N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html For other texts, the paper's contribution may be
Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdfThese wordgenerating
N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html negligible.
Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf machines are the missing link between the langue of the German language and Lull’s ars combinatoria.
TEXT
Alexander Schierl

INTRODUCTION

MATTHEW FULLER;  BEHIND THE BLIP - ESSAYS ON THE CULTURE OF SOFTWARE  2003;  http://www.multimedialab.be/doc/citations/matthew_fuller_blip.pdf One of these, I would like to argue, is a poetics of connection. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles Although when I came to e-lit in 2004 I had been on the Internet for ten years, reading electronic lit was nevertheless confusing and difficult. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text As institution, the author is dead: his civil status, his biographical person have disappeared; dispossessed, they no longer exercise over his work the formidable paternity whose account literary history, teaching, and public opinion had the responsibility of establishing and renewing; but in the text, in a way, / desire the author: I need his figure (which is neither his representation nor his projection), as he needs mine (except to "prattle"). Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html 'I have been very clear that I use other people's material... N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See In the conventional view, one would say that your slap caused me to be angry. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text Whenever I attempt to "analyze" a text which has given me pleasure, it is not my "subjectivity" I encounter but my "individuality," the given which makes my body separate from other bodies and appropriates its suffering or its pleasure: it is my body of bliss I encounter. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html Not only in the contingent case in which, by means of the translation of German into French "le vert est ou" might be endowed with grammaticality, ou (oder, or) becoming when heard où ' (where, the mark of place): "Where has the green (of the grass) gone (le vert est où )?," "Where has the glass in which I wished to give you something to drink gone (le verre est où )". Vilém Flusser;  Essays  1967;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ It will determine my attitude about my topic, and about those who will read my text, “my others.” In a treatise, I will think about my subject and I will discuss it with my others. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history They are also different in terms of affective ‘proximity’: I may be closer to Amanda than to Josh, and so I place that person’s name first. Rick Prelinger;  On the Virtues of Preexisting Material | Contents Magazine  2007;  http://contentsmagazine.com/articles/on-the-virtues-of-preexisting-material/ If recycling continues to be more reactive than formative, I worry about its future. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Furthermore, by re-presenting a segment of text from the novel - her own novel - Acker returns to her earlier question 'if I repeated the same text, would it be the same text?' Switches of narrator and diary extracts also feature throughout the book. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm Thus, as it goes without saving, the trace whereof I speak is not more natural (it is not the mark, the natural sign, or the index in the Husserlian sense) than cultural, not more physical than psychic, biological than spiritual. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See To answer this question, I must take my narrative onto new grounrl anrl consirler the rhetorical strategies that Autopoiesis and Cognition uses to construct its argument. Lev Manovich;  DEEP REMIXABILITY  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=61 As I was researching what the users and industry reviewers has been saying about After Effects, I came across a somewhat condescending characterization of this software as “Photoshop with keyframes.” I think that this characterization is actually quite useful. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text For if I say that between pleasure and bliss there is only a difference of degree, I am also saying that the history is a pacified one: the text of bliss is merely the logical, organic, historical development of the text of pleasure; the avantgarde is never anything but the progressive, emancipated form of past culture: today emerges from yesterday, Robbe-Grillet is already in Flaubert, Sollers in Rabelais, all of Nicolas de Stael in two square centimeters of Cezanne. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history As a semioti- cian – even a hungry one – I wonder about this “e”, in part because just the night before I have had a discussion with a colleague about how signs work. Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf If I discover that Shakespeare was not born in the house we visit today, this is a modification that, obviously, will not alter the functioning of the author's name. Jörg Heiser;  Sight Reading  2009;  https://www.frieze.com/issue/article/sight_reading/ Its bias is fed by my own observations over the years as much as by informal remarks made to me by artists and critics. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm Such a way of describing the situation should not be too surprising to those familiar with the history of psychology at Berkeley, where, after all, Edward Tolman has given his name to the psychology building; but I want to stress that the hypotheses I am discussing are qualitatively different in complexity and intricacy from anything that was considered in the classical discussions of learning. Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf In saying this, I seem to call for a form of culture in which fiction would not be limited by the figure of the author. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history And, even though I know it is a marketing gimmick, I want to be seduced by its meanings. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html These characters are so close to our writing that an alphabet simply diminishes the confusion of their number, and is their succinct abbreviation" Having placed in evidence the motif of the economic, homogenous, and mechanical reduction, let us now come back to the notion of absence that I noted in Condillac's text. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt I am most myself in the gaps between my parts" (body of text/dispersed). Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm The presence-absence of the trace, which one should not even call its ambiguity but rather its play (for the word “ambiguity” requires the logic of presence, even when it begins to disobey that logic), carries in itself the problems of the letter and the spirit, of body and soul, and of all the problems whose primary affinity I have recalled. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt This lexia is linked with "sewn": "I had sewn her, stitching deep into the night by candlelight, until the tiny black stitches wavered into script and I began to feel that I was writing, that this creature I was assembling was a brash attempt to achieve by artificial means the unity of a life-form" (journal/sewn). Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja In this essay I will look at some of these variations. Lev Manovich;  REMIXABILITY  2005;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CC4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2FRemix_modular.doc&ei=2zqzUdX4Gcem4AT6lYHAAQ&usg=AFQjCNHlaRFP8sddB6-_oH4XEmra5A8NlQ&sig2=FAwD4HxylAODfMkX2J-4ig&bvm=bv.47534661,d.bGE&cad=rja This “look from the future” approach may illuminate the present in a way not possible if we only “look from the past.” The sketch of logically possible cultural ecology I just made is a little experiment in this method: futurology or science fiction as a method of contemporary cultural analysis. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Eine wachsende Respektlosigkeit, die ihren künstlerischen Niederschlag nicht nur in den wilden Samplesund Coverversionen findet, sondern auch in den zum Teil das Original komplett ignorierenden Remixes durch berühmte DJs wie MK, der auf dem New Music Seminar 1993 in New York bemerkte: »Wenn ich mir jeden Dreck im Original anhören müßte, den ich remixe, würde ich es nicht mehr machen. Michel Foucault;  T H E A T R U M P H I L 0 S O P H I C U M  1970;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpfoucault5.htm This is the theater where the laughter of the Sophist bursts out from under the mask of Socrates; where Spinoza's modes conduct a wild dance in a decentered circle while substance revolves about it like a mad planet; where a limping Fichte announces "the fractured I // the dissolved self; where Leibniz, having reached the top of the pyramid, can see through the darkness that celestial music is in fact a Pierrot lunaire. WALTER BENJAMIN;  THE AUTHOR AS PRODUCER  1970;  http://newleftreview.org/I/62/walter-benjamin-the-author-as-producer Allow me to give you an example of the sterility of such oppositions and of the process by which they are dialectically overcome. WALTER BENJAMIN;  THE AUTHOR AS PRODUCER  1970;  http://newleftreview.org/I/62/walter-benjamin-the-author-as-producer In a word, it is the literarization of the relationships of life which overcomes otherwise insoluble antinomies and it is the showplace of the unrestrained degradation of the word—that is, the newspaper—which prepares its salvation.’ Thus I hope I have shown that the portrayal of the author as a producer must be derived from the press. Thomas Bernhard;  From One Catastrophe to the Next (Interview)  1986;  http://www.thomasbernhard.org/interviews/1986intas.shtml When I write it's in the end never what I had thought it would be like. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html (She doesn't know why she's saying this.) Father: (dumbfounded, but not denying it): Sally and I just slept together for the first time. Marshall McLuhan;  The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man  1962;  http://books.google.de/books/about/The_Gutenberg_Galaxy.html?id=y4C644zHCWgC&redir_esc=y Though many commentators radically misread McLuhan as intending to hasten the collapse of book culture, in fact he issued a call for shoring it up: “Far from wishing to belittle the Gutenberg mechanical culture, it seems to me that we must now work very hard to retain its achieved values.”2 GG provides progressively stronger hints to the reader as to how this can be done; the companion volume (Understanding Media, promised in GG’s closing pages) explicitly states that retaining book culture can only be done by avoiding the errors of the past. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm For reasons that I have already mentioned, I believe that these proposals can be properly regarded as a further development of classical rationalist doctrine, as an elaboration of some of its main ideas regarding language and mind. Vilém Flusser;  Waiting for Kafka  1967;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ After presenting this absurd proposal, so typical of Kafka’s world, I now proceed to the second difficulty. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text The text you write must prove to me that it desires me. Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf But I think there is an answer to this objection. MATTHEW FULLER;  BEHIND THE BLIP - ESSAYS ON THE CULTURE OF SOFTWARE  2003;  http://www.multimedialab.be/doc/citations/matthew_fuller_blip.pdf By this I mean not the actual users of the software, but the models of them that are put into place by that software—and which it is therefore unable to distinguish and learn from. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf Now all my friends have to do is to invent a reading machine: otherwise I will fall behind myself and won't be able to supply myself with sufficient intellectual nourishment. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm The unity of sound and of sense is indeed here, as I proposed above, the reassuring closing of plan,. WALTER BENJAMIN;  THE AUTHOR AS PRODUCER  1970;  http://newleftreview.org/I/62/walter-benjamin-the-author-as-producer When I turn to the ‘new objectivity’ as a literary movement, I must go a step further and say that it has made the struggle against misery into a consumer good. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Mark Rose ends his book (note that I use the media-specific practice of calling it a book and not a text) by suggesting that copyright continues to endure, despite its many problems, because it reinforces "the sense of who we are" (Rose 142). Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html 1920 Free all prisoners leave people's minds alone only our personal life exists fish leap through our hair our limbs tangle we mutilate each other take guns slash off our heads long orange machetes [...] not now known I lonely praise Gertrude Stein Walt Whitman Allen Ginsberg the women of you American apocalypse visions who fly to the raging beams moon revolution every 1/3 second faster than any dynamite thought The way in which the fragmentation of phrases reveals new phrases and new images clearly shows an attempt to test the replicability of Burroughs and Gysin's initial experiments. Lev Manovich;  DEEP REMIXABILITY  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=61 To emphasize the gradual, almost invisible pace of the transformations which occurred in moving image aesthetics between approximately 1993 and 1998, I am going to appropriate the term Velvet Revolution to refer to these transformations. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf My handwriting shows me more naked than I am with my clothes off. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm In the course of these lectures I have mentioned some of the classical ideas regarding language structure and contemporary efforts to deepen and extend them. Roland Barthes;  From Work to Text - 2  1971;  http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/From%20Work%20to%20Text.pdf Certainly there exists a pleasure of the work (of certain works); I can delight in reading and re-reading Proust, Flaubert, Balzac, even -- why not? N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See To get outside systems theory and interrogate what it cannot see, I will begin with a historical and narrative account of Maturana's work. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Since I shall return to the question of linear and nonlinear narrative in a later chapter, I wish here only to remark that nonlinearity has become so important in contemporary critical thought, so fashionable, one might say, that Smith's observation, whether accurate or not, has become almost inevitable. Thomas Bernhard;  From One Catastrophe to the Next (Interview)  1986;  http://www.thomasbernhard.org/interviews/1986intas.shtml When I was alone, no matter where, I always knew, this person protects me, gives me support, but also dominates. Jacques Derrida;  Speech and writing according to Hegel  1993;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida1.htm This theory of the arbitrary nature of the sign and this distinction between the sign and the symbol are explicated at length and clearly in the Introduction to the first section of the Aesthetics ('On symbol in general'), to which I here permit myself to refer you. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf Hence, in the following survey of proto-cybertexts, I will turn away my attention from “literary objects that are static, intransient, determinate, impersonal, random access, solely interpretative and without links” (Eskelinen 2001). WALTER BENJAMIN;  THE AUTHOR AS PRODUCER  1970;  http://newleftreview.org/I/62/walter-benjamin-the-author-as-producer First because I am forced to’—here Maublanc indicates his duties as a teacher in a high school—‘secondly because I am of bourgeois origin and of a bourgeois education and come from a bourgeois milieu, and therefore am naturally inclined to address myself to the class to which I belong, which I know best and can best understand. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms So far I have talked about the history of computational media as series of consecutive “additions.” However this history is not only a a process of accumulation of more and more options. Thomas Bernhard;  From One Catastrophe to the Next (Interview)  1986;  http://www.thomasbernhard.org/interviews/1986intas.shtml I once had four or five, now I have two or three.

