refined by the many texts he has dealt with, he remains nothing more than a cultured reader--if only because an ideal reader is a structural impossibility as far as literary communication is concerned. Vilém Flusser;  Essays  1967;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ It does not explain its topic, so in this sense it does not inform its readers. Wolfgang Iser;  THE RANGE OF INTERPRETATION  2000;  http://books.google.de/books/about/The_range_of_interpretation.html?id=9IPLzzYy2hAC&redir_esc=y The problem is that, if one perhaps knows what is meant by the “intention of the reader,” it seems more difficult to define abstractly what is meant by the “intention of the text.”. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Such an outline not only shows how each piece fits, but also directs the readers movement through its parts, Whether we are told to write deductively or inductively, the result is still supposed to be a hierarchy of ideas and a carefully controlled reading. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html The cybertext reader, on the other hand, is not safe, and therefore, it can be argued, she is not a reader. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading The ideal reader, unlike the contemporary reader, is a purely fictional being; he has no basis in reality, and it is this very fact that makes him so useful; as a fictional being, he can close the gaps that constantly appear in any analysis of literary effects and responses He can be endowed with a variety of qualities in accordance with whatever problem he is called upon to help solve. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text Is this another pleasure of pure representation (experienced therefore solely by the greedy reader)? George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html All hypertext systems permit the individual reader to choose his or her own center of investigation and experience. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Of course books also create rich cognitive environments, but they passively embody the cognitions of writer, reader, and book designer rather than actively participate in cognition themselves. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text The writer's perversity (his pleasure in writing is without function), the doubled, the trebled, the infinite perversity of the critic and of his reader. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The reader is free to make all sorts of misunderstandings that the text separated from its author cannot correct. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Both types of text discussed so far seem to reject the presence of the traditional reader figure, as it is implied and applied in the theories of literature. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Thus cognition is distributed not only between writer, reader, and designer (who may or may not be separate people) but also between humans and machines (which may or may not be regarded as separate entities). EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 For Barthes, it is the reader who holds the real potential to make discourse productive. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Mary writes, I write, we write, but who is really writing?" Faced with this unanswerable question (unanswerable for the reader as for the narrator), the monster concludes, "Ghost writers are the only kind there are" (story/rethinking/am I mary). Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Another approach to literature especially inviting to orality— literacy contrasts is the reader-response criticism of Wolfgang Iser, Norman Holland, Stanley Fish, David Bleich, Michael Riffaterre and others, including Jacques Derrida and Paul Ricoeur. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text Text of bliss: the text that imposes a state of loss, the text that discomforts (perhaps to the point of a certain boredom), unsettles the reader's historical, cultural, psychological assumptions, the consistency of his tastes, values, memories, brings to a crisis his relation with language. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 An obvious example of this tendency is the popularity of publications like Reader’s Digest, which offer condensed versions of books as well as stories for people who want to be informed but do not have the time to read the original material, which is often more extensive. Vilém Flusser;  Essays  1967;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ The topic would be rendered explicit, and my readers would be informed. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf To be adapted to them, speech-act and reader-response theory need to be related first to primary orality. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt The "seam'ed" lexia in "crazy quilt" relies for its effect on the probability that the reader has already seen the lexias of which this is a patchwork. Katherine Hayles;  The Power of Simulation: What Virtual Creatures Can Teach Us  1999;  http://www.stanford.edu/class/history34q/readings/Hayles/Simulation.html "A readerly imaginary evolved which paid homage to this wonderful author who was always there in his or her words. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Heroic and lyric poetry was destined for performance; medieval encyclopedias, like their ancient counterparts, were designed to be consulted by single readers. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf Even if the alphabetized individual known as 'author' finally had to fall from private exteriority into the anonymous exteriority of print in order to secure "his remains and his propagation"--alphabetized individuals known as 'readers' were able to reverse this exteriorization. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf Considering each book to consist of "multiple writings, proceeding from several cultures and entering into dialogue, into parody, into protest," Barthes accords the writer the status of scriptor, an intertextual operator: the only place where this multiplicity of sources converges is in the brain of the reader-postproducer. Vilém Flusser;  Essays  1967;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ The reader may argue that I have greatly exaggerated the “treatise– essay” antimony, that Hume’s essays, for instance, are really treatises, and that Wittgenstein’s Tractatus is really an essay. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles The hypertext was finally declared complete in 2001, and due to its visibility on the Internet readers were able to read along and follow any changes to the individual lexias during its production. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading It is evident that no theory concerned with literary texts can make much headway without bringing in the reader, who now appears to have been promoted to the new frames of reference whenever the semantic and pragmatic potential of the text comes under scrutiny. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Literary critics have generally scorned prosaic texts that too openly captured their users—in which the relationship between reader and narratee became too intimate, lacking ironic distance or Verfremdung. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The writer may incorporate in the text references and allusions that cause the reader to jump back and forth, at least mentally, as he or she reads. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt But this is for myself; my readers have nothing to do with these associations" (qtd. in story/severance/hideous progeny). Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading Thus the concept of the implied reader designates a network of response-inviting structures, which impel the reader to grasp the text. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf This perspective lets us include nonlinear texts, many of which have no author (or even reader) in the traditional sense. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles The next genre Hayles discusses is interactive fiction (IF), which may be familiar to readers of a certain age group from computer games like Adventure and Zork, popular in the early ’80s. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history In that sense the reader loses control. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Perhaps a more serious problem, however, was the association of the hyperlink with the empowerment of the reader/user. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Added to that are the political conjectures about the benevolent effects on the structures of power between writers and readers, teachers and students, government and the public, in which the good guys seem to be winning, at least in theory. Roland Barthes;  From Work to Text - 1  1971;  http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/From%20Work%20to%20Text.pdf This means that the Text requires that one try to abolish (or at the very least to diminish) the distance between writing and reading, in no way by intensifying the projection of the reader into the work but by joining them in a single signifying practice. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html The performance of their reader takes place all in his head, while the user of cybertext also performs in an extranoematic sense. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt There thus arises a tension between the sequence of lexias chosen by the reader, and the simultaneity of memory space in which all the lexias always already exist. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf It appears obvious that speech-act theory and reader-response theory could be extended and adapted to throw light on the use of radio and television (and the telephone as well). William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles As things deteriorate, readers can explore the apartment and interact with Trip and Grace until they solve their problems or get thrown out. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html As Heim has argued, electronic word processing inevitably produces linkages, and these linkages move text, readers, and writers into a new writing space: The distinctive features of formulating thought in the psychic framework of word processing combine with the automation of information handling and produce an unprecedented linkage of text. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Like the interlocutor in a Socratic dialogue, the electronic reader assumes at least partial control of the argument. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles To make afternoon more accessible to newcomers, Joyce even built a “default” route into it that readers could follow to better familiarize themselves with hypertext fiction. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Der Text/das Kunstwerk als potentiell unendliches Zeichenreservoir, das dann vom Leser, dem für Barthes neuen Regenten nach dem Tod des Autors, auf jeweils eigene Art dekodiert wird. Katherine Hayles;  The Power of Simulation: What Virtual Creatures Can Teach Us  1999;  http://www.stanford.edu/class/history34q/readings/Hayles/Simulation.html At this point, some readers may object that however functional narrative may be for everyday social intercourse, it leads to serious mistakes when we use it to understand virtual creatures. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Active or passive, the reader is always portrayed as a receiver of the text, going quietly about the business of consuming, constructing meaning only, a fixed but evolving character at the end of the text’s production line, defined by the conventions and strategies of reading.