CHAPTER
ONE

Vilém Flusser;  What Is Communication?  1973–74;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Such an undertaking, however, lies beyond the original intention of this essay. Eduardo Navas;  THE FRAMEWORK OF CULTURE: REMIX IN MUSIC, ART, AND LITERATURE  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=651#more-651 All of these examples were not “original” but rather drastically different because of the combination of various ideas to create a specific technology that when first introduced people had to negotiate into their lives. Lev Manovich;  The Practice of Everyday (Media) Life: From Mass Consumption to Mass Cultural Production?  2009;  http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/596645#fn9 According to de Certeau's original analysis from 1980, tactics do not necessarily result in objects or anything stable or permanent: “Unlike the strategy, it [the tactic] lacks the centralized structure and permanence that would enable it to set itself up as a competitor to some other entity…. Michel Foucault;  Author Function  1977;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Foucault-AuthorFunction.html In our cultureÑand undoubtably in others as wellÑdiscourse was not originally a thing, a product, or a possession, but an action situated in a bipolar field of sacred and profane, lawful and unlawful, religious and blasphemous. Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst Der Begriff „Plagiat“ wird vom lateinischen Wort „plagium“ (Menschenraub) abgeleitet und taucht zum ersten Mal in der Spätantike auf. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 Cut/copy and paste, the fragmentation of material, is today part of everyday activities both at work and at home thanks to the computer, and are commonly found in popular software applications, such as Adobe Photoshop and Microsoft Word. T. W. Adorno;  The Essay a s Form  1984;  http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0094-033X%28198421%2F22%290%3A32%3C151%3ATEAF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-C In the essay the persuasive aspect of communication, analogously to the functional transformation of many traits in autonomous music, is alienated from its original goal and converted into the pure articula tion of presentation in itself; it becomes a compelling construction that does not want to copy the object, but to reconstruct it out of its concep tual membra disjecta. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf (Diringer 1962, pp 121–2, discusses the two variants of the original alphabet, the North Semitic and the South Semitic.) Every alphabet in the world—Hebrew, Ugaritic, Greek, Roman, Cyrillic, Arabic, Tamil, Malayalam, Korean—derives in one way or another from the original Semitic development, though, as in Ugaritic and Korean script, the physical design of the letters may not always be related to the Semitic design. Michael Goddard;  Felix and Alice in Wonderland. The Encounter between Guattari and Berardi and the Post-Media Era  2006;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpbifo1.htm The second virtual encounter also took place in confinement, this time in prison in 1976 under suspicion of having placed a bomb in a the office of the Christian Democrats, when a friend handed him a copy of Anti-Oedipus. Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst Dazu gehörten die Festivals of Plagiarism (die sich als Plagiate der neoistischen Apartment-Festivals verstanden, die wiederum Plagiate der Fluxus-Festivals waren) ebenso wie die Fanzines VAGUE, SMILE (International Magazin of Multiple Origins), FILE (und dessen Plagiate BILE und VILE) sowie PhotoStatic/ Retrofuturism. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Acker punctuates this section of the book with extensive quotations from Genet's work, and in doing so clearly invites parallels to be drawn between Janey's story and Acker's own theft / plagiarism from her own influencers. Lev Manovich;  DEEP REMIXABILITY  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=61 This was the original After Effects paradigm: all image media can meet as long as they are reduced to 2D. Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst Für die Institution Kunst erschütternder als die kapitalismuskritische Decodierung des Warenfetischs ist jedoch die Ablehnung der für die Moderne zentralen Begriffe Kreativität, Expressivität und Originalität. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja Importantly, as distribution of culture, from texts to music to videos, is increasingly tmoving online, economically dominant ideas about authorship and copyright in our society will be implemented in actual software that will control who can access, copy and modify the cultural objects, and at what price. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Much of Acker's 'plagiarism' served as a means of exploring the relationship of her own writing with canonical texts, and as a way of discovering her own identity. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm On this point Peirce is undoubtedly closer to the inventor of the word phenomenology: Lambert proposed in fact to “reduce the theory of things to the theory of signs.” According to the “phaneoroscopy” or “Phenomenology” of Peirce, manifestation itself does not reveal a presence, it makes a sign. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 Generally speaking, remix culture can be defined as the global activity consisting of the creative and efficient exchange of information made possible by digital technologies that is supported by the practice of cut/copy and paste. Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl Tzara’s “infinitely original author of charming sensibility, even though unappreciated by the vulgar herd” clearly mocks the romantic genius. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf So when George Lucas releases a new Star Wars movie, it refers back to the original property — the original Star Wars trilogy. Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl With his method of “reading through,”he compressed literary works like Joyce’s Finnegans Wake to a fraction of their original size. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Herodotus would proceed to tell a story, then digress on an interesting detail, and then notify the reader/listener that he was resuming the original storyline. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html One therefore works on an electronic copy until such time as both versions converge when the writer commands the computer to "save" one's version of the text by placing it in memory. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm And the original absence of the subject of writing is also the absence of the thing or the referent. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Aarseth’s very specific and original viewpoint is most likely related to his background in video game studies and electronic literature, both domains, which put a lot of emphasis on the technical medium. Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst Als erfolgreichstes Projekt der plagiatorischen Subkulturen bezeichnet Cramer die Plunderphonics, zu denen die Tape-beatles, Jon Oswald, das CVS – Copyright Violation Squad Bulletin und Negativland gehörten. Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst Der Begriff „Plagiat“ wird vom lateinischen Wort „plagium“ (Menschenraub) abgeleitet und taucht zum ersten Mal in der Spätantike auf. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 The second remix is selective; it consists of adding or subtracting material from the original song. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm Since the deliberate and systematic phonological orientation of linguistics (Troubetzkoy, Jakobson, Martinet) carries out an intention which was originally Saussure's, I shall, at least provisionally, confine my-self to the latter. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf Notions of originality (being at the origin of) and even of creation (making something from nothing) are slowly blurred in this new cultural landscape marked by the twin figures of the DJ and the programmer, both of whom have the task of selecting cultural objects and inserting them into new contexts. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Of course, there is a counterpoint regarding the originality of the 'original' text, the 'original' Don Quixote which needs noting here. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Je nach Anlagen des DJs erfahren die Originalkompositionen der Stücke im Laufe des Produktionsprozesses eine deutlich wahrnehmbare Modifizierung, die einem besseren Klang oder einer erhöhten Clubtauglichkeit dienen soll. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Second, this same ease of cutting, copying, and otherwise manipulating texts permits different forms of scholarly composition, ones in which the researcher's notes and original data exist in experientially closer proximity to the scholarly text than ever before. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf We do this out of lack of respect for the copy; it appears to misrepresent the “real” text, even if such a thing may never have existed. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf The individual copy-as-text is linear, because there is only one sequence: first, the decrypted scripton once, then the reencrypted one for ever after; but the text-as-copy may turn out to be either of the scriptons and is therefore nonlinear. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja Remixing originally had a precise and a narrow meaning that gradually became diffused. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html Suppose Don Quixote is transported not into a new time but a new medium, and that the word sequences on the computer screen are identical to Cervantes' original print edition. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Print culture gave birth to the romantic notions of ‘originality’ and ‘creativity’, which set apart an individual work from other works even more, seeing its origins and meaning as independent of outside influence, at least ideally. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt The decision clearly relied on the notion of the author's "originality" as a key component of an artistic work. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf When an object is inserted into a document (for instance, a media clip inserted into a Word document), it continues to maintain its independence and can always be edited with the program used originally to create it. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html (1972) and Rip-Off Red, Girl Detective (1973), which she describes as 'a pornographic mystery story.' The second phase of her career is one of transition, and is marked by a shift from syntactic cut-ups toward outright plagiarism and a method that could be more accurately described as cut and paste than cut-up. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html Austin's notions of illocution and perlocution do not designate the transport or passage of a content of meaning, but in a way the communication of an original movement (to be defined in a general theory of action), an operation, and the production of an effect. Rick Prelinger;  On the Virtues of Preexisting Material | Contents Magazine  2007;  http://contentsmagazine.com/articles/on-the-virtues-of-preexisting-material/ While the original document may itself not be authentic, returning to the document invests the search with authenticity. Lev Manovich;  DEEP REMIXABILITY  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=61 This means that in most cases, we will no longer find any of these techniques in their pure original state. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Circularity became prominent when the authority of the text was on the wane; recursivity was developed when emergence had to be accounted for; and the differential—originally a mathematical operation—was reactivated when all the umbrella conceptualizations of immeasurabilities had broken down. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Er sollte keine einzigartige, »theologische« Bedeutung (die Botschaft des Autoren-Gottes) mehr offerieren, sondern als multidimensionaler Raum funktionieren, in dem mehrere Schriften verheiratet und zerstritten sind und keine ein Original ist. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms Slowly printed books developed a different way of presenting information; similarly cinema also developed its own original concept of narrative space. Eric A. Havelock;  The Muse Learns to Write  1986;  http://www.thenewhumanities.net/books/Book%20Reviews16.html Translation of the high classical language into a modern literary tongue, when the effect is compared with the original, at once brings out the dynamics of the oral tongue and what has happened in the transfer to a literate syntax. Lev Manovich;  DEEP REMIXABILITY  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=61 For instance, while particular media techniques continue to be used in relation to their original media, they can also be applied to other media. Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl The industrial nature of its results puts into question traditional categories of authorship, originality and genius. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles Jackson’s work allows the “female companion” in Mary Shelley’s famous book to displace Victor Frankenstein as the protagonist, even though in the original story she was torn to bits by Dr Frankenstein at the thought of his creations reproducing. Wolfgang Iser;  THE RANGE OF INTERPRETATION  2000;  http://books.google.de/books/about/The_range_of_interpretation.html?id=9IPLzzYy2hAC&redir_esc=y Therefore “canonization of a text may at times serve to take the authority away from its original meaning, allowing the commentator to choose the meaning that will be deemed authoritative. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja For instance, one license (called Gnu Public License) specifies that the programmer have to provide the copy of the new code to the community; another stipulates that the programmer can sell the new code and he does not have to share with the community, but he can’t do things to damage the community. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Mit welcher Authentizität oder welcher Originalität? Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst ihnen und ihren HerstellerInnen begegnen kann, gehört Plagiarismus in der bildenden Kunst zu einer langen und vielfältigen Tradition von künstlerischen Aneignungspraktiken. Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst Auch lassen die durch Computer ermöglichte unbegrenzte Kopierbarkeit von digitaler Information und ihre durch das Internet fast kostenlose Verbreitung die Proklamation von Plagiarismus in fotokopierten Fanzines heute mehr als anachronistisch erscheinen. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html The presentation of this section is indicative of Acker's far-ranging interest in language, language formation and language conditioning, as well as her taking not only the original cut-up, but also the variations and extensions of the technique as a starting point for her own exploration. Rick Prelinger;  On the Virtues of Preexisting Material | Contents Magazine  2007;  http://contentsmagazine.com/articles/on-the-virtues-of-preexisting-material/ Archives promise the possibility of a return to original, unmediated documents. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 In Remix as discourse, allegory is often deconstructed in more advanced remixes following the Reflexive Remix, and quickly moves to be an exercise that at times leads to a “remix” in which the only thing that is recognizable from the original is the title. Tristan Tzara;  TO MAKE A DADAIST POEM  1920;  http://www.moma.org/interactives/redstudio/interactives/chance/ And there you are—an infinitely original author of charming sensibility, even though unappreciated by the vulgar herd. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The second remix is selective; it consists of adding or subtracting material from the original composition. Vilém Flusser;  Waiting for Kafka  1967;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ The concept of original sin is one example. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt The discussions that swirled around copyright also solidified assumptions about what counted as creativity, authorship, and proper literature. Anthony Burke;  After BitTorrent: Darknets to Native Data  2006;  http://hotfile.com/dl/123907648/e66d7b2/7ad_collective_intelligence_in_design_-_edited_by_christopher_hight__chris_perry.rar.html?lang=de The rules were established as a framework to permeate a range of edits to take place; categories of homogeneous, singular or aggregate materials, and close-up, medium and long- shot gestures were mixed with different degrees of acceleration, creating inversions of the original sources, and switching the regularity of the space and time orientation. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html Above all, one then would be concerned with different types of marks or chains of iterable marks, and not with an opposition between citational statements on the one hand, and singular and original statement-events on the other. Vilém Flusser;  The Codified World  1978;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ That is what we mean by “crisis of values”: that we step out of the linear world of explanations and into the techno-imaginary world of “models.” The revolutionary originality of techno-images is not that they move themselves, that they are “audiovisual,” that they shine in light of the cathThe Codified World 41 ode ray, and so on, but that they are “models,” the image of a concept of a scene. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja In 1972 DJ Tom Moulton mixed his first disco remixes; as Poscard points out, they “show a very chaste treatment of the original song. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See The divorce of perception from external reality is at once the basis for the striking originality of Maturana's epistemology and the Achilles' heel that renders it vulnerable to cogent objections. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Cut/copy and paste then applies directly to New Media at large when we consider the efficiency with which independent print publications are produced, and made accessible for download or online reading, by small businesses or non-profits like the activist publication The Journals of Aesthetics and Protest, as well as the online and print new media magazine a minima, among many others. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Text derives originally from the Latin word for weaving and for interwoven material, and it has come to have extraordinary accuracy of meaning in the case of word processing. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 This is radical because the phonograph was originally designed to be a pacifier (a silencer) for human beings, as Attali argues. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf Bertrand Lavier functions in a similar way when he superimposes a refrigerator onto an armchair (Brandt on Rue de Passy) or one perfume onto another (Chanel No. 5 on Shalimar), grafting objects in a playful questioning of the category of "sculpture." His TV Painting, 1986, shows seven paintings by Jean Fautrier, Charles Lapicque, Nicolas De Stael, Lewensberg, On Kawara, Yves Klein, and Lucio Fontana, each broadcast by a television set whose size corresponds to the format of the original work. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html For example, there is a section explaining that dynamic data arrays are used to generate the screen displays, but there is little or no theoretical exploration of what it means to read an electronic text produced in this fashion rather than the print original. Anthony Burke;  After BitTorrent: Darknets to Native Data  2006;  http://hotfile.com/dl/123907648/e66d7b2/7ad_collective_intelligence_in_design_-_edited_by_christopher_hight__chris_perry.rar.html?lang=de In this light, many theorists believe the copyright wars we are in the midst of are the death throes of mass media as we have known it. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history All these conventions of modem printing are significant organizational intrusions into the original work. Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst Der Unterschied zwischen dem „Original“ und dem „Plagiat“ bestand lediglich durch die Zuschreibung des Textes zu einem anderen Autorennamen – was eine gewisse Parallelität zu dem Vorgehen Levines nahe legt. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html Here I advance the following two propositions or hypotheses: Since every sign, as much in the "language of action" as in articulated language (even before the intervention of writing in the classical sense), supposes a certain absence (to be determined), it must be because absence in the field of writing is of an original kind if any specificity whatsoever of the written sign is to be acknowledged. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 This implies that the originality of the remix is nonexistent, therefore it must acknowledge its source of validation self-reflexively. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html No longer primarily occupied by the task of preserving information in the form of fragile manuscripts that degraded with frequent use, scholars, working with books, developed new conceptions of scholarship, originality, and authorial property. Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst Auch lassen die durch Computer ermöglichte unbegrenzte Kopierbarkeit von digitaler Information und ihre durch das Internet fast kostenlose Verbreitung die Proklamation von Plagiarismus in fotokopierten Fanzines heute mehr als anachronistisch erscheinen. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf There are many scales of change in a text’s metamorphosis: unintentional (the blunders of a typesetter or projectionist in the dark), usurpatory (a re-mix of samples from a musical recording, a hacked version of a computer game), plagiary (one composer’s unacknowledged variations on a theme of another), and subversive or estranging (the “cut up” textual experiments of William Burroughs and John Cage), to suggest a few. Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst Während im Wissenschaftsbetrieb der Begriff „Plagiarismus“ durchwegs negativ konnotiert ist und die derzeitige Debatte hauptsächlich darum geht, wie man Plagiate am effektivsten aufdecken und mit welchen Maßnahmen man sie vermeiden bzw. Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst In short, plagiarism saves time and effort, improves results and shows considerable initiative on the part of the individual plagiarist. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja To quote Poscardt one last time, “however much quoting, sampling and stealing is done – in the end it is the old subjects that undertake their own modernization. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt The author creates his literary property through the exercise of his original genius, yet it is clear that writing is always a matter of appropriation and transformation, from syntax to literary allusions and the structure of tropes.

CHAPTER
TWO

Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The paged book has a canonical order. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The new works do not have a single linear order, corresponding to the pages of the book or the columns of the papyrus roll, and so there is no order to violate. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm For example, his recent book on the categories of primitive mentality is a serious and thoughtful attempt to come to grips with this problem. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The printed book makes these acts of reference easier through the use of footnotes and page references. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Collecting innovative, high-quality work is an important step forward in opening electronic literature up to a wider audience and moving it into the classroom. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See The idea is put to the test in another book Maturana co-authored with Varela. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html (Atelier de Littérature Assistee par le Mathematique et les Ordinateurs, or Workshop of Literature Assisted by Mathematics and Computers), which includes among others Jean-Pierre Balpe, and the group with which he is associated, L.A.I.R.E (Lecture, Art, Innovation, Recherche, Écriture, or Reading, Art, Innovation, Research, Writing). Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm That which, within the history of literature and in the structure of a literary text in general, escapes that framework, merits a type of description whose norms and conditions of possibility glossematics has perhaps better isolated. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text All socio-ideological analyses agree on the deceptive nature of literature (which deprives them of a certain pertinence): the work is finally always written by a socially disappointed or powerless group, beyond the battle because of its historical, economic, political situation; literature is the expression of this disappointment. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Als Derrida diesen Satz 1967 in eine Zeile und in ein Buch dennoch niederschrieb, formulierte er eine tiefgreifende Krisenerfahrung. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html By attempting to give a recognizable shape to this fast-moving and diverse community of artists, writers, designers, programmers, and critics and the works they create and interpret, I hope this essay will also interest specialists who may be familiar with one or more areas of electronic literature but not necessarily with the field as a whole. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html In the Renaissance, however, the idea of the labyrinth, both in literature and visual art, was reduced to the multicursal paradigm that we recognize today. James J. Pulizzi;  Machine Intelligence and Electronic Literature  http://newhorizons.eliterature.org/essay.php@id=9.html Such a structure would result in a constrained narrative, more akin to the set print of a book than what one would expect from a dynamic device like a computer. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Since my copy is from the eighth printing (1990) and the book was first published in 1983, it is unlikely that there is a version with only one first chapter, but we nevertheless assume that this is what the textmeant, and that the introduction got numbered by mistake. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles Hayles’ defense of this prediction relies on the fact that almost all literature today is transferred into digital format at some point. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Moreover, print texts can engage in reflexive play at least as complex as anything in Patchwork Girl, as Michael Snow's wonderful artist book Cover to Cover playfully demonstrates. Jörg Heiser;  Sight Reading  2009;  https://www.frieze.com/issue/article/sight_reading/ Moriarty from Sidney Paget’s famous 1893 book illustration. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles As Hayles notes, books printed hundreds of years ago “can endure for centuries” but works of electronic literature become difficult to read “after a decade or even less“. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles Normally, definitions of electronic literature exclude print literature that has been digitized, such as the work of Project Gutenberg, and an important distinction for electronic literature is the requirement of “properly executed code,” in order for the work to be accessible. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html This essay aims to provide (some of) the context that will open the field of inquiry so that electronic literature can be understood as both partaking of literary tradition and introducing crucial transformations that redefine what literature is. Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl At MIT, Knuth initiated a project God and computers whose results were an exhibition of Bible calligraphies and, in 2001, a book Things a Computer Scientist Rarely Talks About.In this book, Knuth remembers how as a student he read a computer program code that he found “absolutely beautiful. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles Excluding authors like Neil Gaiman, who still creates his novels first on paper, all contemporary literature is created digitally, from start to finish. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Text as Vapor In his important book Authors and Owners: The Invention of Copyright, Mark Rose shows that copyright did more than provide a legal basis for intellectual property. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles Arguably the most popular and best known genre of electronic literature is hypertext fiction, distinguished by its many links between blocks of text known as lexias. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html The parallels with The Book of Breeething are clearly apparent, Acker herself acknowledged the fact that Burroughs' work in which he was 'dealing with how language and politics come together, the kind of language, what the image is' was an inspiration. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 If I may read between the lines of Chun’s essay, it is not exactly the discipline of visual culture that provides a backdrop for her project, despite the use of the term ‘visual’ and despite indications made in her book Control and Freedom (2006). Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html As Richard Lanham (1989, 270) observes, literary theorists have for a long time been in the "codex book business," restricting their observations (but not their arguments) to literature mediated in a certain way. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Hypertext, Bolter wrote in his seminal book Writing Space, takes "the sting out of deconstruction." In conflating hypertext with the difficult and productive aporias of deconstructive analysis, these theorists failed to do justice either to the nuanced operations of works performed in electronic media or to the complexities of deconstructive philosophy. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf This is one reason why ‘the book says’ is popularly tantamount to ‘it is true’. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf However, there is a strong link from Dada and Surrealism to the experimental literature and arts of the 1960s. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Dies erinnert an die Vorschrift der altchinesischen Gelehrten, zu jedem Wortzeichen der Schrift eine bestimmte Anzahl kanonisierter Textstellen auswendigzulernen, die die Verwendung des Zeichens in der klassischen Literatur belegten. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The traditional book represented the work of the author, who had laboured to produce a text, which in its ordering represented a ‘body of knowledge’ or the shape of the world – whether fictional or actual. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt For some time now writers and artists working in the medium of artist books have delighted in arranging such jolts of surprise, exploring, transgressing, and exploding the conventions of the book while still retaining enough "bookishness" to make clear they remain within its traditions, even as they redefine and expand what "book" means. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Bolter, eager to proclaim the end of “the printed book,” plays along with the metaphysics of logocentrism and reduces print on paper to barely a corner of itsmultiform nature: “A printed book generally speaks with a single voice and assumes a consistent character, a persona, before its audience.” For “the electronic text,” however, this no longer applies, because “it is not a physical artifact.” To go against Bolter’s rhetoric, I would say that instead of having two sets of opposed attributes, one connected to the “printed” and one to the “electronic” text, we have a number of different text types, some paper based and some digital, with the greater variety among the digital ones, and the paper based most centrally placed. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Writing on New Media poetics, Adalaide Morris aptly discusses this aspect of digital literature by commenting that it articulates for us what we already in some sense know. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See The Book of Laws is an example, as it permits the addition of new laws whose legal status is as binding as those already included. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles In the spring of 2007 I traveled down to the University of Maryland to attend the Electronic Literature Organization’s annual symposium, “The Future of Electronic Literature,” and at the symposium I first saw Hayles, whom I had read about in numerous footnotes and works-cited lists. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf With the help of a typewriter he has resumed his writing activities, and we can hence expect a book along the lines of his last ones. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf How could the law of the book reside in nature, when it is what presides over the very division between world and book, nature and art? Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf Any reconstruction of this tradition in German literature has to begin in the Baroque period when the idea of German linguistic primacy was introduced in poetic treatises such as Martin Opitz’s (1597-1639) Buch von der deutschen Poeterey (1624), Philipp von Zesen’s (161989) Hoch-Deutscher Helikon (1640) or Georg Philipp Harsdörffer’ (1607-58) Poetischer Trichter (3 vols., 1647-53). N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html The demarcation between electronic literature and computer games is far from clear; many games have narrative components, while many works of electronic literature have game elements. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Mackenzie's work serves as a salutary reminder that just as one cannot understand the evolution of print literature without taking into account such phenomena as the law cases that established legal precedent for copyright and the booksellers and publishers who helped promulgate the ideology of the creative genius authoring the great work of literature (for their own purposes, of course), so electronic literature is evolving within complex social and economic networks that include the development of commercial software, the competing philosophy of open source freeware and shareware, the economics and geopolitical terrain of the Internet and World Wide Web, and a host of other factors that directly influence how electronic literature is created and stored, sold or given away, preserved or allowed to decline into obsolescence. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Of necessity, electronic literature must build on these expectations even as it modifies and transforms them. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history But the important difference between listening to a story and reading a book is that, while listeners simply allow the words to come to them, readers must themselves make the words move. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html To undertake the completebibliographic coding of a book into digital media would be to imagine the digital equivalent of Borges's Library of Babel, for it would have to include an unimaginable number of codes accounting for the staggering multiplicity of ways in which we process books as sensory phenomena. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf At any rate, what a vapid idea, the book as the image of the world. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf The second Book of Moses, chapter 20, contains a copy of what Jahwe's own finger originally had written on two stone tablets: the law. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Hence McLuhan’s wry book title: The Medium is the Massage (not quite the ‘message’). N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt (The prime example was the detachment of "Shakespeare" from the historical actor and playwright and the reassignment of his "face" to such august personages as Francis Bacon.) As Rose observes, these developments operated as a chain of deferrals sliding from the embodied to the disembodied, the book to the work, the content to the style, the style to the face, the face to the author's personality, the personality to the author's unique genius. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Since electronic literature does not have the economic clout to convince commercial developers to insure its continuing viability on their platforms, it is simply good sense to prefer open systems to closed. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Literacy, as will be seen, is absolutely necessary for the development not only of science but also of history, philosophy, explicative understanding of literature and of any art, and indeed for the explanation of language (including oral speech) itself There is hardly an oral culture or a predominantly oral culture left in the world today that is not somehow aware of the vast complex of powers forever inaccessible without literacy. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Dieses Buch über DJs wird versuchen, deren euphorische Produktionsweise voller Liebe und Begeisterung auch in die eigene Arbeit am Text zu retten. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html With such a theory we might be able to see both how, in Jorge Luis Borges's words, "the book and the labyrinth [are] one and the same" (Borges 1974, 88), and how the many types of literary labyrinths are different from each other. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf There is no sense in denying that this crisis of the text (if so pretentious a denotation must be used) is brought about by the digital wonders of the information age—or rather, by the somewhat eschatological claims of the proponents of the so-called new media: “the book is dead,” “this is the Late Age of Print,” “the electronic text will free us from the tyranny of paper,” and “in the future, everyone will be a writer.” No doubt, these are interesting times. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html As literature (although not as textual media), MUDs are very different from anything else, with their streams of continuing text and their collective, often anonymous readership and writership. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading But there are texts which can be “consumed” in this way, as is obvious from the mounds of light literature that flow regularly into the pulping machines. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Conversely, any work of literature -- which for the sake of argument and economy I shall here confine in a most arbitrary way to mean "high" literature of the sort we read and teach in universities -- offers an instance of implicit hypertext in nonelectronic form. Marshall McLuhan;  The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man  1962;  http://books.google.de/books/about/The_Gutenberg_Galaxy.html?id=y4C644zHCWgC&redir_esc=y In a letter written to his in-laws on Christmas Day 1960, Marshall McLuhan mentioned that he had drafted a book in less than a month. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles Electronic Literature is artfully poised between newcomers and e-lit veterans, as there is enough material to accommodate both those new to the genre and those who are already familiar with the literature’s texts. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf In treating the technologizing of the word, for the most part this book has avoided the term media (with its now more and more fugitive singular, medium). N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html Speaking specifically of fiction, he argues inRadiant Textuality that "there is no comparison…between the complexity and richness of paper-based fictional works, on the one hand, and their digital counterparts—hypermedia fiction—on the other." Although he is too astute a critic to make comparisons directly, by juxtaposing in the next sentence Stuart Moulthrop with Italo Calvino, McGann implies that Moulthrop, a contemporary pioneer in electronic hypertext, is not as good a writer as Calvino, or at any rate does not produce literature of the same quality. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history But we should also remember that the original text was without book or scene divisions, paragraphing, indices, punctuation, or even word division. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Rather than circumscribe electronic literature within print assumptions, Aarseth swept the board clean by positing a new category of "ergodic literature," texts in which "nontrivial effort is required to allow the reader to traverse the text" (1). Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html A later system, the commercial dialogue program Racter, created by William Chamberlain (1984), is even supposed to have written a book, The Policeman's Beard Is Half Constructed, but as it turns out, the book was co-written (at least) by Chamberlain (see Barger 1993 and chapter 6, below). George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html It demands, first of all, a radical reconfiguration of the practice of reading and writing, in which both activities draw closer together than is possible with book technology. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf The State as the model for the book and for thought has a long history: logos, the philosopher-king, the transcendence of the Idea, the interiority of the concept, the republic of minds, the court of reason, the functionaries of thought, man as legislator and subject. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history In that sense the book is not linear at all. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf And since the realm of this God consists of signs that only non-readers can't make sense of, all books are books of the dead, like the Egyptian ones with which literature began.[13] The realm of the dead beyond all senses, into which they lure us, coincides with the book itself. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles According to Hayles this has opened up space for new and innovative methods for book design, typography, and methods of marketing. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf The book imitates the world, as art imitates nature: by procedures specific to it that accomplish what nature cannot or can no longer do. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf In the early twentieth century, Paul Valery thought that one might be able to write "a history of the mind as it produces or consumes literature ... without ever uttering the name of a writer." N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Major genres in the canon of electronic literature emerge not only from different ways in which the user experiences them but also from the structure and specificity of the underlying code. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf A first type of book is the root-book. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles For literature to continue and grow and expand in a fluid world, it must be seen through both print and electronic literature. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Das Leben, so Barthes, imitiert lediglich das Buch, und das Buch selbst ist nichts als ein Netz Eine Tradition, die dann in der psycho von Zeichen, eine endlose Imitation. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles The plot is based around a fictional book tour undertaken by the members of the Unknown Collective, mostly in America but with stops in Canada and Europe as well, to promote their book The Anthology of the Unknown. Jörg Heiser;  Sight Reading  2009;  https://www.frieze.com/issue/article/sight_reading/ The book presents both the best and worst of deconstruction: tireless fine-combing of ambiguities, but also wallowing in faux-profundity apropos the negligible. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history His notion of a book was still determined by the old model, and he wanted very much to find a perfect order for his ideas. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf Relational Aesthetics, of which this book is a continuation, described the collective sensibility within which new forms of art have been inscribed. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Having been a widely visible presence only for some two decades (although its predecessors stretch back at least to the computer poems of the early 1960s, and far beyond this in the print tradition), electronic literature has already produced many works of high literary merit that deserve and demand the close attention and rigorous scrutiny critics have long practiced with print literature. Vilém Flusser;  What Is Communication?  1973–74;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Therefore, it makes little sense to speak of the “same phenomenon.” An “interpreted” cloud is not the same as the meteorologist’s cloud, and an “explicated” book has nothing to do with literature. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html The response to this tension in electronic literature has been a burst of innovation and experimentation, with solutions ranging from the guard fields of classic Storyspace works (in which certain conditions must be met before a user can access a given lexia) to the Aristotelian constraints of Façade. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html The few exceptions that might be invoked—for example, an artist's book created with thermochromic ink that changes color when heated by a hand touch, or print impressed on cutouts that move—should not be allowed to obscure the general observation that the print of a given document is stable for (more or less) long periods of time, in dramatic contrast to the constant refreshing of a computer screen many times each second. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf In opposition to these notions, I argue that the lessons of nonlinear literature show us a textuality different from our readings (and our readings of “reading”), more fundamental than our messages, and, through the evolving rituals and technologies of use and distribution, subject to many types of change. WALTER BENJAMIN;  THE AUTHOR AS PRODUCER  1970;  http://newleftreview.org/I/62/walter-benjamin-the-author-as-producer You only need to think of the work of John Heartfield, whose technique made book jackets into a political instrument. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html The study of cybertexts reveals the misprision of the spaciodynamic metaphors of narrative theory, because ergodic literature incarnates these models in a way linear text narratives do not. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf A more recent example is Armand Farrachi's book on the Fourth Crusade, La dislocation, in which the sentences space themselves out and disperse, or else24 jostle together and coexist, and in which the letters, the typography begin to dance as the crusade grows more delirious.23 These are models of nomadic and rhizomatic writing. Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl Just as, for example, literature is not only what is written, but all cultural practices it involves—such as oral narration and tradition, poetic performance, cultural politics—software is both material and practice. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms For instance, in the case of a book, Kay and Goldberg point out “It need not be treated as a simulated paper book since this is a new medium with new properties. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf It is usually only found outside the text—on the cover, in the catalogue, in the book review, and in some cases in the top or bottom margins of the page; but it can be argued that, along with the text’s title, which is also found outside the text proper (not “enclosed” in it), the words that make up the author’s name are the single most meaningful phrase of the text.

CHAPTER
THREE

N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html Rossetti Hypermedia Archive demonstrate. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 History is here dependent on linear traces that expose the instability of interpretation; much like tree rings, traces are left behind, marking time, leaving us with an allegorical database presenting destruction (death) as an inevitable part of life. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 Here, the archive is similar to analog vinyl records losing their fidelity and being slightly deteriorated every time the needle passes through the groove. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The Regenerative Remix privileges the ever-present—at the same time, it knows it needs history for legitimation, and the archive can be called upon to suffice as proof of its reliability. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf At first, we may think that this is simply a particular technological implementation of variability principle, but, as I will show in “Database” section, in a computer age database comes to function as a cultural form of its own. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf A new media object can be defined as one or more interfaces to a multimedia database (see introduction to “Interface” chapter and “Database” section for more discussion of this principle). EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 But, as previously noted, the archive also functions in market value as the resource’s importance grows as its database grows; when reconfigured properly, it can provide revenue when people use a search engine to buy items online. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html The database is in principle similar to the filing cabinet but with a level of automation and speed that made radically different textual practices possible. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html Thus he is more interested (at least theoretically) in what deformations of Rossetti's images in Photoshop reveal about their composition than in the accomplishments of the William Blake Archive in simulating the color tones and sizes of the paper documents. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Yet, even when its archive may be accessible, it does not mean that people will necessarily ever use it directly; most people will stick to the most immediate material, placed on the front pages of any online resource, because the Regenerative Remix encourages the now: the present—for the sake of practicality and functionality. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Jerome McGann, whose work on the Rossetti Archive and contributions to Institute of Advanced Technology in the Humanities (IATH) at the University of Virginia have made him a leading figure in the field, turns this perspective on its head in Radiant Textuality: Literature after the World Wide Web by arguing that print texts also use markup language, for example, paragraphing, italics, indentation, line breaks and so forth. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html The editors of the archive are meticulous in insisting that even small differences in materiality potentially affect meaning, so they have gone to a great deal of trouble to compile not only different works but extant copies of the same work. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf For the libraries, in which the archeologist found so much rich material, collected and catalogued papers that in terms of addressee, distribution technique, degree of secrecy and writing technique had been extremely diverse -- Foucault's archive as the entropy of a post office.[5] Even writing itself, before it ends up in libraries, is a communication medium, the technology of which the archeologist simply forgot. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html The Web promises to allow these dual imperatives to be more successfully integrated than ever before, as the William Blake Archive and McGann's work on the D. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Here the archive becomes the field of knowledge to be accessed; it is the archeological ground to be explored by sophisticated researchers and lay-people alike. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 This particular type of mashup goes deep into the database to access dynamic data. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Eine relationale Datenbank könnte, anders als ein Karteikasten, eine Vielzahl gleichrangiger Sortierungen enthalten; darüber hinaus wäre eine Anzahl von Unterdateien denkbar, die, durch komplizierte Querverbindungen miteinander verwoben, ein verzweigtes Netz von Informationen bilden, eine 'Architektur', die an die drei Dimensionen des physikalischen Raumes nicht mehr gebunden ist. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html It is no exaggeration to say that theWilliam Blake Archive establishes the gold standard for literary Web sites. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 This is quite a challenge because as this text demonstrates, the Regenerative Remix is primarily designed for practicality, for the sake of immediate services; and the archive is designed to come to the front at the very moment that a query is made. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 In “Le Catalogue,” the mastermind behind x-arnDOTorg has created a database of documentary images (an archive) of art projects between 1990-1996 that’s available for public access. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The database becomes a delivery device of authority in potentia: when needed, call upon it to verify the reliability of accessed material; but until that time, all that is needed is to know that such archive exists.