CHAPTER
EIGHT

NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf Smoke a cigarette, as the vending machine affixed to one of its walls encouraged? Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf Now all my friends have to do is to invent a reading machine: otherwise I will fall behind myself and won't be able to supply myself with sufficient intellectual nourishment. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf The fact that there are certain analogies between the initial subconscious state of mind of the girl and the subconscious of a computer might let us consider that the first use of a programmed, machine-generated text in a radio-play can be justified. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf These wordgenerating machines are the missing link between the langue of the German language and Lull’s ars combinatoria. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf If the end is unsuccessful, this too means abandonment of the you, which then remains in the text as a ghost in the machine: not living, not properly buried, and with a cause left unfinished. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf Thought is replaced by a Boolean algebra and consciousness by the unconscious, which (at least since Lacan's reading) makes of Poe's "Purloined Letter" a Markoff chain.[.55] And the fact that the symbolic is called the world of the machine undemines the delusion of so-called Man to possess a "quality" called "consciousness," which identifies him as something other and better than a "calculating machine." For both people and computers are "subject to the apeal of the signifier"[56]; that is to say, they are both are run by programs. Vilém Flusser;  Criteria—Crisis—Criticism  1984;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ If we look at the work of most photo critics, we truly get the impression that the automation of photo criticism is close at hand. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf However, there have been many more sophisticated mechanisms and machines for facilitating literary production by combining words or attributes selected from a number of lists. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf Schizoanalysis, on the other hand, treats the unconscious as an acentered system, in other words, as a machinic network of finite automata (a rhizome), and thus arrives at an entirely different state of the unconscious. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms As theorized by Turing and Von Neuman, computer is a general-purpose simulation machine. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf Our criticism of these linguistic models is not that they are too abstract but, on the contrary, that they are not abstract enough, that they do not reach the abstract machine that connects a language to the semantic and pragmatic contents of statements, to collective assemblages of enunciation, to a whole micropolitics of the social field. Lev Manovich;  REMIXABILITY  2005;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CC4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2FRemix_modular.doc&ei=2zqzUdX4Gcem4AT6lYHAAQ&usg=AFQjCNHlaRFP8sddB6-_oH4XEmra5A8NlQ&sig2=FAwD4HxylAODfMkX2J-4ig&bvm=bv.47534661,d.bGE&cad=rja On the contrary, if the blocks themselves are created using one of many already developed computer designed methods (such as parametric design), every time they are used again they can modify themselves automatically to assure that they look different. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Doch während in der alten Schriftkultur, die nur den einsamen Schreiber und dessen Schreibmaschine oder Computer kennt, der Akt der »Schöpfung« im Kopf des Schreibers stattfindet und damit dessen Tod immer auch eine apokalyptische Vorstellung ist, gibt es in der DJ-Culture die Idee des einen Schöpfer-Gottes zuerst einmal nicht. Jean Baudrillard;  The Conspiracy of Art  1996;  http://insomnia.ac/essays/the_conspiracy_of_art/ The only question is: How can such a machine continue to operate in the midst of critical disillusion and commercial frenzy? James J. Pulizzi;  Machine Intelligence and Electronic Literature  http://newhorizons.eliterature.org/essay.php@id=9.html The eventual introduction of machine intelligence into works of electronic literature opens many possible areas of cooperation and collaboration between the user, computer, and author in the creation and generation of electronic narratives. Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl That their codeworks rarely execute properly, being imaginary code and conflations of machine code with human conversational language, reflects this understanding. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Given the seminatural vocabulary of some modern programing languages, it is not uncommon for programers to write poems in them, often with the constraint that the "poegrams" (or whatever) must make sense to the machine as well. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history A few quotes from Cybertext: Cybertext, as now should be clear, is the wide range (or perspective) of possible textualities seen as a typology of machines, as various kinds of literary communication systems where the functional differences among the mechanical parts play a defining role in determining the aesthetic process. Wikipedia;  Mashup (web application hybrid)  2013;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mashup_%28web_application_hybrid%29 Data quality is a general challenge when automatically integrating data from autonomous sources. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf Die ‘Wolkenpumpen’ aber sind nicht nur automatische Gedichte, sondern schon Vorläufer meiner ‘papiers déchirés’, meiner ‘Zerreissbilder’, in denen die ‘Wirklichkeit’ und der ‘Zufall’ ungehemmt sich entwickeln können. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf And with that the world of the symbolic really turned into the world of the machine.[63] Unlike the history it put an end to, the media age proceeds in jerks, just like Turing's paper strip. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm He argues that the nature of the phrase structure component is determined by the existence of proper names; that the existence of a phrase structure component is explained by the fact that “all the natural measures of complexity of an algorithm – size of the machine table, length of computations, time, and space required for the computation – lead to the ... Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf Sie sind wie die surrealistischen automatischen Gedichte unmittelbar niedergeschrieben, ohne Überlegung oder Überarbeitung. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf An organ is a huge machine, with sources of power—pumps, bellows, electric generators—totally outside its operator. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Image editing programs such as Photoshop can automatically correct scanned images, improving contrast range and removing noise. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms But we can take a closer look at one place where the identity of a computer as a “remediation machine” was largely put in place – Alan Kay’s Learning Research Group at Xerox PARC that was in operation during the first part of the 1970s. Michael Goddard;  Felix and Alice in Wonderland. The Encounter between Guattari and Berardi and the Post-Media Era  2006;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpbifo1.htm As Guattari concludes: “ The point of view of the Alicians on this question is the following: they consider that the movement that arrives at destroying the gigantic capitalist-beaureaucratic machine will be, a fortiori, completely capable of constructing an other world—the collective competence in the matter will come to it in the course of the journey, without it being necessary, at the present stage to outline projections of societal change.” Apart form anticipating many of the subsequent problematics of the counter-globalisation movement, what this citation tells us most of all about the post-media era is that it is not something that can be given in advance; it is instead a process of the production of subjectivity, the becoming of a collective assemblage of enunciation whose starting point is the emptiness and coerciveness of the normalising production of subjectivity that the mass media currently enact. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf Our writing tool not only works on our thoughts, it "is a thing like me." Mechanized and automatic writing refutes the phallocentrism of classical pens. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms Kay conceived of “personal dynamic media” as a fundamentally new kind of media with a number of historically unprecedented properties such as the ability to hold all of user’s information, simulate all types media within a single machine, and “involve learner in a two-way conversation.” These properties enable new relationships between the user and the media she may be creating, editing, or viewing on a computer. MATTHEW FULLER;  BEHIND THE BLIP - ESSAYS ON THE CULTURE OF SOFTWARE  2003;  http://www.multimedialab.be/doc/citations/matthew_fuller_blip.pdf New imaginal and communicative capacities to enter into relations of becoming—of machine, technical, aesthetic, and social dynamics—are required. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Word processors and other text management software for a long time provided the abilities to search for specific strings of text and automatically index documents. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 Code that runs on a machine is performative in a much stronger sense than that attributed to language. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html By implication, such works also reference the complex hybridization now underway between human cognition and the very different and yet interlinked cognitions of intelligent machines, a condition that Talan Memmott has brilliantly evoked in Lexia to Perplexia with neologisms like "remotional," and "I-terminal." The conjunction of language with code has stimulated experiments in the formation and collaboration of different kinds of languages. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 Here is Katherine Hayles (2005) on the illocutionary quality of all code: Code has become arguably as important as natural language because it causes things to happen, which requires that it be executed as commands the machine can run. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf It is certainly true that mechanical text generators are not computers in a strict sense as they are neither able to convert analog signals into universal machine codes nor do they operate as fast as modern digital computers. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms In short, why did these people dedicated their careers to inventing the ultimate “remediation machine”? Vilém Flusser;  A Historiography Revised  1982;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Ever more complex machines, most of them hydraulic, are being designed. Christian Marazzi;  CAPITAL AND LANGUAGE  2002;  http://asounder.org/resources/marazzi_capitallanguage.pdf anej LanguagG linguistic resistance is strong, rational, and independent from false signals if it succeeds in contesting the dominant language without in turn reproducing a totalizing language; if it functions as a "war machine" which does not reproduce in negative form what it is fighting against, the catastrophic homologation of individual actions, but rather the implosion of the realm of meanings, of equivalences and identities. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf Of course, computer programs could simulate the so-called individuality of the human hand, with its routines and mistakes, but Turing, as the inventor of the universal discrete machine, was a typist. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 So one must assume that the ‘soft’ comes from the informatic fluidity of these devices, from what Turing meant when he called his machine ‘universal’ rather than ‘discrete’. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf And yet, pantomime, the spoken word, and the written word are nothing but the products of internal, self-regulating mechanisms that are channeled and coordinated through emotions and conceptions, just as one can operate a sewing, typing, or speaking machine without knowing its mechanism. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html The intermixture of code and language on which recombinant flux depends is situated within a more general set of practices in which human thinking and machine execution collaborate to produce literary works that reference both cognitive modes. Katherine Hayles;  The Power of Simulation: What Virtual Creatures Can Teach Us  1999;  http://www.stanford.edu/class/history34q/readings/Hayles/Simulation.html It is a continually evolving complex adaptive system with many interacting cognizers, which these days includes intelligent machines, intelligent programs, intelligent environments, and intelligent humans. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms It is possible to put Sutherland’ work on Sketchpad in the center of computational media history; or Englebart and his Research Center for Augmenting Human Intellect which throughout the 1960s developed hypertext (independently of Nelson), the mouse, the window, the word processor, mixed text/graphics displays, and a number of other “firsts.” Or we can shift focus to the work of Architecture Machine Group at The MIT which since 1967 was headed by Nicholas Negroponte (In 1985 this group became The Media Lab). Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf The invention of typesetting machines in the 1880s industrialized publishing while leading to standardization of both type design and a number and types of fonts used. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf A book itself is a little machine; what is the relation (also measurable) of this literary machine to a war machine, love machine, revolutionary machine, etc.-and an abstract machine that sweeps them along? MATTHEW FULLER;  BEHIND THE BLIP - ESSAYS ON THE CULTURE OF SOFTWARE  2003;  http://www.multimedialab.be/doc/citations/matthew_fuller_blip.pdf Key texts are “Perl, the First Postmodern Computer Language, ”by Larry Wall, and Close to the Machine, by Ellen Ullman. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf They are programmable machines, which are able to process signifiers according to a program and thus generate an output that can neither be predicted nor kept under control by writers or by readers. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms Slowly, through the work of Sutherland, Englebart, Nelson, Papert and others in the 1960s, the ideas and techniques were developed which made computers into a “cultural machine.” One could create and edit text, made drawings, move around a virtual object, etc. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 In both cases we have an ‘object’ imbued with a complex machinery for hiding things, be it the commodity object (or as Guy Debord maniacally demon- strated, the commodity as image) and its ability to mask its own history of production and the social division of labor that generated it, or be it the Java object and its ability to cordon off various functionality into this or that site of inscription and execution, which is no doubt an abstraction or mapping of the actual division of labor globally in the dot-com firm producing it, where one part of the code might spring from a desk in Redmond and another part from a desk in Bangalore without anyone being the wiser. Vilém Flusser;  Criteria—Crisis—Criticism  1984;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ One can imagine boxes that sort photographs automatically, throwing out some, marking others with labels, such as “true,” “good,” and “beautiful,” and directing them into their respective channels. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Werkzeuge und Maschinen sind als Extensionen des menschlichen Körpers aufgefaßt worden, und die Medien entsprechend als Verlängerungen des menschlichen Sinnesapparats, bis hin zu dem Bild, daß in der weltweiten Verschaltung der Medien 'der' Mensch sein Nervensystem auf den gesamten Globus ausdehne. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf (From a letter to Turing: "Pardon the use of the typewriter: I have come to prefer discrete machines to continuos ones."