CHAPTER
FOUR

Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf We are asked to mistake the structure of somebody’s else mind for our own. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See From homeostasis, it appropriated stability, endurance, and survival; from reftexivity, the circular structure of a system turning back on itself to create a closed, self-referential space. Vilém Flusser;  On the Theory of Communication  1986–87;  http://www.flusserstudies.net/ Therefore, the structure of Western languages basically allows for the transmission of three types of messages: indication (knowledge, epistemological messages), command (behavior models, ideological messages), and feeling (experience models, aesthetic messages). EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The Regenerative Remix takes place when Remix as discourse becomes embedded materially in culture in non-linear and ahistorical fashion. Eduardo Navas;  THE FRAMEWORK OF CULTURE: REMIX IN MUSIC, ART, AND LITERATURE  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=651#more-651 Consequently, the purpose of this essay is to demonstrate the importance of remix as a practice worthy of proper recognition exactly because of its ability to challenge the mainstream’s ambivalent acceptance of aesthetic and critical production that relies on strategies of appropriation, recycling, and recontextualization of material. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The most rough of mashups are called “scrapings” because they sample material from the front pages of different online resources and websites, and the more complex mashups actually include material directly taken from databases, that is if the online entity decides to open an Application Programming Interface (API) to make their information available to web developers. EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 Its specificity in the second half of the twentieth century can best be understood when realizing that the strategies by artists throughout the first half of the twentieth century had to be assimilated to then be recycled as part of the postmodern condition in the second half—a time when remix proper developed in music. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm That is why the movement of “unmotivatedness” passes from one structure to the other when the “sign” crosses the stage of the “symbol.” It is in a certain sense and according to a certain determined structure of the as such” that one is authorised to say that there is vet no immotivation in what Saussure calls “symbol” and which, according to him, does not at least provisionally — interest semiology. Vilém Flusser;  On the Theory of Communication  1986–87;  http://www.flusserstudies.net/ The three types can be combined variously, the structure of TV, for example, being a complex combination of diachronicity and plain synchronicity. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja It seems to me that the models of remixing, sampling and appropriation conceptually are much richer than the Open Source idea. Christian Kerslake;  The Vertigo of Philosophy:Deleuze and the Problem of Immanence  2002;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze8.htm Nevertheless, might it not be possible to perform an initial theoretical affirmation of the structure of absolute difference that, by illuminating the mere formal possibility of a structure of difference that would avoid negation, opens the possibility of seeing reality in such a way? Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Was diese Struktur der signifikanten Kette aufdeckt, ist meine Möglichkeit, genau in dem Maße, wie ihre Sprache mir und anderen Subjekten gemeinsam ist, das heißt, wie diese Sprache existiert, mich ihrer bedienen zu können um alles andere als das damit zu bezeichnen, was sie sagt. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Now that remix has been defined in its four basic forms, we are ready to look at mashups in music as well as other fields in mass culture, especially web 2,0 applications. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm Some of the empirical conditions that must be met by any such assumption about innate structure are moderately clear. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html In other words, there is a short circuit between signifier and signified, a suspension of différance that projects an objective level beyond the text, a primary metaphysical structure that generates both textual sign and our understanding of it, rather than the other way around. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Thus, it is not the plot, or the narrative, or any other wellknown poetic unit that will be our definitive agency but the shape or structure of the text itself. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf It consists of tracing, on the basis of an overcoding structure or supporting axis, something that comes ready-made. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Ein Vocal-Sample genügt mir, um einen Remix zu machen.« Rock-Bands wie U2 oder INXS profitieren von diesem Desinteresse, das ihren Namen wie entstellt auch immer in den Dance-Charts und in dem Geld und Ruhm verheißenden Clubland berühmt macht. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms They also implemented another important idea that was already developed by Douglas Englebardt’s team in the 1960s: the ability to create different views of the same structure (I will discuss this in more detail below). Eduardo Navas;  THE FRAMEWORK OF CULTURE: REMIX IN MUSIC, ART, AND LITERATURE  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=651#more-651 In order to understand remix in music, art, and literature we must first consider how cultural production takes effect. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Like the other remixes it makes evident the originating sources of material, but unlike them it does not necessarily use references or samplings to validate itself as a cultural form. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Seine 1993 erschienenen Medienmitschriften sind nichts anderes als kunstvoll zusammengesetzte Samples aus endlosen Fernsehund  Radioprotokollen. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf One can recognize a DJ's style in the ability to inhabit an open network (the history of sound) and in the logic that organizes the links between the samples he or she plays. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm This formula, beside the fact that it is the questioning of metaphysics itself, describes the structure implied by the “arbitrariness of the sign,” from the moment that one thinks of its possibility short of the derived opposition between nature and convention, symbol and sign, etc. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Thus digital computers have an Oreo-like structure with an analogue bottom, a frothy digital middle, and an analogue top. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Donna Leishman spins a variant of interactive fictions in her work, where the visual interface invites game-like play but without the reward structure built into most interactive fictions. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm Furthermore, an investigation of their work indicates that the underlying recursive principles that generate deep structure were assumed to be restricted in certain ways – for example, by the condition that new structures are formed only by the insertion of new “propositional content,” new structures that themselves correspond to actual simple sentences, in fixed positions in already formed structures. Christian Kerslake;  The Vertigo of Philosophy:Deleuze and the Problem of Immanence  2002;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze8.htm Hegel manages to generate a lot of determinate possibilities out of the structure of negation: it is hard to see what determinate possibilities can be strictly generated from ‘difference in itself’. Lev Manovich;  REMIXABILITY  2005;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CC4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2FRemix_modular.doc&ei=2zqzUdX4Gcem4AT6lYHAAQ&usg=AFQjCNHlaRFP8sddB6-_oH4XEmra5A8NlQ&sig2=FAwD4HxylAODfMkX2J-4ig&bvm=bv.47534661,d.bGE&cad=rja The only fields where sampling and remixing are done openly are music and computer programming, where developers rely on software libraries in writing new software. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Generally speaking, remix culture can be defined as a global activity consisting of the creative and efficient exchange of information made possible by digital technologies. Vilém Flusser;  On the Theory of Communication  1986–87;  http://www.flusserstudies.net/ The question of how symbols relate to each other within a given code concerns the structure of codes in two totally different ways. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 In fact, the Regenerative Remix primarily exists because the market finds it useful. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 This is not to promote some sort of conspiracy theory for the new economy, simply to note the significant formal similarities between the structure of software as a media technology and the structure of ideology – with the commodity as a waypoint between the two (the commodity and ideology in Debord, or Jean- Joseph Goux, or Roland Barthes, we should remember, are nearly synonymous). EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 No matter what form it takes, the remix is always allegorical, meaning that the object of contemplation depends on recognition of a pre-existing cultural code. Rick Prelinger;  On the Virtues of Preexisting Material | Contents Magazine  2007;  http://contentsmagazine.com/articles/on-the-virtues-of-preexisting-material/ Yes, you can remix the present and upload it to YouTube, but they can take it down and they will, if you use content that someone else owns. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Given their emphasis on autopoiesis, it is perhaps obvious why they choose to sidestep genetics, for any discussion of genetics would immediately make clear that the distinction between structure and organization cannot be absolute-and if this distinction goes, then autopoiesis is no Ionger conserved in evolutionary processes. Christian Kerslake;  The Vertigo of Philosophy:Deleuze and the Problem of Immanence  2002;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze8.htm But is this a relevant criterion for the structure of problems? Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja The introduction of electronic editing equipment such as switcher, keyer, paintbox, and image store made remixing and sampling a common practice in video production towards the end of the decade; first pioneered in music videos, it later took over the whole visual culture of TV. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm The abstractness of linguistic structure reinforces this conclusion, and it suggests further that in both perception and learning the mind plays an active role in determining the character of the acquired knowledge. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf Through the generic structure of the shelf, Haim Steinbach emphasizes its predominance in our mental universe: we only look at what is well-presented; we only desire what is desired by others. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Flash’s mix also has principles of the Reflexive Remix because it pushes the overall composition to attain its own independence with the quick juxtaposition of the songs. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm Such a system – a generative grammar – provides an explication of the Humboldtian idea of “form of language,” which in an obscure but suggestive remark in his great posthumous work, Über die Verschiedenheit des Menschlichen Sprachbaues, Humboldt defines as “that constant and unvarying system of processes underlying the mental act of raising articulated structurally organised signals to an expression of thought.” Such a grammar defines a language in the Humboldtian sense, namely as “a recursively generated system, where the laws of generation are fixed and invariant, but the scope and the specific manner in which they are applied remain entirely unspecified.” In each such grammar there are particular, idiosyncratic elements, selection of which determines one specific human language; and there are general universal elements, conditions on the form and organisation of any human language, that form the subject matter for the study of “universal grammar.” Among the principles of universal grammar are those I discussed in the preceding lecture – for example, the principles that distinguish deep and surface structure and that constrain the class of transformational operations that relate them. Christian Kerslake;  The Vertigo of Philosophy:Deleuze and the Problem of Immanence  2002;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze8.htm For Deleuze, the presentation of absolute difference is ‘an immediate and adequate expression of an absolute Being that comprises in it all beings.’ To cite a phrase Deleuze uses elsewhere, it involves a ‘static genesis’ of the structure of the absolute. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf The user-character will be allowed some leeway, but by use of Playwright, an expert system with knowledge of dramatic structure (perhaps not totally unlike an intelligent version of Afternoon’s anti-narrator), the situations and actions would be carefully orchestrated to fit its model of appropriate drama. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 As previously noted, the remix in music was created and defined by the DJs in the early 1960’s and late 70’s in New York City, Chicago and other parts of the United States. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf First, it represents a collective form, a disordered, proliferating and endlessly renewed conglomeration that does not depend on the command of a single author: a market is not designed, it is a unitary structure composed of multiple individual signs. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Leaving aside the hand-waving explanations of structure and organization, that something is basically the integrity of a selfcontained, self-perpetuating system that is operationally closed to its environment. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf With music derived from sampling, the sample no longer represents anything more than a salient point in a shifting cartography. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf If in traditional media the elements are "hardwired" into a unique structure and no longer maintain their separate identity, in hypermedia the elements and the structure are separate from each other. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Networks allow the content of a new media object to be periodically updating while keeping its structure intact. Eduardo Navas;  THE FRAMEWORK OF CULTURE: REMIX IN MUSIC, ART, AND LITERATURE  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=651#more-651 It is an evaluation of how an object or type of production may at times consist of citations from, or references to previous production, or be direct samplings that make evident how pre-existing material is present in, or is the content of a new form in terms of appropriation. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 The third remix is reflexive; it allegorizes and extends the aesthetic of sampling, where the remixed version challenges the aura of the original and claims autonomy even when it carries the name of the original; material is added or deleted, but the original tracks are largely left intact to be recognizable. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja According to Ulf Poscardt, “The DJ’s domination of the world started around 1987.” This take-over is closely related to the new freedom in the use of mixing and sampling. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading It denotes the role of the reader, which is definable in terms of textual structure and structured acts. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Thus, culture is redefined by the constant flow of information in fragments dependent on the single activity of sampling. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 However, when this happens it would not mean that the material produced does not have principles of Remix at play, only that the way the author has framed the content goes against an ethical code placed by culture on intellectual property. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Like software mashups, Remix as discourse, then, offers a double face: it can be regressive or reflexive, depending on how the technology is used. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 Representation, then, is repeated in a perfect loop—the result is a constant remix of repetition by representation. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja To note just three differences: musical samples are often arranged in loops; the nature of sound allows musicians to mix pre-existent sounds in a variety of ways, from clearly differentiating and contrasting individual samples (thus following the traditional modernist aesthetics of montage/collage), to mixing them into an organic and coherent whole; finally, the electronic musicians often conceive their works beforehand as something that will be remixed, sampled, taken apart and modified. Christian Kerslake;  The Vertigo of Philosophy:Deleuze and the Problem of Immanence  2002;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze8.htm How is the specific structure of this ontology to be defended? Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Another difficulty has to do with the fact that although thought that is expressed in surfaces now predominates in the world, this kind of thought is not quite so much aware of its own structure as is thought expressed in lines. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 But sampling, as can be noticed from the various examples that have been discussed, begins to be supplanted by constant updating. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt It is not the hypertext structure that makes Patchwork Girl distinctively different from print books. Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl It encompasses opposites, algorithms as a tool versus algorithms as a material of aesthetic play and speculation, computation as inner workings of nature (as in Pythagorean thought) or God (as in Kabbalah and magic) versus computation as culture and a medium of cultural reflection (starting with Oulipo and hacker cultures in the 1960s), computation as a means of abolishing semantics (Bense) versus computation as a means to structure and generate semantics (as in Lullism and Artificial Intelligence), computation as a means of generating totality (Quirinus Kuhlmann) versus computation as a means of taking things apart (Tzara, cut-ups), software as ontological freedom (GNU) versus software as ontological enslavement (Netochka Nezvanova), ecstatic computation (Kuhlmann, Kabbala, Burroughs) versus rationalist computation (from Leibniz to Turing) versus pataphysical computation as the parody of both rationalist and irrationalist computation (Oulipo and generative psychogeography), algorithm as expansion (Lullism, generative art) versus algorithm as constraint (Oulipo, net.art), code as chaotic imagination (Jodi, codeworks) versus code as structured description of chaos (Tzara, John Cage). N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Here they fall back on the distinction between structure and organization they had previously used in Autopoiesis and Cognition: "Organimtion denotes those relations that must exist among the components of a system for it to be a member of a specific dass. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Mashups, whether they are regressive or reflexive, are dependent on sampling. EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 (Let us extend the term “text” here to the visual arts and media at large.) This is the reason why citations are so necessary in academic writing, and certainly is something that is closely monitored in other areas of culture, like the music industry, where sampling is carefully controlled by way of copyright law. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf In addition to its visible words and spaces, which we may call the script, a text includes a practice, a structure or ritual of use. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history In early ancient works of fiction and nonfiction, the dominant structure was usually the line. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 In brief, the remix when extended as a cultural practice is a second mix of something pre-existent; the material that is mixed at least for a second time must be recognized otherwise it could be misunderstood as something new, and it would become plagiarism. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See To accommodate the difference in states between, say, a car that will and will not start, Maturana makes a sharp distinction between structure and organization. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The Regenerative Remix can only take place when constant change is implemented as an elemental part of communication, while also creating archives. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 As previously defined, the Reflexive Remix demands that the viewer or user question everything that is presented, but this questioning stays in the aesthetic realm. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html The absence of the sender, the addressor, from the marks that he abandons, which are cut off from him and continue to produce effects beyond his presence and beyond the present actuality of his meaning, that is, beyond his life itself, this absence, which however belongs to the structure of all writing and I will add, further on, of all language in generalthis absence is never examined by Condillac. Christian Kerslake;  The Vertigo of Philosophy:Deleuze and the Problem of Immanence  2002;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze8.htm The Oedipal structure ‘itself’ cannot be experienced, although it can be completely determined. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html It constructs the mark; and the eventual presence of the referent at the moment when it is designated changes nothing about the structure of a mark which implies that it can do without the referent. Eduardo Navas;  THE FRAMEWORK OF CULTURE: REMIX IN MUSIC, ART, AND LITERATURE  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=651#more-651 Material sampling consists of taking parts of a source and repurposing it for one’s own interests. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm Questions of common origin are of potential relevance to this empirical issue in only one respect: If the existing languages are not a “fair sample” of the “possible languages,” we may be led mistakenly to propose too narrow a schema for universal grammar. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles The narrative and structure is broken into five separate segments for readers to explore, and it brings up feminist concerns, theoretical discussions about authorship, and other issues as readers navigate through the text. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 The structure of software facilitates this larger social reality. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html Différance, the irreducible absence of intention or assistance from the performative statement, from the most "event-like" statement possible, is what authorizes me, taking into account the predicates mentioned just now, to posit the general graphematic structure of every "communication". Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html To be sure, media are far from neutral, inconsequential carriers of "content," but the essentialist idea of "the computer medium" as a singular structure of well-defined properties of communication is just as untenable and can be based on only a very limited understanding of both computer applications and media theory. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 In the beginning of the twenty first century the Regenerative Remix is a form of material production best understood in software. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf To make an analogy with grammar of a natural language as described in Noam Chomsky’s early linguistic theory, we can compare a hypermedia structure which specifies the connections between the nodes with a deep structure of a sentence; a particular hypermedia text can be then compared with a particular sentence in a natural language. Eduardo Navas;  THE FRAMEWORK OF CULTURE: REMIX IN MUSIC, ART, AND LITERATURE  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=651#more-651 The very concept of originality helped establish literature, a creative field which, to this day, holds a somewhat privileged position in relation to art and music—and especially to the basic concept of remixing; this view is still pervasive in mainstream culture; and it is remix culture that is trying to debunk such position, of course. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm There have been some attempts to study the structure of other, language-like systems – the study of kinship systems and folk taxonomies comes to mind, for example. Lev Manovich;  REMIXABILITY  2005;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CC4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2FRemix_modular.doc&ei=2zqzUdX4Gcem4AT6lYHAAQ&usg=AFQjCNHlaRFP8sddB6-_oH4XEmra5A8NlQ&sig2=FAwD4HxylAODfMkX2J-4ig&bvm=bv.47534661,d.bGE&cad=rja Will the future cultural forms be deliberately made from discrete samples designed to be copied and incorporated into other projects? N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Given their emphasis on autopoiesis, it is perhaps obvious why they choose to sidestep genetics, for any discussion of genetics would immediately make clear that the distinction between structure and organization cannot be absolute-and if this distinction goes, then autopoiesis is no Ionger conserved in evolutionary processes. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y »Wenn wir zitieren, dann nur aus Liebe«, bekennen der Philosoph und der Psychoanalytiker und fordern dann zum wilden Samplen auf: »Findet die Stellen in einem Buch, mit denen ihr etwas anfangen könnt (...) Die Kombinationen, Permutationen und Gebrauchsweisen sind dem Buch nie inhärent, sondern hängen von seinen Verbindungen mit diesem oder jenem Außen ab. Christian Kerslake;  The Vertigo of Philosophy:Deleuze and the Problem of Immanence  2002;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze8.htm The intelligible articulation of the structure of self-differentiation is what Hyppolite will call sense, while the movement itself can be called expression. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Durch die Grundregel aufgefordert, möglichst ohne bewußten Eingriff zu assoziieren, liefert der Patient einen Strom von Vorstellungen, die sein Sprechen miteinander verkettet, und in den Brüchen, Auslassungen und Umgehungen wird nach und nach eine Struktur sichtbar, die für das psychische Erleben des Patienten kennzeichnend ist. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 It is here where the mission of remix culture as a means for the people’s voice as a creative collective emerges, and appropriates back the principles of Remix that DJ’s developed in the early days of Dub, and Hip Hop. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm Now B would be as such constituted by the retention of Now A and the protention of Now C; in spite of all the play that would follow from it, from the fact that each one of the three Now-s reproduces that structure in itself, this model of successivity would prohibit a Now X from taking the place of Now A, for example, and would prohibit that, by a delay that is inadmissible to consciousness, an experience be determined, in its very present, by a present which would not have preceded it immediately but would be considerably “anterior” to it. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Technically, a sample is defined as “a measurement made at a particular instant in space and time, according to a specified procedure.” The frequency of sampling is referred to as resolution. Michel Foucault;  T H E A T R U M P H I L 0 S O P H I C U M  1970;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpfoucault5.htm Physics: discourse dealing with the ideal structure of bodies, mixtures, reactions, internal and external mechanisms, metaphysics: discourse dealing with the materiality of incorporeal things-phantasms, idols, and simulacra.