[62]) The mathematical model of 1936 is no longer a hermaphrodite between a machine and a mere tool. MATTHEW FULLER;  BEHIND THE BLIP - ESSAYS ON THE CULTURE OF SOFTWARE  2003;  http://www.multimedialab.be/doc/citations/matthew_fuller_blip.pdf It creates transversal connections between data, machines, and networks. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Just as the history of print literature is deeply bound up with the evolution of book technology as it built on wave after wave of technical innovations, so the history of electronic literature is entwined with the evolution of digital computers as they shrank from the room-sized IBM 1401 machine on which I first learned to program (sporting all of 4K memory) to the networked machine on my desktop, thousands of times more powerful and able to access massive amounts of information from around the globe. Vilém Flusser;  Waiting for Kafka  1967;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Because this language structures Kafka’s thoughts a priori, they automatically oscillate within this dialectical tension. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 By contrast, code running in a digital computer causes changes in machine behavior and, through networked ports and other interfaces, may initiate other changes, all implemented through transmission and execution of code. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Christened by Norbert Wiener, cybernetics was conceived as a science that would develop a common explanatory framework to talk about animals, machines, and humans by considering them as information processors that encoded and decoded messages, exacerbated or corrected their actions through feedback loops, and demonstrated circular causality (see Heims for an account of the Macy conferences). Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf It is not accidental that modern man writes "with" the typewriter and "dictates" [diktiert] (the same word as "poetize" [dichten]) "into" a machine. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 The problem stems from the two basic under- standings of software, one as computer language and the other as machine. Michael Goddard;  Felix and Alice in Wonderland. The Encounter between Guattari and Berardi and the Post-Media Era  2006;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpbifo1.htm If media in their dominant usages can be seen as massive machines for the production of consensual subjectivity, then it is those media that can constitute an alternate production of subjectivity that will be the most amenable to a post-media transformation. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ It is true, though: automatic machines can project some of the created instances of information outside of the conversation and thus change the field of possibilities of the “world”. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 ‘What is software’, Chun (2004) writes, ‘if not the very effort of making something explicit, or making something intangible visible, while at the same time rendering the visible (such as the machine) invisible?’. Roland Barthes;  From Work to Text - 1  1971;  http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/From%20Work%20to%20Text.pdf 'Playing' must be understood here in all its polysemy: the text itself plays (like a door, like a machine with 'play') and the reader plays twice over, playing the Text as one plays a game, looking for a practice which re-produces it, but, in order that that practice not be reduced to a passive, inner mimesis (the Text is precisely that which resists such a reduction), also playing the Text in the musical sense of the term. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf When the virtual camera is close to the object, a highly detailed model is used; if the object is far away, a lesser detailed version is automatically substituted by a program to save unnecessary computation of detail which can’t be seen anyway. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Clearly, cognition must emerge from autopoietic processes if it is not to be treated as an ad hoc phenomenon, a soul injected into the machine. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 The result of this is a presentism, admittedly parroted by me later, where software is understood only in its late 20th-century definition as a symbolic machine language and not in an earlier definition in which software might rightly be understood as pre- or non-linguistic. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms Furthermore, we can automatically (i.e., by running the appropriate algorithms) improve its contrast, make it sharper, and even in some situations remove blur. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf The following are some of the examples of what can be called “lowlevel” automation of media creation, in which the computer user modifies or creates from scratch a media object using templates or simple algorithms. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine Introduction One way to understand how computerization changed the media we use to represent the world, record our ideas and communicate with others is to examine the work of the people who invented the paradigms and practical techniques of computer media. MATTHEW FULLER;  BEHIND THE BLIP - ESSAYS ON THE CULTURE OF SOFTWARE  2003;  http://www.multimedialab.be/doc/citations/matthew_fuller_blip.pdf It creates transversal connections between data, machines, and networks. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 Logic gates are electronic machines; they are physical devices through and through. James J. Pulizzi;  Machine Intelligence and Electronic Literature  http://newhorizons.eliterature.org/essay.php@id=9.html Machine intelligence seeks to produce machines—a term used broadly to refer to computers or other relevant hardware—capable of exhibiting intelligent behavior. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Beginning in the nineteenth century, modern society developed technologies which automated media creation: a photo camera, a film camera, a tape recorder, a video recorder, etc. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf The authors even demonstrate that this kind of machinic multiplicity, assemblage, or society rejects any centralizing or unifying automaton as an "asocial intrusion."15 Under these conditions, n is in fact always n – 1. Lev Manovich;  DEEP REMIXABILITY  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=61 Because the cells are transparent, the drawings get automatically “composited” into a single composition. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf The prototype of such logic machines was the Ars magna devised by the Catalan monk Ramon Lull. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf Harsdörffer claims that his machine is able to mechanically reproduce all possibilities of German without having to compile voluminous dictionaries. James J. Pulizzi;  Machine Intelligence and Electronic Literature  http://newhorizons.eliterature.org/essay.php@id=9.html Human narrative and machine narrative, rather than competing with one another, mutually enhance one another. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Each type of text can be positioned in this multidimensional field according to its functional capabilities…As a theoretical perspective, cybertext shifts the focus from the traditional threesome of author/sender, text/message, and reader/receiver to the cybernetic intercourse between the various part(icipant)s in the textual machine. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ The inventors themselves may have answered: to automate the making of pictures and thus to focus the imagination on its essential characteristic, which is to step back from the world of objects. James J. Pulizzi;  Machine Intelligence and Electronic Literature  http://newhorizons.eliterature.org/essay.php@id=9.html Both machine and human intelligence would be reading the piece. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See "Instead of seaching for mechanisms in the environment that turn organisms into trivial machines, we have to find the mechanisms within the organisms that enable them to turn their environment into a trivial machine" (171). Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf 395) "for 'a machine or artificial method, to print letters continuously one after another while writing, in a fashion so clean and precise that they are indistinguishable from the printing of letters.'" The precision of this concept or premise, namely, to introduce Gutenberg'S reproductive technology into textual production, was contradicted by the vagueness of the patent's phrasing. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See As a result ofthis compensation, the machine's variables remain within specified Iimits. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html A cybertext is a machine for the production of variety of expression. Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl Obviously, software referred to algorithms as control logic that was abstracted from the machine. Vilém Flusser;  The Codified World  1978;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Architecture and machinery, books and tools, clothes and food, all of these things were comparably colorless. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html research network ARPANet, the precursor of the Internet, in April 1976.2 As the microcomputer home market exploded around 1980, Adventure was made available on nearly every type of machine and became the first in a short-lived, but influential, textual computer game genre, which ended its commercial life when the graphic adventure games took over in the late eighties. James J. Pulizzi;  Machine Intelligence and Electronic Literature  http://newhorizons.eliterature.org/essay.php@id=9.html By not attempting to equal human cognitive abilities in all domains, machine intelligence presupposes a complementary relationship between the human and the machine. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf As an individual, this pale and uncontroversial character never mattered much to us critics anyway, and then only as a construct on which to hang the baser pleasures of the text; he is our poor and predictable cousin, slave to the rhythm, lost in the textual pleasure dome like the ball in a pinball machine. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf Indeed, at first, book printing and then machine type offer advantages and conveniences, and these then unwittingly steer preferences and needs to this kind of written communication. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html In these annotations, which amount to a hyperlinked essay, he meditates on the conjunction of human and machine cognition. Lev Manovich;  REMIXABILITY  2005;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CC4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2FRemix_modular.doc&ei=2zqzUdX4Gcem4AT6lYHAAQ&usg=AFQjCNHlaRFP8sddB6-_oH4XEmra5A8NlQ&sig2=FAwD4HxylAODfMkX2J-4ig&bvm=bv.47534661,d.bGE&cad=rja In this scenario, any well-defined part of any finished cultural object can automatically become a building block for new objects in the same medium.