CHAPTER
FIVE

Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf To semiotics, texts are chains of signs, and therefore linear by definition. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Wenn es also eines der großen Rätsel ist, auf welchem Weg das sprachliche System in die Köpfe hineinkommt, wäre hier - vorläufig und immer im Rahmen des reduziert/abstrahierten Modells - zu antworten, daß es die äußeren, linearen Texte sind, die die Assoziationswege bahnen, die dann den Kernbestand des sprachlich verfaßten Wissens bilden. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html This distinction is inconspicuous in a linear expression text, since when you read from War and Peace, you believe you are reading War and Peace. Vilém Flusser;  Habit: The True Aesthetic Criterion  1990;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ However: the considerations advanced so far have not yet really touched the problem of habit, if habit is taken as the basic criterion for art criticism, because it now looks as if the problem were to build a linear scale of values marked by zones to be called “ugly,” “beautiful,” “pretty,” and “kitsch,” and to have the phenomena glide along the scale in order to evaluate them. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Acker explained her approach to sequential narrative thus: I certainly don't believe linear time is adequate. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history But instead the new electronic medium redefines the book in a way that can incorporate both linear and nonlinear form. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Why is the variable expression of the nonlinear text so easily mistaken for the semantic ambiguity of the linear text? Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html My name is Charlotte Wood.' The chapter continues with Wood's brief biography, interspersed with fragments that stand at odds with the tone and structure of the linear chronological narrative: 'Do you want me to call you yes. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Traversing this path, the "doing" of the reader-the linear turning of pages as she reads-becomes also a kind of"knowing," for she experiences the structure ofautopoiesis as weil as comprehends it when the text circles back on itself. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf The first of its kind, it intriguingly demonstrates the potential of hypertextuality for literary experiment and explores the effects of nonlinearity on narration. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Insights promoted by the metaphors of nonlinear physics aid understanding of nonlinear texts as well as linear ones, but reading a nonlinear textis not the same as a reading informed by research in fractal geometry or chaos theory. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ The invention of computation machines made it unnecessary to painstakingly fill in the intervals by artful feats of calculation: the machines spit out numbers automatically, in a quantity that deposes of all linearity. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history While questions of meaning are at the center of both theories, the actual mechanics of reading are neglected, as a text according to those schools of thought is linear per se and the path of reading is predefined. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Passages such as this, in the form of 'fake' letters from a 'real' not only blur the boundaries of reality and fiction, but serve to expose the artifice of the format and linearity of 'the novel.' Ultimately, Acker raises more questions than answers, but succeeds in provoking thought concerning the point at which the author and reader engage, and the idea that the authorial voice is only as 'real' as the characters portrayed. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Nonlinearity can be achieved in many ways, the simplest of which is a script forking out in two directions on a surface, forcing its witness (the user) to choose one path in preference to another. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ And, in addition, they are developments from conceptual thought in that they advance along linear discursive lines, which are conceptual. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Susan Sontag has observed: “…a distinctive modern stylistics has evolved, the prototypes of which go back at least to Sterne and the German Romantics—the invention of anti-linear forms of narration: in fiction, the destruction of the “story”; in nonfiction, the abandonment of linear argument”. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ (A Venus of Willendorf may tell a story, but a film tells its story differently; it tells it historically, along a line.) Thus we must rectify our explanation: the present civilization does not look like the result of a linear development from image to concept, but rather like the result of a sort of spiral movement from image through concept to image. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf It is linked to the constitution of the modernist discourse as set forth in the theoretical writings of Clement Greenberg, for whom the history of art constitutes a linear, teleological narrative in which each work is defined by its relations to those that precede and those that follow. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf In linear experimental texts the subversive effect is sometimes achieved by a “distance between narrator and narratee” and sometimes by the “loss of narratee”—the narrator as solipsist. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ For a while now, mathematical, calculating thought has been breaking out from within the alphanumerical code, is claiming independence, and it is turning against linear thought, to analyze it, and (surprisingly, but certainly not unexpectedly) to lead to a new form of imagination. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf semiotic?) phenomenon is nonlinear textuality? George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Both work self-consciously and deliberately to make obsolete the traditional codex linear book and to replace it with the new multilinear multimedia hypertext that is rapidly becoming the characteristic mode of expression both in culture and in the study of cultural forms. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html This achieves a dual result; in the first instance, it reveals character and dialogue to be as much a fictive construct as plot or sequential, linear narrative, while in the second, it also further demystifies the creative process, the way in which a writer does 'choose, edit and rearrange the words at his disposal.' In this way, Acker uses the medium of writing against itself, employing a range of techniques to destabilise the 'author' figure and to promote reading as an activity which requires participation instead of passive observation. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf All this is quite a different world of order from anything in the oral sensibility, which has no way of operating with ‘headings’ or verbal linearity. Vilém Flusser;  The Future of Writing  1983–84;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Instead, it proposes to consider a tendency that underlies those problems: namely, the tendency away from linear codes such as writing and toward two-dimensional codes such as photographs, films, and TV, a tendency that may be observed if one glances even superficially at the codified world that surrounds us. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Denn ist die Schrift tatsächlich und in jedem Sinne 'linear'? Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf The fundamental difference is that between the linear and the nonlinear. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Der gesamte Kontext der Sprachtheorie scheint zusammengebrochen, sobald es um die Computer geht, und um ihre Fähigkeit, nicht-lineare Strukturen nun im Außen zu repräsentieren. Vilém Flusser;  The Codified World  1978;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ And the industrial revolution, which tore the “pagan” villagers from their magical existence, in order to crowd the masses around machines, programmed this mass with linear codes thanks to elementary schools and the press. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Among these classes we could place the figures of nonlinearity, with the following set of subclasses: forking, linking/jumping, permutation, computation, and polygenesis. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Zum einen hat sie ihren Sitz im Außen, im intersubjektiven Raum; dort tritt sie in Form von Texten auf, linear und materialisiert in schwingender Luft, bedrucktem Papier oder flüchtigen Bytes. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Since writing always has been a spatial activity, it is reasonable to assume that ergodic textuality has been practiced as long as linear writing. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history But nonlinear writing resurfaced in the literature of the 20th century, when it seemed that the modern experience could not be recorded in the linear way. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Much simpler examples of nonlinear texts are some of Guillaume Apollinaire's "calligrammes" from early in this century (Apollinaire 1966). Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Wittgenstein could not cast his philosophy in linear-hierarchical form; in had to remain a journey through a network of interrelated topics. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ In the first position, he stands in the midst of static images (in myth); in the second position, he stands in the midst of linear progressive concepts (in history); in the third position he stands in the midst of images that order concepts (in “structures”). Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm And we shall see it later associated with the linearisation of writing, and with the linearist concept of speech. Eric A. Havelock;  The Muse Learns to Write  1986;  http://www.thenewhumanities.net/books/Book%20Reviews16.html The Greeks did not ‘add vowels’ (a common misconception: vowel signs had already shown up in Mesopotamian Cuneiform and Linear B) but invented the (pure) consonant. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf I do not for a moment believe that my constructed binarism of the nonlinear text and the linear text or any of the other perspectives in this essay are any more free of a metaphysics than any previous textual theory, but I hope they are better suited to identifying some of the relevant issues of textual communication. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf After considering some fundamental problems with the concept of textuality, I shall propose a typology of nonlinear texts based on principles extracted from various samples, and then I shall outline the main forms of nonlinearity. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ But they are better at showing what is meant here by “Crisis of Linearity”. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Seven years earlier, in ‘Of Grammatology’ (1976b), Derrida was already drawing a contrast between linear and nonlinear writing. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ The motivations of the inventors of linear writing may, somewhat anachronistically, be phrased like this: imagination is an ontologically doubtful stance, the resulting images are connotative, and they are subject to the inner dialectic inherent in all mediation. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html In concentrating on non-alphanumeric media, and in apparently confusing analogue and digital technology, Baudrillard misses the opportunity to encounter the fact that digitalization also has the potential to prevent, block, and bypass linearity and binarity, which it replaces with multiplicity, true reader activity and activation, and branching through networks. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html In contrast, more orthodox Marxists, who have a vested interest (or sincere belief) in linear narrative and metanarrative, tend to use network and web chiefly to characterize error. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ Here is the answer that would likely be given by someone who thinks historically, in a linear manner: The images that are created by these people are depictions of calculations and can serve as models for changing the world. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Instead, it is nonlinear insofar as these modes of interpretation are responses to the ever-increasing open-endedness of the world, thus focusing on what appears to be pressing in the situation of the moment. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Whenever I have had the opportunity to present the perspective of ergodic literature and cybertext to a fresh audience of literary critics and theorists, I have almost invariably been challenged on the same issues: that these texts (hypertexts, adventure games, etc.) aren't essentially different from other literary texts, because (1) all literature is to some extent indeterminate, nonlinear, and different for every reading, (2) the reader has to make choices in order to make sense of the text, and finally (3) a text cannot really be nonlinear because the reader can read it only one sequence at a time, anyway. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history After the invention of the paged book, linear structure of course survived. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ (Denotative images, encoded to allow just one reading, become possible only after the invention of linear writing.) If images can be interpreted differently by each receiver, they are not reliable models. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ This recoding of calculating thought is most clearly visible in its first emergence from linearity, in photography, and for that reason must be given closer scrutiny. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ Particularly for the purpose of critique linear writing was invented. Marshall McLuhan;  The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man  1962;  http://books.google.de/books/about/The_Gutenberg_Galaxy.html?id=y4C644zHCWgC&redir_esc=y There is no limit to the subtleties of phrase, intonation and nuance one may use, except the limits implicit in the creation of a coherent linear organization. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Of course, it can be argued that this relationship is no different for nonlinear texts, once the shock of an alien form is gone and the particular convention is understood and mastered. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf In this, hypertext is not different from paper-based linear texts. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The earliest ancient writing was strictly linear: it was simply a concentration of letters that the reader turned back into sound. Vilém Flusser;  The Future of Writing  1983–84;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Those who use texts to understand the world, those who “conceive” it, mean a world with a linear structure. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ The objective of linear writing is to critique the imagination. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Although the output of these generators are linear stories or poems, the systems themselves are clearly ergodic textual machines, with unlimited possibility for variation. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf In terms of the simplified hierarchy of nonlinear texts, these classes of figures belong to the following levels: forking, found in the spatially nonlinear text; linking/jumping, belonging to the stratum of hypertext; permutation, computation, and polygenesis, all found in both determinate and indeterminate cybertext. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Recently, because of the computer, certain types of nonlinear texts have received attention from educational, technological, and theoretical circles. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Baudrillard has described one major thread or constituent of contemporary reality that is potentially at war with the multilinear, hypertextual one. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Instantiating a linear narrative that turns into a circle, the book simulates an autopoietic structure in which the details produce the overail organization, and the organization produces the details. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ The sciences, and other articulations of linear thought such as poetry, literature, and music, are having increasing recourse to imaginal surface thinking; they are able to do so because of the technical advance of surface media. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Die These der Linearität nämlich läßt unberücksichtigt, daß die Elemente der Anreihung einem Code entnommen werden, der selbst nicht Teil der Anreihung ist. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm This linearism is undoubtedly inseparable from phonologism; it can raise its voice to the same extent that a linear writing can seem to submit to it. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf And this sense must be organized in a linear narrative. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ (We do not have a two-dimensional logic comparable in rigor and elaboration to linear Aristotelian logic.) And there are other difficulties that we cannot evade by saying, for instance, that thought expressed in surfaces is “synoptic” or “syncretic.” Let us admit the difficulties, but let us try, nonetheless, to think about the problem. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The technique was perfectly linear: the text defined letter by letter a continuous path for the reader to follow. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Wiederholungen sind eine Strategie der Vertextung, die Elemente quer zum Verlauf des linearen Syntagmas miteinander verbindet; und zwar eine relativ schlichte Form, wenn man sie mit anderen Arten der Vertextung vergleicht. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf These hypothetical cases, which are far from impossible, illustrate a peculiar semiotic power of the linear text over the nonlinear: the linear can flirt with nonlinearity, but the nonlinear cannot lie and pretend to be linear. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Since the paradigms and practice of literary theory cannot remain unaffected by its encounter with nonlinear literature, except by pretending it never happened, I both discuss new applications of literary theory and suggest some possible new departures. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Since literary theorists are trained to uncover literary ambivalence in texts with linear expression, they evidently mistook texts with variable expression for texts with ambiguous meaning. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ (One is better able to hunt the pony if one has previously made a picture of it for oneself.) For the following reasons, the inventors of linear writing believed that the hunt still did not go well enough: The vision one gains when stepping back from an object is fleeting, and it has to be fixed in a memory to serve as a model for future acting. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Plato was unwilling to set out his philosophy as a treatise, as a linear progression in which the writer assumes overt control of the argument. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html In his phenomenology of literature, Ingarden (1973, 305-13) insists that the integrity of the "literary work of art" depends on the "order of sequence" of its parts; without this linear stability the work would not exist. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm And there is absolutely no mathematical concept of “ease of computation” or “simplicity of algorithm” that even vaguely suggests that such systems may have some advantage over the kinds of automata that have been seriously investigated from this point of view – for example, finite state automata, linear bounded automata, and so on. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ The photograph represents the stone in the form of an image; the explanation represents it in the form of a linear discourse. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Und die Sprache als System ist zweifellos nicht linear. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf As the advocates of hypertext enthusiastically remind us, it can be found as fiction, poetry, textbooks, encyclopedias, and so on; so nonlinearity as the superset of hypertext is clearly not a literary genre, or a type of poetic expression or discourse. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf As I have shown, in addition to hypertext there is a wealth of nonlinear text types, from ancient inscriptions to sophisticated computer programs based on the latest semantic research. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Further, the function of these units must be relevant to our notion of nonlinearity. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Wittgenstein and Barthes rejected linear argument, but not the physical form, the “look and feel,” of the printed book. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf As we have seen, the profound challenge of nonlinear texts to the basic concepts of literary theory makes it difficult to discuss them in common literary terms. Wolfgang Iser;  THE RANGE OF INTERPRETATION  2000;  http://books.google.de/books/about/The_range_of_interpretation.html?id=9IPLzzYy2hAC&redir_esc=y Such a history does not proceed as a linear development toward a distant goal. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ And, in a similar way, these surface media, including painting, graphics, and posters, are having increasing recourse to linear thought, and they can do so because their own technical advance permits it. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ Linear, process-oriented, historical thinking sooner or later had to fall victim to analytical, structural, zero-dimensional, point- thinking. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history And in order to be taken seriously, both scholarly and scientific writing must be nonfiction in a linear-hierarchical form. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Our civilization puts two types of media at our disposal: those of linear fiction (e.g., books, scientific publications, and computer printouts) and those of surface fiction (e.g., films, TV pictures, and illustrations). George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html The general importance of non- or antilinear thought appears in the frequency and centrality with which Barthes and other critics employ the terms link, network, web, and path. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history It is precisely the lack of a fixed order and commitment to a linear argument that will frustrate those used to working with and writing for the medium of print, just as it will liberate those willing to experiment with a new form of dialogue. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm This articulation therefore permits a graphic (“visual” or “tactile,” “spatial”) chain to be adapted, on occasion in a linear fashion, to a spoken (“phonic,” “temporal”) chain. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf There are undoubtedly local traditions, but nonlinear strategies appear to rise out of a prevalent and trans-historic need to compose a practical effect, perpendicular to linear textuality, but usually with a specific and constructive or subversive rather than sensationalistic or frivolous objective. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf This counterpoint, which may be called the Verfremdungsargument, has much merit, but it ignores the fact that the understanding (beyond trivial) of a nonlinear text can never be a consummate understanding, because the realization of its script (and not just its meaning) belongs to the individual user, who is acutely aware of his or her own constructive participation. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Bereits Wiederholungsstrukturen innerhalb der Kette, ebenso material beobachtbar wie die Anreihung selbst, bilden ein anti-lineares Element und verweisen darauf, daß innerhalb der linearen Syntagmen Anreihungsprinzipien arbeiten, die der Linearität selbst nicht gehorchen. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Verschiedene Autoren sehen eine strukturelle Analogie zu sehr avancierten literarischen Projekten, die die Linearität des Schreibens mit literarischen Mitteln aufgebrochen haben. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Die langen, linearen Syntagmen scheinen einer unaufhaltsamen Erosion ausgesetzt und es entstehen essayistische, gebrochene oder offene Strukturen, wie sie für die Texte der Moderne kennzeichnend sind.

CHAPTER
SIX

George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Electronic technology removes or abstracts the writer and reader from the text. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Because narrative is contextual, it is polysemaus in a way that analytic writing is not. Vilém Flusser;  The Future of Writing  1983–84;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ The purpose of writing is to explain images, and the task of reason is to criticize imagination. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm There is one final issue that deserves a word of comment. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Seen from the point of view of the dancer, the actor is a sinner and the author is a devil. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Indeed, language is so overwhelmingly oral that of all the many thousands of languages—possibly tens of thousands—spoken in the course of human history only around 106 have ever been committed to writing to a degree sufficient to have produced literature, and most have never been written at all. Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf Referring only to itself; but without being restricted to the confines of its interiority, writing is identified with its own unfolded exteriority. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Electronic writing will require a simpler, more positive literary theory (J David Bolter). Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf From the midsixteenth century on, a sense of the complex relationships of writing and speech grew stronger (Cohen 1977). Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html Nevertheless, we will not say that this nonsemiotic sense of the word communication such as it is at work in ordinary language, in one or several of the so-called natural languages, constitutes the proper or primitive meaning, and that consequently the semantic, semiotic, or linguistic meaning corresponds to a derivation, an extension or a reduction, a metaphoric displacement. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See It basically sets out to recover what an author has not been aware of when writing, or what lies beyond the historical material to be observed in the present, or what went awry in the human subject on the way to itself. T. W. Adorno;  The Essay a s Form  1984;  http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0094-033X%28198421%2F22%290%3A32%3C151%3ATEAF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-C The young writer who wants to learn at college what an art-work is, what linguistic form, aesthetic quality, even aes thetic technique are, will only haphazardly learn anything at all about the matter; at best he will pick up information ready culled from whatever modish philosophy and more or less arbitrarily slapped on to the content of works currently under discussion. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf But, in all the wonderful worlds that writing opens, the spoken word still resides and lives. WALTER BENJAMIN;  THE AUTHOR AS PRODUCER  1970;  http://newleftreview.org/I/62/walter-benjamin-the-author-as-producer The bourgeois writer of popular stories does not acknowledge this alternative. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm The very idea of institution — hence of the arbitrariness of the sign — is unthinkable before the possibility of writing and outside of its horizon. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm What matters here is that in the synchronic structure and systematic principle of alphabetic writing — and phonetic writing in general — no relationship of “natural” representation, none of resemblance or participation, no “symbolic” relationship in the Hegelian-Saussurian sense, no “iconographic” relationship in the Peircian sense, be implied. WALTER BENJAMIN;  THE AUTHOR AS PRODUCER  1970;  http://newleftreview.org/I/62/walter-benjamin-the-author-as-producer ‘The publication of the Versuche’, as the author of that series writes in the introduction, ‘takes place at a point in time at which certain works should no longer so much relate individual experiences (have the character of a work), but rather should be aimed at the utilization (transformation) of certain institutes or institutions.’ What is proposed is not a spiritual renewal such as the fascists proclaim, but technical innovations. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history A written text is a structure in space that implies a structure in time: writing turns time into space. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See At one point, the authors acknowledge that "modern sturlies in genetics have centered mainly on the genetics of nuclear acids," but they suggest that other heredity systems have been obscured by this emphasis, including "those associated with other cellular components such as mitochondria and membranes" (69). Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf The manner in which they are articulated according to social relationships can be more readily understood, I believe, in the activity of the author function and in its modifications than in the themes or concepts that discourses set in motion. Vilém Flusser;  Habit: The True Aesthetic Criterion  1990;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ And this vomit is not only a sign of our becoming human, it is also what we mean when we use the word art. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Fourthly, in keeping with the agonistic mentality of oral cultures, Plato’s Socrates also holds it against writing that the written word cannot defend itself as the natural spoken word can: real speech and thought always exist essentially in a context of give-and-take between real persons.Writing is passive, out of it, in an unreal, unnatural world. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf No signifiance, no subjectification: writing to the nth power (all individuated enunciation remains trapped within the dominant significations, all signifying desire is associated with dominated subjects). Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf At such a craft-literacy stage, there is no need for an individual to know reading and writing any more than any other trade. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Only around Plato’s time in ancient Greece, more than three centuries after the introduction of the Greek alphabet, was this stage transcended when writing was finally diffused through the Greek population and interiorized enough to affect thought processes generally (Havelock 1963). N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html Although Menard's creation reproduces Cervantes' masterpiece word for word, Borges explains that it is an utterly different work, for the changed cultural context makes thoughts that were banal for Cervantes virtually unthinkable for a twentieth-century intellectual. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf Considering each book to consist of "multiple writings, proceeding from several cultures and entering into dialogue, into parody, into protest," Barthes accords the writer the status of scriptor, an intertextual operator: the only place where this multiplicity of sources converges is in the brain of the reader-postproducer. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Moreover, besides transcription of oral performances such as orations, writing eventually produced strictly written compositions, designed for assimilation directly from the written surface. Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf One might say that it is not true that the author of a novel is only the author of his own text; in a sense, he also, provided that he acquires some "importance," governs and commands more than that. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja In my view, “rescension” presents a sophisticated comprise between the two extreme ideologies of digital authorship commonly envoked and used today: on the one hand, completely open model that lets everybody modify anything; on the other hand, tight control of all permissible uses of a cultural object by traditional copyright practices. Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl Both the permutation poem IN THE BEGINNING WAS THE WORD and The Electronic Revolution contain the magical spell of the Gospel not as an allusive imitation, but as a physical inscription and contagious agent, just like the scalp of an enemy ripped out and worn on the body as an amulet. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf The word meant both typing machine and female typist: in the United States, a source of countless cartoons. T. W. Adorno;  The Essay a s Form  1984;  http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0094-033X%28198421%2F22%290%3A32%3C151%3ATEAF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-C Under the spell of such developments, language, where in the sciences it still dares to stir, approximates pseudo-art; and only that scientist proves, negatively, his fidelity to the aesthetic who in general resists language and instead of degrading the word to a mere paraphrase of his calculations prefers the charts that uninhibitedly admit the reification of consciousness and so produces a sort of form for reification without resorting to any apologetic borrowing from art. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Plato’s dialogues combine the permanence of writing with the apparent flexibility of conversation. Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf The author function is therefore characteristic of the mode of existence, circulation, and functioning of certain discourses within a society. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html (Sometimes a cigar is just a cigar, and the nonconformity of Acker's novel could just be the consequence of bad writing rather than transgressive writing.) Such criticisms overlook Acker's extensive knowledge of classical, canonical and avant-garde literature, and in this context it is less problematic to accept Blood and Guts as simply transgressive. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf The very Person of the Son is constituted as the Word of the Father. Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf It would be just as wrong to equate the author with the real writer as to equate him with the fictitious speaker; the author function is carried out and operates in the scission itself, in this division and this distance. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Structural computer programming which became standard in the 1970s involves writing small and self-sufficient modules (called in different computer languages subroutines, functions, procedures, scripts) which are assembled into larger programs. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Thus writing from the beginning did not reduce orality but enhanced it, making it possible to organize the ‘principles’ or constituents of oratory into a scientific ‘art’, a sequentially ordered body of explanation that showed how and why oratory achieved and could be made to achieve its various specific effects. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Our literature is characterized by the pitiless divorce which the literary institution maintains between the producer of the text and its user, between its owner and its consumer, between its author and its reader. Vilém Flusser;  Criteria—Crisis—Criticism  1984;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Yet, it is not clear how such photo critics in the second sense of the word should make a living. Vilém Flusser;  Criteria—Crisis—Criticism  1984;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ To achieve the distance necessary to observe the apparatus criteria, photo critics in the second sense of the word would have to be people who neither are employed by the apparatus nor work for newspapers, museums, or advertising agencies. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt The final move was to reconstitute the author from the "face" exhibited in the style of his works, but by now bodies of all sorts had been left so far behind that critics felt free to attach this ethereal, non-corporeal face to any appropriate subject. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf The physical properties of early writing materials encouraged the continuance of scribal culture (see Clanchy 1979, pp 88–115, on ‘The technology of writing’). Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf The writer must set up a role in which absent and often unknown readers can cast themselves. Jacques Derrida;  Speech and writing according to Hegel  1993;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida1.htm In assigning limits to universal, that is mute writing, writing not bound to the voice and to natural languages, in assigning limits to the function of the mathematical symbolism and calculus, considered as the work of the formal understanding, Hegel wishes to show that such a reduction of speech would interrupt the movement of Aufhebung, which is the movement of idealisation, of the history of mind and the reappropriation of logos in the presence to itself and infinite parousia. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm In a domain as infinitely special as the one I am about to enter, it is always by virtue of the fundamental law of the human word in general that a question like that of consecutiveness or non-consecutiveness may be posed. T. W. Adorno;  The Essay a s Form  1984;  http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0094-033X%28198421%2F22%290%3A32%3C151%3ATEAF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-C Such writing does not criticize basic abstract concepts, mindless dates, worn-out clichs, but implicitly and thereby with the greater complicity, it presupposes them. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history In speech as in writing we use words. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html As Heim has argued, electronic word processing inevitably produces linkages, and these linkages move text, readers, and writers into a new writing space: The distinctive features of formulating thought in the psychic framework of word processing combine with the automation of information handling and produce an unprecedented linkage of text. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Working from this assumption, the proposal envisions a set of practices and tools that will enable older electronic literature to be migrated to XML for preservation, facilitate XML compliant authoring, insure the inclusion of appropriate metadata to allow works properly to be identified and archived, develop tools for the easy reading, annotating, and teaching of electronic literature, and provide authors with applications for creating electronic literature in X-Lit formats. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm The question of the origin of writing and the question of the origin of language are difficult to separate. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm Spacing as writing is the becoming-absent and the becoming-unconscious of the subject. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf However, investigations of writing which take ‘writing’ to mean any visible or sensible mark with an assigned meaning merge writing with purely biological behavior. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Rh torik , or rhetoric, basically meant public speaking or oratory, which for centuries even in literate and typographic cultures remained unreflexively pretty much the paradigm of all discourse, including that of writing (Ong 1967b, pp 58–63; Ong 1971, pp 27– 8). Vilém Flusser;  Criteria—Crisis—Criticism  1984;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ The reason for the invention of writing as a tool for the criticism of images is found in the internal dialectic of the images themselves. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja I discuss this type of authorship in detail in The Language of New Media; here I just want to note that it applies to both professional designers and the users. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Cultural historians have delved more and more into prehistory, that is, human existence before writing made verbalized records possible. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See To describe the change that takes place, the authors use the term "natural drift." There seems tobe a natural drift in "natural drift," however, and in later passages it becomes "structural drift." If structure changes, what does it mean to say that autopoiesis is conserved? Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf It is perhaps also the least aesthetic of all major writing systems: it can be beautifully designed, but never so exquisitely as Chinese characters. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html At the same time, these critics also build bridges between digital art, literature and games on the one hand, and traditional critical practice and philosophical writing on the other. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf For in Christian teaching the Second Person of the One Godhead, who redeemed mankind from sin, is known not only as the Son but also as the Word of God. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The best writing, Socrates tells Phaedrus, is that of the living word, written in the mind of the student by a wise teacher, for this word is active: “it knows to whom it should speak and before whom to be silent”. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja The author sets up some general rules but s/he has no control over the concrete details of the work – these emerge as a result of the interactions of the rules. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text In short, the word can be erotic on two opposing conditions, both excessive: if it is extravagantly repeated, or on the contrary, if it is unexpected, succulent in its newness (in certain texts, words glisten, they are distracting, incongruous apparitions—it matters little if they are pedantic; thus, I personally take pleasure in this sentence of Leibnitz: "as though pocket watches told time by means of a certain horodeictic faculty, without requiring springs, or as though mills ground grain by means of a fractive quality, without requiring anything on the order of millstones"). Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja Of course, collaborative authorship is not unique to new media: think of medieval cathedrals, traditional painting studios which consisted from a master and assistants, music orchestras, or contemporary film productions which, like medieval cathedrals, involve thousands of people collaborating over a substantial period of time. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history So, contrary to poststructuralism, Aarseth claims, that these predefined parameters of reading are an essential part of authorship rather than a way of handing authorship to the reader. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Secondly, Plato’s Socrates urges, writing destroys memory. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf The extensive use of lists and particularly of charts so commonplace in our high-technology cultures is a result not simply of writing, but of the deep interiorization of print (Ong 1958b, pp 307–18, and passim), which implements the use of fixed diagrammatic word-charts and other informational uses of neutral space far beyond anything feasible in any writing culture. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf " And so it was a rain in Genoa that started and stopped modern writing a writing that is solely the materiality of its medium. Katherine Hayles;  The Power of Simulation: What Virtual Creatures Can Teach Us  1999;  http://www.stanford.edu/class/history34q/readings/Hayles/Simulation.html There is also another shift, for now the resemblance is not between word and thing but between "a written symbol and its utterance, between two forms of language, writing and speech. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html It is here that diffé rance as writing could no longer (be) an (ontological) modification of presence. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja In fact, in we think about this historically, we will see collaborative authorship represents a norm rather than exception. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ The new thinking that becomes a contender with the invention of linear writing is poorer by one dimension than pictorial thought, it is more “abstract”, which means: removed by an additional step from the objective world. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf As long as it was moving along, history was indeed Foucault's "wavelike succession of words."[6] More simply, but no less technical than tomorrow's fiber optic cables, writing functioned as a universal medium--in times when there was no concept of medium. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt The mind, Jackson writes in "Stitch Bitch," "what zen calls monkey-mind and Bataille calls project, has an almost catatonic obsession with stasis, centrality, and unity." The project of writing, and therefore of her writing most of all, is to "dismantle the project". Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Although within most of the individual scriptons the voice of a first person narrator relates events to a narratee in a traditional manner, the unpredictable changing of scenes (as one trail of related scriptons abruptly stops and another begins) constantly undermines the would-be reader’s attempt to identify with the narratee, as well as the identification of the narrator and the (implied) author or exo-narrator, as it were. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The ultimate failure of writing did not prevent Plato himself from becoming one of the most influential authors in the ancient world. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Ever since the “invention” of alphabetical writing (that is, ever since Western thought began to articulate itself), written lines surrounded men in a way that demanded explanation. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt But the analogy was to go only so far; writing was not actually to become the body. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm One word of caution is necessary in referring to Lorenz, now that he has been discovered by Robert Ardrey and Joseph Alsop and popularised as a prophet of doom. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles But although The Unknown is suitable for newcomers, the work is sophisticated in its writing style. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf Effort had been removed from writing and sound from reading in order to naturalize writing. Vilém Flusser;  Criteria—Crisis—Criticism  1984;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ At this meeting, it is important to remember that linear writing is both the origin of critical thinking and its tool. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf The writing provides only a kind of map to the utterance it registers, and it is very difficult to read, even for a skilled scribe (Scribner and Cole 1978, p 456). William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles Landow, for instance, understands Barthes’ and Derrida’s ideas about authorship and the multiplicity of texts in terms of e-lit. WALTER BENJAMIN;  THE AUTHOR AS PRODUCER  1970;  http://newleftreview.org/I/62/walter-benjamin-the-author-as-producer I should like to call your attention to Sergei Tretiakov and to the model of the ‘operative’ writer which he has defined and embodied. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Wie im Kapitel über das Sampling schon ausgeführt, ist in der High-Tech-Kunst der Autor zum einen hinter den Schaltplänen der Beatboxen und Sampler verschwunden, zum anderen verweigerte er mit seiner wilden Nutzung fremder Werke jeglichen Respekt vor der Funktion Autor. Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf These authors are in a position that I will call "transdiscursive." This is a recurring phenomenon – certainly as old as our civilization. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history But the king replied that writing would have just the opposite effect: “this invention will produce forgetfulness in the minds of those who learn to use it, because they will not practise their memory. Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf Another notion which has hindered us from taking full measure of the author's disappearance, blurring and concealing the moment of this effacement and subtly preserving the author's existence, is the notion of writing [écriture]. MATTHEW FULLER;  BEHIND THE BLIP - ESSAYS ON THE CULTURE OF SOFTWARE  2003;  http://www.multimedialab.be/doc/citations/matthew_fuller_blip.pdf What this work does is make apparent the processes of normalisation operating at many scales within software—the ways in which, for instance, millions of separate writing acts are dedifferentiated by the various layers of a word processing program. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Imagine writing a treatise on horses (for people who have never seen a horse) which starts with the concept not of horse but of ‘automobile’, built on the readers’ direct experience of automobiles. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Ontogenetically and phylogenetically, it is the oral word that first illuminates consciousness with articulate language, that first divides subject and predicate and then relates them to one another, and that ties human beings to one another in society. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Out of pictographs (a picture of a tree represents the word for a tree), scripts develop other kinds of symbols. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading The latter is merely one component part of the reader’s role, by which the author exposes the disposition of an assumed reader to interaction with the other perspectives, in order to bring about modifications. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf The verbal oscillation created by two equally possible combinations, the choice of which is entirely up to the user, produces an ambiguity different from the usual poetic double meaning of a word or phrase, because there seem to be two different versions, neither of which can exist alongside the other, and both obviously different from the text itself. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm The history of writing should turn back toward the origin of historicity. Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf How can one use the author function to determine if one is dealing with one or several individuals? Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm Before being its object, writing is the condition of the epistémè; that historicity itself is tied to the possibility of writing; to the possibility of writing in general, beyond those particular forms of writing in the name of which we have long spoken of peoples without writing and without history. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The point deserves emphasis: only the linear-hierarchical style of argument is permitted in orthodox writing today. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Während im Mittelalter jede Form der literarischen Fiktion mehr oder minder anonym zirkulierte, rückte mit dem Beginn der Renaissance die Frage nach dem Autor in das Bewußtsein des Publikums. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja For this user, therefore, an author is not really a collaborator. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text Neurosis is a makeshift: not with regard to "health" but with regard to the "impossible" Bataille speaks of ("Neurosis is the fearful apprehension of an ultimate impossible," etc.); but this makeshift is the only one that allows for writing (and reading). Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf It is as if the author, beginning with the moment at which he was placed in the system of property that characterizes our society, compensated for the status that he thus acquired by rediscovering the old bipolar field of discourse, systematically practicing transgression and thereby restoring danger to a writing that was now guaranteed the benefits of ownership. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text He can also "dismiss" writing and become a scientist, a scholar, an intellectual theorist, no longer speaking except from a moral site cleansed of any linguistic sensuality. Vilém Flusser;  The Future of Writing  1983–84;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ If one examines certain Mesopotamian tiles, one can see that the original purpose of writing was to facilitate the deciphering of images.

CHAPTER
SEVEN

Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Only a reader. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Burroughs famously remarked that 'you can cut into The Naked Lunch at any intersection point,'and Acker believed the same to be true of Blood and Guts, responding to Lotringer's suggestion that 'I don't think you would expect your readers to read your novels from beginning to end' by commenting 'no, on the whole they can read wherever they want... EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 He writes, “A text is made of multiple writings, drawn from many cultures and entering into relations of dialogue, parody and contestation, but there is one place where this multiplicity is focused and that place is the reader, not, as was hitherto said, the author.” With this statement he summarizes his argument that we should treat the text not as something coming from a specific person, but as something that takes life according to how the reader interprets the writing as a collage of diverse sources. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Readers come to digital work with expectations formed by print, including extensive and deep tacit knowledge of letter forms, print conventions, and print literary modes. EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 It is the reader who completes it. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading But since this meaning is neither a given external reality nor a copy of an intended reader’s own world, it is something that has to be ideated by the mind of the reader. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html It may surprise some readers to find me still using the word book, but a number of the cybertexts we shall discuss are indeed books--printed, bound, and sold in the most traditional fashion. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history To him, the shortcoming of structuralism is that it treats any text as a sequence of signs, irrespective of the reader’s position or the material that is read from. Lev Manovich;  DEEP REMIXABILITY  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=61 Nevertheless, I have included references to particular projects below so the reader can see exactly what I am referring to. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html The cybertext puts its would-be reader at risk: the risk of rejection. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt The privileged lexia, she suggests, is "white afternoon"--privileged because its transformative power on the reader's understanding of the mystery is arguably greater than other lexias. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text Is this another pleasure of pure representation (experienced therefore solely by the greedy reader)? Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Extratextual context is missing not only for readers but also for the writer. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Early writing provides the reader with conspicuous help for situating himself imaginatively. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt The interjection of simultaneity into the sequence of a reader's choices makes clear why different ontological levels (character, writer, reader) mingle so monstrously in this text. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading As we have seen the different concepts, of real and of hypothetical readers, all entail restrictions that inevitably undermine the general applicability of the theories to which they are linked. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading Almost diametrically opposite the contemporary reader stands the oft quoted ideal reader. Roland Barthes;  From Work to Text - 2  1971;  http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/From%20Work%20to%20Text.pdf The reader of the Text may be compared to someone at a loose end (someone slackened off from any imaginary); this passably empty subject strolls -- it is what happened to the author of these lines, then it was that he had a vivid idea of the Text -- on the side of a valley, a oued flowing down below (oued is there to bear witness to a certain feeling of unfamiliarity); what he perceives is multiple, irreducible, coming from a disconnected, heterogeneous variety of substances and perspectives: lights, colours, vegetation, heat, air, slender explosions of noises, scant cries of birds, children's voices from over on the other side, passages, gestures, clothes of inhabitants near or far away. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading The ideal reader, unlike the contemporary reader, is a purely fictional being; he has no basis in reality, and it is this very fact that makes him so useful; as a fictional being, he can close the gaps that constantly appear in any analysis of literary effects and responses He can be endowed with a variety of qualities in accordance with whatever problem he is called upon to help solve. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html This reader is thereby plunged into a kind of idleness -- he is intransitive; he is, in short, serious: instead of functioning himself, instead of gaining access to the magic of the signifier, to the pleasure of writing, he is left with no more than the poor freedom either to accept or reject the text: reading is nothing more than a referendum. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf In our context, the user/reader functions are the most important variables: According to Aarseth, ergodic literature requires more from a reader/ user than just interpreting what he reads in order to understand a text’s meaning. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Moreover, in a work like afternoon: a story, looping structures are employed from which there is no escape once the reader has fallen into them, short of closing the program and beginning again. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history All media offer specific possibilities to the designer, and to the reader/user in their reading and / or use. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history What the reader sees on the page is a pattern of signs, and he or she takes in some portion of the pattern in each glance. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf The difference between these experiences and my experience with Boorman’s Zardozis that in the latter case I could, based on my cultural competence, deduce the actual existence of a version that was independent of me and the possibility of a proper reading that could be conducted by an easily imagined proper reader, but not by me. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html In the electronic medium several layers of sophisticated technology must intervene between the writer or reader and the coded text. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html A reader, however strongly engaged in the unfolding of a narrative, is powerless. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Mary writes, I write, we write, but who is really writing?" Faced with this unanswerable question (unanswerable for the reader as for the narrator), the monster concludes, "Ghost writers are the only kind there are" (story/rethinking/am I mary). EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 And only the reader can define that. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Hyperfictions such as Michael Joyce's Afternoon: A Story (1990) engage a modernist poetics to subvert traditional storytelling and present a literary labyrinth for the reader to explore. Eric A. Havelock;  The Muse Learns to Write  1986;  http://www.thenewhumanities.net/books/Book%20Reviews16.html The reader, therefore, who used the system had to decide for himself which vocalic to use out of the [set]. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt If desire is enacted by activating links, this linked text not only expresses the reader's desire but also Mary's desire for her monstrous creation. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Der Tod des Autors fällt mit der Auferstehung des Lesers zusammen; übertragen auf die Musik, würde der Tod des Komponisten mit der Auferstehung des Hörers zusammenfallen. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf This almost religious effect can be partly explained by the repeated updates and the fact that the text was intended to be useful and directly relevant to events in people’s lives, but it seems to me that it is the explicit and elaborate ritual, largely unchanged through the ages, that creates the textual presence that allows us to be naive users—not readers but agents of the text, closely related to the users of three thousand years ago, despite the epistemological interventions of time and culture. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Shifting authority to the reading is not only an appropriation of the canon but is conditioned by the intention to make readers read according to what the text has been decreed to mean. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html As a number of critics have pointed out, notably Espen J. Aarseth, the reader/user can only follow the links that the author has already scripted. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history And the connections seem to be there, as words and sentence fragments refer the reader back and forth between Hegel and Genet. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Of course books also create rich cognitive environments, but they passively embody the cognitions of writer, reader, and book designer rather than actively participate in cognition themselves. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf "How often would a man of good standing write a few lines to save a lost estate or the welfare of whole families, how often would the handwritten letter of a father steer a son back on the right track, if such men could, without restraint and prompting, write in such a way as if they had been endowed with vision." The "writing-machine," in that sense, only brought to light the rules regulating discourses during the age of Goethe: authority and authorship, handwriting and rereading, the narcissism of creation and reader obedience. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Plato leads and instructs his readers in the same devious way that Socrates leads and instructs his partners in the discussion—by getting them to acquiesce until they are too deeply involved in the argument to reject it. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 Another recent occurrence that is now emerging on the web is the two-minute “replay” available for TV shows like “Studio 60 on the Sunset Strip.” If you missed the show when it aired, you can spend just two minutes online catching up on the plot; in essence, this is a more efficient version of Reader’s Digest for TV delivered to your Internet doorstep. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf It is then up to the reader to ergodically recombine the segments in the course of reading. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history They cannot, as he puts it, answer questions we pose of them; they cannot explain themselves or adjust themselves to various readers. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html What this principle means in practice is that the reader is not locked into any kind of particular organization or hierarchy. Vilém Flusser;  Essays  1967;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ It implicates itself in the topic and in its reader. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history In an electronic encyclopedia, for example, the reader’s queries determine what text will be retrieved and displayed: the queries cut a particular path through the network of encyclopaedic material. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html As popularly conceived, this is a series of text chunks connected by links which offer the reader different pathways" (0/2). N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Part of the monstrosity, then, is this mingling of the subjectivity we attribute to characters, authors, and ourselves as readers, with the non-anthropomorphic actions of the computer program. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading If, then, we are to try and understand the effects caused and the responses elicited by literary works, we must allow for the reader’s presence without in any way predetermining his character or his historical situation. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Perhaps a more serious problem, however, was the association of the hyperlink with the empowerment of the reader/user. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf Secondly, hyperfictions, too, are not necessarily dependent on computers: If the basic idea of hyperfictions is letting the reader determine how he traverses the text by choosing from different story threads, then this is possible in all storage media in which texts can be divided into segments which are connected to each other by hyperlinks. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The computer medium encourages a writer to open a new kind of dialogue with the reader. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Traversing this path, the "doing" of the reader-the linear turning of pages as she reads-becomes also a kind of"knowing," for she experiences the structure ofautopoiesis as weil as comprehends it when the text circles back on itself. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text Just as the child knows its mother has no penis and simultaneously believes she has one (an economy whose validity Freud has demonstrated), so the reader can keep saying: / know these are only words, but all the same. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Far from feeling like Landow’s “reader-author”, who has no problem constructing “meaning and narrative from fragments provided by someone else,” I felt constantly sidetracked, turning and turning in the dilating text, dead sure that important things were being whispered just beyond my hearing. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf This perspective lets us include nonlinear texts, many of which have no author (or even reader) in the traditional sense. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Although fragmentary, enough of the text is visible to allow the reader to make out that it is giving instructions on how to create links to "interconnect documents and make it easier to move from place to [word obscured]." Thus the text underlying the image points to the software program underlying the text, so the entire image functions as an evocation of the multilayered coding chains flexibly mutating across interfaces to create flickering signifiers. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The new dialogue will be, as Plato demanded, interactive: it will provide different answers to each reader and may also in Plato’s words know “before whom to be silent”. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 There are quite a few RSS readers available; some, like Vienna, can be downloaded and used as applications on a personal computer; others like Google Reader are web applications that run online, and can be accessed from any computer. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Such changes imply that the body represented within the virtual space is always already mutated, joined through a flexible, multilayered interface with the reader's body on the other side of the screen. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html (more on the cut-ups as requiring the reader to make their own connections here?) Just as Burroughs approached his creation of 'a new mythology for the space age' by rewriting the past, so Acker too presents her 'posthuman' society through a narrative with a historical context. Vilém Flusser;  Waiting for Kafka  1967;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ In the reader, it brings something unthinkable and inarticulable back to life—as a contradiction. James J. Pulizzi;  Machine Intelligence and Electronic Literature  http://newhorizons.eliterature.org/essay.php@id=9.html Such a radically different system of narrative generation would blur the distinction between author, writer, and reader. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Cent Mille Milliards de Poèmes effectively mocks the theoretical notions of writer and reader, while the power of the text is cleverly demonstrated. Roland Barthes;  From Work to Text - 1  1971;  http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/From%20Work%20to%20Text.pdf 'Playing' must be understood here in all its polysemy: the text itself plays (like a door, like a machine with 'play') and the reader plays twice over, playing the Text as one plays a game, looking for a practice which re-produces it, but, in order that that practice not be reduced to a passive, inner mimesis (the Text is precisely that which resists such a reduction), also playing the Text in the musical sense of the term. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading An ideal reader would have to have an identical code to that of the author; authors, however, generally recodify prevailing codes in their texts, and so the ideal reader would also have to share the intentions underlying this process. Katherine Hayles;  The Power of Simulation: What Virtual Creatures Can Teach Us  1999;  http://www.stanford.edu/class/history34q/readings/Hayles/Simulation.html Hence my insistence on using the plural first person, despite the risk of indulging in oppressive universalisms, for I want to insist that my readers, like me, participate every day of our lives in the distributed cognitive complex adaptive systems created by digital technologies in conjunction with global capitalism. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf This machine consists of a material medium, a user, and strings of signs that are divided into so-called “scriptons” (defined as strings as they appear to readers on some material surface) and “textons”, which are “strings as they exist in the text” (Aarseth 1997, 62). George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Since electronic text-processing is a matter of manipulating computer-manipulated codes, all texts that the reader-writer encounters on the screen are virtual texts. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt But this is for myself; my readers have nothing to do with these associations" (qtd. in story/severance/hideous progeny). Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading To sum up, then, the concept of the implied reader is a transcendental model which makes it possible for the structured effects of literary texts to be described. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles Its place among everyday readers of literature can be seen by how much even a casual acquaintance with e-lit can modify, accentuate, and broaden the horizons of the very books all readers adore. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html You thus have read the readerly text in several ways not possible with a book: you have chosen your reading path, and since you, like all readers, will choose individualized paths, the hypertext version of this book would probably take a very different form, perhaps suggesting the values of alternate routes and probably devoting less room in the main text to quoted passages. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history All texts perform and in digital media the text can even perform partially or wholly without either the reader or the author. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf An author, however, does not appear because he remains on the fringes of the verse: as the addressed reader, who would "utilize" the "delicate" writing ball known as Nietzsche in all its ambiguity. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading It is evident that no theory concerned with literary texts can make much headway without bringing in the reader, who now appears to have been promoted to the new frames of reference whenever the semantic and pragmatic potential of the text comes under scrutiny. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading This is the point where the textual structure of his role begins to affect the reader. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The same applies to the ‘reading path’ which the reader (now usually called a ‘visitor’) wishes to construct: it too is determined by the reader’s interest. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ In consequence, the “history” of a film will be something that is partly devised or manipulated by the reader. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html To demonstrate that print is unstable even at the level of a document, he scans a document with an optical character reader and reports that the machine gives different readings on different scans. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Die Nadel wird im Unterbewußtsein des Lesers aufgelegt, der Musikspeicher wird abgerufen, und der Leser mischt aus seinem Songarchiv Melodien und Töne und einen »massiven Saxophonsatz«. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Later, for the reader-response theorists, he became a thumbtack with which to pin down the variable of literary meaning when it could no longer be located in the text. EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 For him it is the text that speaks to the reader. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history In general it is harder to hoodwink a reader than a listener, because the reader can stop at any time, reflect, and refer to a previous section of the text. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading The problem here is whether such a reconstruction corresponds to the real reader of the time or simply represents the role which the author intended the reader to assume. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt The specificity of an electronic hypertext like Patchwork Girl comes from the ways in which it mobilizes the resources of the medium to enact subjectivities distributed in flexible and mutating ways across author, text, interface, and reader. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf The readers of manuscripts are less closed off from the author, less absent, than are the readers of those writing for print. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Few texts drive home the point of the readerless text more abundantly than Raymond Queneau’s Cent Mille Milliards de Poèmes(1961). ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Der Text/das Kunstwerk als potentiell unendliches Zeichenreservoir, das dann vom Leser, dem für Barthes neuen Regenten nach dem Tod des Autors, auf jeweils eigene Art dekodiert wird.

CHAPTER
EIGHT

Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf Not unlike Turing's correspondents, everyone is deserting analog machines in favor of discrete ones. MATTHEW FULLER;  BEHIND THE BLIP - ESSAYS ON THE CULTURE OF SOFTWARE  2003;  http://www.multimedialab.be/doc/citations/matthew_fuller_blip.pdf It creates transversal connections between data, machines, and networks. Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl Cultural and political semantics result merely from its dull formalisms and their interference with daily life, from account balance statements to “enduser software.” Formalisms create semantics in a wholly different way than people expect from an allegedly “intelligent machine.” Computers therefore exist, as hacker wisdom says, to solve problems which we would not even be aware of having if not for the computers themselves. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf They are programmable machines, which are able to process signifiers according to a program and thus generate an output that can neither be predicted nor kept under control by writers or by readers. Vilém Flusser;  The Codified World  1978;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Architecture and machinery, books and tools, clothes and food, all of these things were comparably colorless. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Using an analogy to optics, computer scientists speak of "virtual machines" created by an operating system that provides individual users with the experience of working on their own individual machines when they in fact share a system with as many as several hundred others. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf And this is so because a Turing machine is even more exceedingly crude than the Sherborne plan for a typewriter. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf An early automatic character (so-called bot) on TinyMUDwas called Terminator, had its own office, and was, like its cinematic namesake, programmed to kill. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 By contrast, code running in a digital computer causes changes in machine behavior and, through networked ports and other interfaces, may initiate other changes, all implemented through transmission and execution of code. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html To write is to produce a mark that will constitute a kind of machine that is in turn productive, that my future disappearance in principle will not prevent from functioning and from yielding, and yielding itself to, reading and rewriting. Rick Prelinger;  On the Virtues of Preexisting Material | Contents Magazine  2007;  http://contentsmagazine.com/articles/on-the-virtues-of-preexisting-material/ Not simply aggressively edited machine-gun-style collages of mainstream news footage. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See As a result ofthis compensation, the machine's variables remain within specified Iimits. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html In these annotations, which amount to a hyperlinked essay, he meditates on the conjunction of human and machine cognition. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms It is because endless number of different programs performing different tasks can be written to run on the same typemachine, this machine – i.e. a digital computer - is used so widely today. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms Furthermore, we can automatically (i.e., by running the appropriate algorithms) improve its contrast, make it sharper, and even in some situations remove blur. Vilém Flusser;  A Historiography Revised  1982;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Ever more complex machines, most of them hydraulic, are being designed. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms It was only Kay and his generation that extended the idea of simulation to media – thus turning Universal Turing Machine into a Universal Media Machine, so to speak. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf In the typewriter the machine appears, i.e., technology appears, in an almost quotidian and hence unnoticed and hence signless relation to writing, i.e., to the word, i.e., to the distinguishing essence of man. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html The machine, of course, is not complete without a third party, the (human) operator, and it is within this triad that the text takes place. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf But when one writes, the only question is which other machine the literary machine can be plugged into, must be plugged into in order to work. MATTHEW FULLER;  BEHIND THE BLIP - ESSAYS ON THE CULTURE OF SOFTWARE  2003;  http://www.multimedialab.be/doc/citations/matthew_fuller_blip.pdf New imaginal and communicative capacities to enter into relations of becoming—of machine, technical, aesthetic, and social dynamics—are required. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 But we approach an impasse, for a tension exists between software, which I suggest is fundamentally a machine, and ideology, which is generally understood as a narrative of some sort or another. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf On the other hand it is presented in mechanical text-generating machines such as Georg Philipp Harsdörffer’s Fünffacher Denckring der Teutschen Sprache (1651), which claims to reproduce the entire German-language word formation in a mechanical apparatus. Michael Goddard;  Felix and Alice in Wonderland. The Encounter between Guattari and Berardi and the Post-Media Era  2006;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpbifo1.htm As Guattari concludes: “ The point of view of the Alicians on this question is the following: they consider that the movement that arrives at destroying the gigantic capitalist-beaureaucratic machine will be, a fortiori, completely capable of constructing an other world—the collective competence in the matter will come to it in the course of the journey, without it being necessary, at the present stage to outline projections of societal change.” Apart form anticipating many of the subsequent problematics of the counter-globalisation movement, what this citation tells us most of all about the post-media era is that it is not something that can be given in advance; it is instead a process of the production of subjectivity, the becoming of a collective assemblage of enunciation whose starting point is the emptiness and coerciveness of the normalising production of subjectivity that the mass media currently enact. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 This allowed the computer user to concentrate on using the machine for personal goals, while not worrying about how the different parts of the computer ran. Christian Marazzi;  CAPITAL AND LANGUAGE  2002;  http://asounder.org/resources/marazzi_capitallanguage.pdf anej LanguagG linguistic resistance is strong, rational, and independent from false signals if it succeeds in contesting the dominant language without in turn reproducing a totalizing language; if it functions as a "war machine" which does not reproduce in negative form what it is fighting against, the catastrophic homologation of individual actions, but rather the implosion of the realm of meanings, of equivalences and identities. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Cybertext is a neologism derived from Norbert Wiener's book (and discipline) called Cybernetics, and subtitled Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine (1948). Wikipedia;  Mashup (web application hybrid)  2013;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mashup_%28web_application_hybrid%29 Especially when performing reasoning (automatically inferring new data from existing data), erroneous data has potentially devastating impact on the overall quality of the resulting dataset. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf And rather being created completely by a human author, these versions are often in part automatically assembled by a computer. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Because electronic hypertexts are written and read in distributed cognitive environments, the reader necessarily is constructed as a cyborg, spliced into an integrated circuit with one or more intelligent machines. Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl Obviously, software referred to algorithms as control logic that was abstracted from the machine. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See "Instead of seaching for mechanisms in the environment that turn organisms into trivial machines, we have to find the mechanisms within the organisms that enable them to turn their environment into a trivial machine" (171). N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt We become hybrids, chimeras, centaurs ourself: steaming flanks and solid redoubtable hoofs galloping under a vaporous machinery. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms But we can take a closer look at one place where the identity of a computer as a “remediation machine” was largely put in place – Alan Kay’s Learning Research Group at Xerox PARC that was in operation during the first part of the 1970s. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf It was only natural that after the engineer had deprived woman's tender hand of the actual symbol of female industriousness, one of his colleagues hit upon the idea of replacing the quill, the actual symbol of male intellectual activity, with a machine. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf But the game remains open-ended, because each time the machine gives itself away--be it by making a mistake, or, more likely, by not making any--it will refine its program through learning.[58] In the Turing game, so-called Man coincides with his simulation. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html To this end, the schizophrenic state is, if not an 'ideal' state, then one which is closely linked to postmodern society, in which advertisers or 'production machines' require the consumer to act as a 'desiring machine,' and to assume and dissolve identities at a pace in keeping with the rate that images and advertisements are bombarded at them. Vilém Flusser;  Criteria—Crisis—Criticism  1984;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Because the criteria here are lacking for the time being, it is difficult to foresee how they could be automated. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 The fields of computer vision and computer graphics are also but a fraction of computer science as a whole which occupies almost all of its time with algorithms, data structures, cryptography, robotics, bioinformatics, networking, machine learning, and other nonvisual applications of symbolic systems.2 Leaving this discussion of the visual somewhat unresolved, I continue by offering the first of two general observations on software and ideology. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 The result of this is a presentism, admittedly parroted by me later, where software is understood only in its late 20th-century definition as a symbolic machine language and not in an earlier definition in which software might rightly be understood as pre- or non-linguistic. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf If it succeeds, the textual pleasure machine could be said to have escaped even from simulation and become an emulation, a “supplement” as dangerous as they come. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms Slowly, through the work of Sutherland, Englebart, Nelson, Papert and others in the 1960s, the ideas and techniques were developed which made computers into a “cultural machine.” One could create and edit text, made drawings, move around a virtual object, etc. Lev Manovich;  The Practice of Everyday (Media) Life: From Mass Consumption to Mass Cultural Production?  2009;  http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/596645#fn9 This, in fact, is a standard feature of the YouTube interface (Note that all examples of interfaces, features, and common uses of social media sites refer to early 2008; obviously details may change by the date of this essay's publication.) Though social media sites contain huge numbers of such conversations through media, for me the most interesting case so far is a five-minute theoretical video, “Web 2.0…The Machine Is Us/ing Us,” posted by a cultural anthropologist, Michael Wesch, on 31 January 2007 A year later this video had been watched 4,638,265 times. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html (See also Bolter 1991, 140-42.) A rather well-known example is Raymond Queneau's Cent Mille Milliards de Poèmes (a hundred thousand billion poems; see Queneau 1961), which is a sonnet machine book of 10 [lozenge] 14 lines, capable of producing 1014 sonnets. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Four of the five follow in straightforward fashion, respectively, from the binary basis for digital computers (numerical representation), object-oriented programming (modularity and variability), and networked architectures with sensors and actuators (automation). Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Image editing programs such as Photoshop can automatically correct scanned images, improving contrast range and removing noise. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Word processing, page layout, presentation and Web creation programs come with "agents" which can automatically create the layout of a document. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html It is more than this, for any item can be joined into numerous trails."Eine Hypertextmaschine also, entworfen mit dem expliziten Bezug auf die Assoziationsfähigkeit des menschlichen Denkens; und Bolz sagt entschlossen: "Damit tritt das assoziative Denken des Alltags ins Zeitalter seiner technischen Reproduzierbarkeit ein." Aber ist dieser Konnex tatsächlich plausibel? T. W. Adorno;  The Essay a s Form  1984;  http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0094-033X%28198421%2F22%290%3A32%3C151%3ATEAF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-C The slightly yield ing quality of the essayist's thought forces him to greater intensity than discursive thought can offer; for the essay, unlike discursive thought, does not proceed blindly, automatically, but at every moment it must reflect on itself. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf These works introduced data storage - the aridity of index card classification and the notion of the filing cabinet itself - into artistic practice: Conceptual art used computer protocol, still at its beginnings (the products in question would not truly make their public appearance until the following decade), In the late sixties, IBM emerged as a precursor in the field of immaterialization: controlling seventy percent of the computer market, International Business Machine rechristened itself IBM World Trade Corporation and developed the first deliberately multinational strategy adapted to the global civilization to come. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf An organ is a huge machine, with sources of power—pumps, bellows, electric generators—totally outside its operator. Michael Goddard;  Felix and Alice in Wonderland. The Encounter between Guattari and Berardi and the Post-Media Era  2006;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpbifo1.htm The map doesn’t represent these developments but is rather a co-existing rhythm, an operation, a style, which he seeks in this book to reconstruct and so to “make the harmonies, refrains and dissonances of the contemporary planetary rhapsody resonate beginning with this map.” At this point, Berardi poses a crucial problem affecting rhizomatic thought and one of its major critiques; he states that the “Felix Machine” attaches itself to the point of maximum openness of the provisory and nomadic community but doesn’t accompany its dissolution. Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl When Cornelia Sollfrank states that “a clever artist makes the machine do the work,” it still implies that the artist makes it work in the first place.Poiesis, making, becomes a second-order poeisis of making something that makes something else. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf It is not accidental that modern man writes "with" the typewriter and "dictates" [diktiert] (the same word as "poetize" [dichten]) "into" a machine. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf As a feedback system it beats all the Remingtons, for the scanning of the sign, or its absence, on the paper strip controls the next step, which is a kind of writing: and it depends on this reading whether the machine keeps the sign or erases it, or, vice versa, whether it keeps a space blank or replaces it with a sign, and so on and so forth. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Why do our discussions of reading and writing largely focus on the author and reader, ignoring the cognitively sophisticated actions of intelligent machines that are active participants in the construction of meaning? Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Programs are normally written with two kinds of receivers in mind: the machines and other programers. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf "Are these humans," Nietzsche already asks himself in 1874, eight years before he buys a typewriter, "or maybe just thinking, writing and speaking machines?"[57] In 1950 Alan Turing, the practitioner among England's mathematicians, gave the answer to Nietzsche's question. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html These networks can take the form of contemporary Local Area Networks (LANs), such as Ethernet, that join sets of machines within an institution or a part of one, such as a department or administrative unit. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf Psychophysics and psychotechnology converted into empirical research programs Nietzsche's philosophical and scandalous surmise that "humans are perhaps only thinking, writing, and speaking machines." Dysfunctional Speech (Die Storungen der Sprache), following KuRmaul's insight or monograph of 1881, could only be cleared up under the premise that speech has nothing to do with the "I think": One can conceive of language in its initial development as a conditioned reflex. Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl That their codeworks rarely execute properly, being imaginary code and conflations of machine code with human conversational language, reflects this understanding. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms In other words, the pioneers of computational media did not have the goal of making the computer into a ‘remediation machine” which would simply represent older media in new ways. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf Schizoanalysis, on the other hand, treats the unconscious as an acentered system, in other words, as a machinic network of finite automata (a rhizome), and thus arrives at an entirely different state of the unconscious. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Cybertext, as now should be clear, is the wide range (or perspective) of possible textualities seen as a typology of machines, as various kinds of literary communication systems where the functional differences among the mechanical parts play a defining role in determining the aesthetic process. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Other computer programs can automatically generate 3D objects such as trees, landscapes, human figures and detailed ready-to-use animations of complex natural phenomena such as fire and waterfalls. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf "This machine," he observed in another equation of writing equipment with writer, "is as delicate as a little dog and causes a lot of trouble-and provides some entertainment. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html A cybertext is a machine for the production of variety of expression. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf In the time of the first dominance of the typewriter, a letter written on this machine still stood for a breach of good manners. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Instead of evenly surfaced machine-made paper and relatively durable ball-point pens, the early writer had more recalcitrant technological equipment. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf Kleist and a mad war machine, Kafka and a most extraordinary bureaucratic machine ... Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 It is a foundational claim stemming from the very first infor- matic machines. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See The homeostat was an instantiation of a goal-seeking machine whose goal was stability. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 This flows from a long-standing assumption that data are fundamentally immaterial or ethereal and that, conversely, machines are the stuff of material cogs and levers. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf It is certainly true that mechanical text generators are not computers in a strict sense as they are neither able to convert analog signals into universal machine codes nor do they operate as fast as modern digital computers. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html True, at the most basic level of machine code and at the far higher one of program languages, the digitization, which constitutes a fundamental of electronic computing, does involve binarity. MATTHEW FULLER;  BEHIND THE BLIP - ESSAYS ON THE CULTURE OF SOFTWARE  2003;  http://www.multimedialab.be/doc/citations/matthew_fuller_blip.pdf New imaginal and communicative capacities to enter into relations of becoming—of machine, technical, aesthetic, and social dynamics—are required. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Along with “low-level” and “high-level” automation of media creation, another area of media use which is being subjected to increasing automation is media access. MATTHEW FULLER;  BEHIND THE BLIP - ESSAYS ON THE CULTURE OF SOFTWARE  2003;  http://www.multimedialab.be/doc/citations/matthew_fuller_blip.pdf In addition, new social machines are invented to spawn the code, to diffuse and manage its development. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms Accordingly, while separate programs to create works in different media were already in existence, Kay’s group for the first time implemented them all together within a single machine. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf Its production, however, is conditioned by machine technology. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf Die ‘Wolkenpumpen’ aber sind nicht nur automatische Gedichte, sondern schon Vorläufer meiner ‘papiers déchirés’, meiner ‘Zerreissbilder’, in denen die ‘Wirklichkeit’ und der ‘Zufall’ ungehemmt sich entwickeln können. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf The researchers are also working on what can be called “high-level” automation of media creation which requires a computer to understand, to a certain degree, the meanings embedded in the objects being generated, for example their semantics. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See As a result ofthis compensation, the machine's variables remain within specified Iimits. James J. Pulizzi;  Machine Intelligence and Electronic Literature  http://newhorizons.eliterature.org/essay.php@id=9.html Before proceeding with a closer examination of the impact of machine intelligence, some explanation of why I prefer the term machine to artificial intelligence is necessary. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf Remington, and not Edison, took over Sholes' discourse machine gun. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms In short, why did these people dedicated their careers to inventing the ultimate “remediation machine”? Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf This binary information can be read or (in Turing's technospeak) scanned by the machine. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Since the same machine is used as a showroom and a factory, for example, the same computer generates and displays media -- and since the media exists not as a material object but as data which can be sent through the wires with the speed of light, the customized version created in response to user’s input is delivered almost immediately. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Die entscheidende Neuerung, die die Computer in die Welt der Repräsentationsmaschinen eingebracht haben, besteht in ihrer Fähigkeit, n-dimensionale Räume aufzubauen. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 Thus what is in operation today is a segregation effect whereby data are relegated to the realm of ideas and machines to the realm of technology. Roland Barthes;  From Work to Text - 2  1971;  http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/From%20Work%20to%20Text.pdf 'Playing' must be understood here in all its polysemy: the text itself plays (like a door, like a machine with 'play') and the reader plays twice over, playing the Text as one plays a game, looking for a practice which re-produces it, but, in order that that practice not be reduced to a passive, inner mimesis (the Text is precisely that which resists such a reduction), also playing the Text in the musical sense of the term. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Both collaborations invoke and enact the creative (mis)understandings and (mis)prisings that emerge from the overlaps and disjunctions between humans as meaning-seeking animals and intelligent machines for whom meaning has no meaning. Rick Prelinger;  On the Virtues of Preexisting Material | Contents Magazine  2007;  http://contentsmagazine.com/articles/on-the-virtues-of-preexisting-material/ But it takes a really special case to turn an archives into a money machine. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Indeed, different versions of a new media object may vary strictly quantitatively, for example in the amount of detail present: for instance, a full size image and its icon, automatically generated by Photoshop; a full text and its shorter version, generated by “Autosummarize” command in Microsoft Word 97; or the different versions which can be created using “Outline” command in Word.