Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html The cybertext puts its would-be reader at risk: the risk of
Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htmAnti-mentalism in
Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html rejection.
Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm linguistics and in philosophy of language conforms to this shift of orientation.
TEXT
Alexander Schierl

INTRODUCTION

Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm But there is little reason to suppose that these tendencies are so dominant as to leave us forever tottering on the brink of a Hobbesian war of all against all – as, incidentally, Lorenz at least is fully aware, if I read him rightly. Rick Prelinger;  On the Virtues of Preexisting Material | Contents Magazine  2007;  http://contentsmagazine.com/articles/on-the-virtues-of-preexisting-material/ To me this suggests that we might be more open to letting old works speak, that our task might not be so much to make new works but to build new platforms for old works to speak from. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html This contains the answer to a question the user has written down in advance (e.g., "How much rice should I plant this year?"). Thomas Bernhard;  Extinction  1986;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extinction_(1995_novel) On my way to the Farm, I went up to the Children’s Villa, reflecting that it was the Children’s Villa that had prompted these absurd speculations (sic). N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt This lexia is linked with "sewn": "I had sewn her, stitching deep into the night by candlelight, until the tiny black stitches wavered into script and I began to feel that I was writing, that this creature I was assembling was a brash attempt to achieve by artificial means the unity of a life-form" (journal/sewn). Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Cell and nucleus To reflect on this: in writing or speaking I have to use a sentence in which two entities – cell and nucleus – are related by a verb, have, indicating a possessive relation: the cell has something (much like: “I have a car, a house, two kids, etc”). Lev Manovich;  DEEP REMIXABILITY  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=61 But since my goal is to describe the new cultural language which by now has become practically universal, I want to emphasize that each of these examples can be substituted for numerous others. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html At first, therefore, I thought this was simply a didactical problem: if only I could present examples of my material more clearly, everything would become indisputable. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 This is why I will suggest at the end that the relationship between software and ideology is best understood as an allegorical one: software is not merely a vehicle for ideology; instead, the ideological contradictions of technical transcoding and fetishistic abstraction are enacted and ‘resolved’ within the very form of software itself. MATTHEW FULLER;  BEHIND THE BLIP - ESSAYS ON THE CULTURE OF SOFTWARE  2003;  http://www.multimedialab.be/doc/citations/matthew_fuller_blip.pdf As an example of where theoretical work presents us with an opportunity to go further, I want to run through a particular example. Jacques Derrida;  Speech and writing according to Hegel  1993;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida1.htm I would have liked to read here certain passages of thePropaedeutics, but not having time, I refer you to the most important paragraphs: §§ 155-62. Christian Kerslake;  The Vertigo of Philosophy:Deleuze and the Problem of Immanence  2002;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze8.htm Despite the absence of explicit discussion of ‘immanence’ in his magnum opus Difference and Repetition, I claim that it is there that we find Deleuze’s most defensible formulation of a new philosophy of immanence. Lev Manovich;  DEEP REMIXABILITY  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=61 While we can name many social factors that all could have and probably did played some role – the rise of branding, the experience economy, youth markets, and the Web as a global communication platform during the 1990s – I believe that these factors alone cannot account for the specific design and visual logics which we see today in media culture. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf As I have shown, in addition to hypertext there is a wealth of nonlinear text types, from ancient inscriptions to sophisticated computer programs based on the latest semantic research. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See The most intense debate about what I am calling reflexivity was embedded in a discourse that had its own assumptions, only one of which was reflexivity. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text And is it not the fantasy itself which invokes the "detail," the tiny private scene, in which I can easily take my place? Jacques Derrida;  Speech and writing according to Hegel  1993;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida1.htm In announcing this I have already begun to establish myself within this metaphysical semiology, which not only means to say, but first and essentially represents itself to be a theory of Bedeutenas meaning [vouloir-dire: lit., to want to say], and is from the first subject to the telos of speech and of this voluntarism, this will for absolute parousia in which Heidegger has discerned the destination of metaphysics. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history In particular I will draw attention to consequent shifts in authority, in changes in forms of reading, shifts in shapes of knowledge and in forms of human engagement with the social and natural world. WALTER BENJAMIN;  THE AUTHOR AS PRODUCER  1970;  http://newleftreview.org/I/62/walter-benjamin-the-author-as-producer Finally, I would like to mention a real proof in the form of a short passage from the current issue of Commune. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Typically, these objections came from persons who, while well versed in literary theory, had no firsthand experience of the hypertexts, adventure games, or multi-user dungeons I was talking about. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See In constructing a narrative that will contest systems theory's account ofhow meaning is generated, I will follow Luhmann's advice. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm But, historical issues aside, I think that Goodman misconstrues the substantive problem as well. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Something between higgledy-piggledy and the eternal sphere" (story/falling apart/I made myself over). N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Authoress, I amend, smiling" (journal/sewn). Roland Barthes;  From Work to Text - 2  1971;  http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/From%20Work%20to%20Text.pdf I know the word is fashionable (I am myself often led to use it) and therefore regarded by some with suspicion, but that is exactly why I should like to remind myself of the principal propositions at the intersection of which I see the Text as standing. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf As with Afternoon, these texts often give me a feeling of being lost, the feeling that the real action is taking place elsewhere in the text; but in adventure games the ennui is usually replaced by death, when the you has reached a dead end in the topography or invoked some deadly response by a wrong action. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Since I developed mine in 1991, a new text type has appeared, invented by the science fiction author William Gibson. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf Although I will come back to Pastior, the paramount importance of Oulipo cannot adequately be considered here. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm However, as I mentioned earlier, the empirical problem that we face today is that no one has been able to devise an initial hypothesis rich enough to account for the acquisition by the child of the grammar that we are, apparently, led to attribute to him when we try to account for his ability to use the language in the normal way. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja In fact, I believe that we can already find many communities and individual works that employ the ideas of license and kernel, even though these terms are not explicitly used. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See One of these cognitive blind spots, I have been arguing, is narrative. Vilém Flusser;  Criteria—Crisis—Criticism  1984;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ As I just mentioned, they apply criteria that fall apart in the face of technical images. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html It is this questioned effect that I have elsewhere called logocentrism. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text (Pleasure/Bliss: terminologically, there is always a vacillation— I stumble, I err. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf I am writing a book which I hope will be read by hundreds of thousands of people, so I must be isolated from everyone. Vilém Flusser;  Essays  1967;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ And these are the topics I wish to consider. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Of the very large number of studies that have appeared in recent years, I will mention two to illustrate the kinds of scholarship that should rightly fall within the domain of electronic literature. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt There are of course notable exceptions, for example Robert Coover's print hypertext "The Babysitter." Choosing not to notice such experimental print fictions, the narrator of Patchwork Girl remarks, "When I open a book I know where I am, which is restful. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt "I believed that if I concentrated on wishing, my body itself would erase its scars and be made new," the narrator confesses, an endeavor that continues in dynamic tension with the simultaneous realization that she is always already fragmented, ruptured, discontinuous (story/falling apart/becoming whole). Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm Once again, we do not doubt the value of these phonological arguments, the presuppositions behind which I have attempted to expose above. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html I wanted to write prose and there weren't many prose writers around who were using the ways of working of poets I was influenced by.' Of the prose writers she did feel an affinity with, she cited Burroughs as her 'first major influence,' stating, 'I love to read Kerouac, but Burroughs is the more intellectual. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html It is this, in a thought which is nothing less than Nietzsche an, which seems to me to beckon toward Nietzsche; who often recognized in himself a certain affinity with a vein of English thought. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Here it may be useful for me to pause and reflect, in reflexive fashion, on the kind of argument I have been fashioning. Vilém Flusser;  Essays  1967;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ For example, I find that I myself am a translation problem, that is, a multiplicity of systems to be translated among themselves into a metasystem. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text By subtle subversion I mean, on the contrary, what is not directly concerned with destruction, evades the paradigm, and seeks some other term: a third term, which is not, however, a synthesizing term but an eccentric, extraordinary term. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See And this has given me room to argue that the very interlocking assumptions used to achieve closure are themselves the result of historical contingencies and embedded contextualities. Deleuze and Guattari;  How do you make yourself a body without organs?  1947;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze2.htm In this way, it will no longer be women's legs that have an effect on me, and if it pleases you to command me to receive your caresses, when you have had them and if you make me feel them, you will give me the imprint of your body as I have never had it before and never would have had it otherwise."12 Legs are still organs, but the boots now only determine a zone of intensity as an imprint or zone on a BwO. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Don't worry, little boxy baby, I will lift you by your ankles off the bed... Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 But at the same time I am sympathetic to a certain minoritarian refrain running through recent media theory on the specificity of computers as non-optical if not altogether non-visual media, for anyone wishing to cram computers into the framework of ‘visual culture’ is certainly suffering from an unfortunate fetishization of the interface, as if the computer monitor were an adequate substitute for the medium as a whole, which, in addition to screens of various shapes and sizes, consists of any number of other technologies: nonoptical interfaces (keyboard, mouse, controller, sensor); data in memory and data on disk; executable algorithms; networking technologies and protocols; and the list continues. Lev Manovich;  REMIXABILITY  2005;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CC4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2FRemix_modular.doc&ei=2zqzUdX4Gcem4AT6lYHAAQ&usg=AFQjCNHlaRFP8sddB6-_oH4XEmra5A8NlQ&sig2=FAwD4HxylAODfMkX2J-4ig&bvm=bv.47534661,d.bGE&cad=rja The scenario I am entertaining proposes a very different kind of modularity that may appear like a contradiction in terms. Michel Foucault;  T H E A T R U M P H I L 0 S O P H I C U M  1970;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpfoucault5.htm In the more or less recent past, there have been, I think, three major attempts at conceptualizing the event: neopositivism, phenomenology, and the philosophy of history. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf The obvious point in common among these artists and man y o f th e mos t creativ e toda y reside s i n thi s capacit y t o us e existi n g socia l forms All cultural and social structures represent nothing more than articles of clothing that can be slipped on, objects to be experienced and tested, Alix Lambert did this in Wedding Piece, a work documenting her five weddings in one day. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm That is why what I would be tempted to consider in the development of the Course as “progress,” calling into question in return the uncritical positions of Chapter VI, never gives rise to a new “scientific” concept of writing. Deleuze and Guattari;  How do you make yourself a body without organs?  1947;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze2.htm Today Hitler I lift the roadblocks I set down! Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf "Those things which occur to me, occur to me not from the root up but rather only from somewhere about their middle. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Since there is an infinite set of traversal functions, I shall not try to make an inventory of them here but instead describe a set of basic variates that together defines a multidimensional coordinate system into which the functions can be plotted.

CHAPTER
ONE

Lev Manovich;  The Practice of Everyday (Media) Life: From Mass Consumption to Mass Cultural Production?  2009;  http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/596645#fn9 Their original meaning is less important than their function as tokens. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 In this case both albums, the original and the remixed versions, are validated on the quality of independent production, yet the remixed version is completely dependent on Massive’s original production for validation. Mal Ahern;  Deleuze, Gilles. "Nomad Thought"  2003;  http://csmt.uchicago.edu/annotations/deleuzenomad.htm What is transmitted, then, is not a static logic or codification of the world, but “a current of energy,” a theoretical force, a way of interpreting the world that is fully contingent on the world that the text exists in. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Häufig werden auch Remixe von anderen DJs als mögliche Interpretationen des Originals mit auf die Maxisingle gepreßt. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The Grey Album goes further because it exposed the tensions of copyright and sampling with emerging technologies: Danger Mouse deliberately used the Internet for distribution and he was pushed by EMI (the copyright holders of the Beatles’ White Album) to take the Grey Album off line. Wolfgang Iser;  THE RANGE OF INTERPRETATION  2000;  http://books.google.de/books/about/The_range_of_interpretation.html?id=9IPLzzYy2hAC&redir_esc=y Circularity became prominent when the authority of the text was on the wane; recursivity was developed when emergence had to be accounted for; and the differential—originally a mathematical operation—was reactivated when all the umbrella conceptualizations of immeasurabilities had broken down. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf I want to be the journalist after the journalist." He produces sculptures based on media images which he reframes or whose original scale and centering he reproduces faithfully. EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 (Let us extend the term “text” here to the visual arts and media at large.) This is the reason why citations are so necessary in academic writing, and certainly is something that is closely monitored in other areas of culture, like the music industry, where sampling is carefully controlled by way of copyright law. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Their activity evolved into sampling bits of music in the sound studio during the 80’s, which means that the DJ producers were cutting/copying and pasting pre-recorded material to create their own music compositions. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja The examples of such models are the original project Xanadu by Ted Nelson, “freeware,” and “shareware.” In the case of Open Source, the key idea is that one person (or group) writes software code, which can be then modified by another user; the result can be subsequently modified by a new user, and so on. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 And with this an intense mimetic thicket emerges: software as mimetic technology; ideology as projection across the ‘gap’ between individuals and their real conditions of existence; and the startling claim, from Chun, that software could conceivably be a continuously variable copy (i.e. an analog) of ideology. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Je nach Anlagen des DJs erfahren die Originalkompositionen der Stücke im Laufe des Produktionsprozesses eine deutlich wahrnehmbare Modifizierung, die einem besseren Klang oder einer erhöhten Clubtauglichkeit dienen soll. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Am Anfang des Remixes steht in den meisten Fällen die Liebe zum Original, verbunden mit dem Glauben daran, daß man diese Urschöpfung neu betrachten, variieren und bereichern kann und sollte. Vilém Flusser;  The Future of Writing  1983–84;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ If one examines certain Mesopotamian tiles, one can see that the original purpose of writing was to facilitate the deciphering of images. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Mark Rose ends his book (note that I use the media-specific practice of calling it a book and not a text) by suggesting that copyright continues to endure, despite its many problems, because it reinforces "the sense of who we are" (Rose 142). EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 In brief, the remix when extended as a cultural practice is a second mix of something pre-existent; the material that is mixed at least for a second time must be recognized otherwise it could be misunderstood as something new, and it would become plagiarism. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 Here, ideology serves as a sort of anthropological ‘explanation’ for all sorts of alienation, exploitation, and false consciousness existing in society, along the lines of the doctrine of original sin or the great theological arguments for the existence of evil as explanation for why the here and now is so inferior to the hereafter. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Even if this copy is the only one we ever see, we automatically assume that it is not supposed to be this way and that a more correct version exists. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf Bertrand Lavier functions in a similar way when he superimposes a refrigerator onto an armchair (Brandt on Rue de Passy) or one perfume onto another (Chanel No. 5 on Shalimar), grafting objects in a playful questioning of the category of "sculpture." His TV Painting, 1986, shows seven paintings by Jean Fautrier, Charles Lapicque, Nicolas De Stael, Lewensberg, On Kawara, Yves Klein, and Lucio Fontana, each broadcast by a television set whose size corresponds to the format of the original work. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm However original and irreducible it might be, the “form of expression” linked by correlation to the graphic “substance of expression” remains very determined. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html At the beginning of their time together, Janey talks to and learns from Genet, but the relationship ends badly, with Janey imprisoned for stealing 'two copies of Funeral Rights [Genet's 1947 novel] and hash' (B&G 133) from Genet. Vilém Flusser;  Betrayal  ca. mid-1980s;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Is there a common root to the chicken and the egg, one that would permit us to spot the original betrayal? N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Rather, each craftsman is given a copy of a set of instructions and told which parts he is supposed to execute. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf So when George Lucas releases a new Star Wars movie, it refers back to the original property — the original Star Wars trilogy. Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst Dazu gehörten die Festivals of Plagiarism (die sich als Plagiate der neoistischen Apartment-Festivals verstanden, die wiederum Plagiate der Fluxus-Festivals waren) ebenso wie die Fanzines VAGUE, SMILE (International Magazin of Multiple Origins), FILE (und dessen Plagiate BILE und VILE) sowie PhotoStatic/ Retrofuturism. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Consequently, to rewrite and revise Don Quixote - orGreat Expectations, Treasure Island, The Story of O or large sections of Genet's output - would not be to produce an 'original' text, but simply a 'new' text. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Hence the different registers into which the holy text is translated may well “threaten to erode its ‘original’ and straightforward core," and such an obvious “threat” points to the variableness of registers into which the holy text can be transposed. The register, however, is not totally predetermined by the text, not least as one has to learn from the text and not learn the text. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html This is the enigmatic originality of every paraph. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Text derives originally from the Latin word for weaving and for interwoven material, and it has come to have extraordinary accuracy of meaning in the case of word processing. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html No longer primarily occupied by the task of preserving information in the form of fragile manuscripts that degraded with frequent use, scholars, working with books, developed new conceptions of scholarship, originality, and authorial property. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf In the bazaar, economist Michel Henochsberg explains, "transaction goes beyond the dry and reductive simplification in which modernity rigs it," assuming its original status as a negotiation between two people. Eric A. Havelock;  The Muse Learns to Write  1986;  http://www.thenewhumanities.net/books/Book%20Reviews16.html The original Greek says: The city altogether bulges with incense burnings. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf In the face of the economic abstraction that makes daily life unreal, or an absolute weapon of techno-market power, artists reactivate forms by inhabiting them, pirating private property and copyrights, brands and products, museum-bound forms and signatures. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Second, this same ease of cutting, copying, and otherwise manipulating texts permits different forms of scholarly composition, ones in which the researcher's notes and original data exist in experientially closer proximity to the scholarly text than ever before. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf Are we heading toward a culture that would do away with copyright in favor of a policy allowing free access to works, a sort of blueprint for a commmunism of forms In 1956, Guy Debord published "Methods of Detournement:" The literary and artistic heritage of humanity should be used for partisan propaganda purposes. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf In a universe of products for sale, preexisting forms, signals already emitted, buildings already constructed, paths marked out by their predecessors, artists no longer consider the artistic field (and here one could add television, cinema, or literature) a museum containing works that must be cited or "surpassed," as the modernist ideology of originality would have it, but so many storehouses filled with tools that should be used, stockpiles of data to manipulate and present. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Here "culture industry" (the term was originally coined by Theodor Adorno in the 1930s) is actually ahead of the rest of the industry. Katherine Hayles;  The Power of Simulation: What Virtual Creatures Can Teach Us  1999;  http://www.stanford.edu/class/history34q/readings/Hayles/Simulation.html A photocopy of a will does not count the same as the original signed document. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt When Jackson re-inscribes Shelley's text into hers, the act is never merely a quotation, even when the referents are not violently wrenched away from the originals as in "Thanks"; witness the fact that Jackson divides Shelley's text into lexias and encodes it into the Storyspace software. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Second, any gathering of lexias, whether assembled by the original author of the verbal text, or by some else gathering together texts created by multiple authors, also takes the form of a network; thus document sets, whose shifting borders make them in some senses the hypertextual equivalent of a work, are called in some present systems a web. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Early charters conveying land in England were originally not even dated (1979, pp 231, 236–41), probably for a variety of reasons. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 The first remix is extended, that is a longer version of the original song containing long instrumental sections making it more mixable for the club DJ. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 This implies that the originality of the remix is non-existent; therefore it must acknowledge its source of validation self-reflexively. Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst Es geht um Machtverhältnisse, abbildende Repräsentation und die Kritik daran, aber auch um eine Entwertung des „originalen“ und einmaligen Werkes, dessen Warenförmigkeit dadurch verdeutlicht werden soll. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Acker closely echoed Burroughs' opinion when she wrote, 'without dreams, our desires, especially sexual desires, we will die.' But of the greatest significance here is the fact that Acker uses dreams as another means of relinquishing authorial control over the writing and returning to one of the original functions of the early cut-up, namely to bring writing closer to the subconscious mind. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history But, like all oral texts, they have no visible structure: nothing in Homer depends on holding a text in one’s hands and moving back and forth through the copy. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 But as Chun and others have pointed out, ‘programming’ a computer originally meant patching circuits together using cables or connectors and thus ‘software’ began historically not as executable software applications as we know them today but as any sort of service labor performed in or on informatic machines; even video was once known as ‘software’, to distinguish it from ‘hard’ playback decks and cameras. Eduardo Navas;  THE FRAMEWORK OF CULTURE: REMIX IN MUSIC, ART, AND LITERATURE  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=651#more-651 The relation of the two layers begins to be apparent to cultural critics and the questioning of terms such as originality, uniqueness, and the concept of progress, itself, became common subjects for intellectual debates. Eric A. Havelock;  The Muse Learns to Write  1986;  http://www.thenewhumanities.net/books/Book%20Reviews16.html Preface to Plato sought to shift attention, so far as the original Greek epics were concerned, away from improvisation towardd recollection and remembrance, applied to content as well as style, and on a larger scale of reference, since what was now embraced was the whole tradition of the society for which the bard sang, something which it was his didactic purpose to conserve. Eduardo Navas;  THE FRAMEWORK OF CULTURE: REMIX IN MUSIC, ART, AND LITERATURE  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=651#more-651 Adding these three cultural areas makes this analysis rather complex because we have to deal with two things that are challenging to cultures (at least cultures considered part of globalization), which is to participate in the act of repurposing, recycling, remmediating (remixing) material that superficially, in terms of history, has been validated by the very idea of being original. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Many originally specific terms have been so generalized in this way. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt As Rose makes clear, it was the author's style--the clothes he selected to dress his thought--that was considered most indicative of his individual personality, so style was also associated with the originality that was rapidly becoming the touchstone of literary value. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 While this is real, it must also be acknowledged that corporations are trying to control this collective movement, which is why they have invested in social media, while trying to hold on strong to pre-established copyright laws. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Der Remix dient dem Original, ohne die eigenen Interessen zu vergessen. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 These online activities rely on copying, and deleting (cutting) information from one point to another as data packets. Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst Als erfolgreichstes Projekt der plagiatorischen Subkulturen bezeichnet Cramer die Plunderphonics, zu denen die Tape-beatles, Jon Oswald, das CVS – Copyright Violation Squad Bulletin und Negativland gehörten. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html If Burroughs' Cities of the Red Night represented a shift from active piracy (of other texts, in the form of the cut-ups) within the Burroughs oeuvre, then Acker's Pussy makes an explicit and all-encompassing link between plagiaristic piracy and piracy in all other, broader senses. Rick Prelinger;  On the Virtues of Preexisting Material | Contents Magazine  2007;  http://contentsmagazine.com/articles/on-the-virtues-of-preexisting-material/ It’s folly to make too much of originality. Jörg Heiser;  Sight Reading  2009;  https://www.frieze.com/issue/article/sight_reading/ Foucault makes much of the point that in Ceci n’est pas une pipe (This is not a pipe, 1929) the sentence ‘this is not a pipe’, accompanying a painted pipe, is rendered in school copybook style, evoking the figure of a teacher in front of class who is at a loss because he suddenly realizes that neither image nor sentence are what they designate, thus making his students laugh out loud. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt The idea that a literary work is analogous to real estate facilitated the fitting together of arguments about copyright with the Lockean liberal philosophy that C. P. Macpherson has labeled possessive individualism. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Acker contended that her appropriation represented a type of 'liberation' of the words, and that such practices reflected her self-professed 'post-modernist position.' The key issue here is not the relation between Acker's texts and the texts from which she so heavily and openly plagiarised, but the inspiration for her plagiarism. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt The author creates his literary property through the exercise of his original genius, yet it is clear that writing is always a matter of appropriation and transformation, from syntax to literary allusions and the structure of tropes. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 The activity of the hip hop DJs evolved into sampling bits of music; they eventually evolved from being live performers to music studio producers, which means that based on the principles of sampling, they were cutting/copying and pasting pre-recorded material to create their own music compositions. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja Gradually the term became more and more broad, today referring to any reworking of an original musical work(s). N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Although Blackstone located the work both in "style" and "sentiment," subsequent commentators realized that the part of the work that could be secured as private intellectual property, and therefore the part appropriate for copyright protection, was the way ideas were expressed rather the ideas themselves. Cornelia Sollfrank;  Originale ... und andere unethische AutorInnenschaften in der Kunst.  2007;  http://kulturrisse.at/ausgaben/012007/oppositionen/originale-...-und-andere-unethische-autorinnenschaften-in-der-kunst Insofern ist auch eine Definition von Plagiat als „Diebstahl“ geistigen Eigentums fragwürdig, denn der Bestohlene bleibt weiter im Besitz seines Eigentums. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ The reactions thus initiated result in a negative copy of the objects from which the light originated. Vilém Flusser;  On the Theory of Communication  1986–87;  http://www.flusserstudies.net/ When a new continent is discovered, its rivers and mountains become more interesting than the passage to India originally searched for. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf As DJ Mark the 45 King says: "I'm not stealing all their music, I'm using your drum track, I'm using this little 'bip' from him, I'm using your bassline that you don't even like no fucking more." When the crossfader of the mixing board is set in the middle, two samples are played simultaneously: Pierre Huyghe presents an interview with John Giorno and a film by Andy Warhol side by side. Michel Foucault;  T H E A T R U M P H I L 0 S O P H I C U M  1970;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpfoucault5.htm Certainly not by discovering a law of the true and false (truth is not opposed to error but to false appearances), but by looking above these manifestations to a model, a model so pure that the actual purity of the "pure" resembles it, approximates it, and measures itself against it; a model that exists so forcefully that in its presence they sham vanity of the false copy is immediately reduced to nonexistence. Eric A. Havelock;  The Muse Learns to Write  1986;  http://www.thenewhumanities.net/books/Book%20Reviews16.html Translation of the high classical language into a modern literary tongue, when the effect is compared with the original, at once brings out the dynamics of the oral tongue and what has happened in the transfer to a literate syntax. Vilém Flusser;  The Codified World  1978;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ That is what we mean by “crisis of values”: that we step out of the linear world of explanations and into the techno-imaginary world of “models.” The revolutionary originality of techno-images is not that they move themselves, that they are “audiovisual,” that they shine in light of the cathThe Codified World 41 ode ray, and so on, but that they are “models,” the image of a concept of a scene. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf Levine, meanwhile, got rid of the title in favor of a reference to a temporal shift in the series "Untitled (After Marcel Duchamp)." For these three artists, the issue is not to make use of these works but to re-exhibit them, to arrange them according to personal principles, each creating a "new idea" for the objects they reproduce, based on the Duchampian principle of the reciprocal readymade, Bidlo constructs an ideal museum, Sturtevant constructs a narrative by reproducing works showing radical moments in history, while Levine's copyist work, inspired by Roland Barthes, asserts that culture is an infinite palimpsest. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html For example, there is a section explaining that dynamic data arrays are used to generate the screen displays, but there is little or no theoretical exploration of what it means to read an electronic text produced in this fashion rather than the print original. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt It is primarily through the complex enactment of linking structures, both within the text and within the distributed cognitive environment in which the text is read, that Patchwork Girl brings into view what was suppressed in eighteenth-century debates over copyright. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html Renear quotes Alois Pichler as exemplifying this approach: "Our aim in transcription is not to represent as accurately as possible the originals, but rather to prepare from the original another text so as to serve as accurately as possible certain interests in the text." Renear, who identifies himself as a pluralist, astutely points out the tautologies and ambiguities in the antirealist position—for example, indeterminacies in identifying which "certain interests in the text" are to be served. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf A simplistic model might depict two of the most common relationships as the following: text subordinate to script (the handwritten letter, the electronic word-processing document) and script subordinate to text (the mass-produced paper copy, the read-only CD-ROM). N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt The decision clearly relied on the notion of the author's "originality" as a key component of an artistic work. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ For the mass culture, the problem is that the more technically perfect the images become, the richer they become and the more completely they substitute themselves for the facts they may have originally represented. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Das Samp ling macht es möglich, Originalgeräusche an jeder gewünschten Stelle in jeder gewünschten Form einzusetzen. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt The discussions that swirled around copyright also solidified assumptions about what counted as creativity, authorship, and proper literature. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Mehr noch: Er dient dem Original in dem Wissen, damit die eigenen Interessen zu erklären und zu verdeutlichen. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja And indeed, the original “appropriation artists” such as Richard Prince simply copied the existing image as a whole rather than re-mixing it. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text Two edges are created: an obedient, conformist, plagiarizing edge (the language is to be copied in its canonical state, as it has been established by schooling, good usage, literature, culture), and another edge, mobile, blank (ready to assume any contours), which is never anything but the site of its effect: the place where the death of language is glimpsed.

CHAPTER
TWO

Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf A first type of book is the root-book. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles In Electronic Literature Hayles only briefly discusses hypertextesque works of print literature, and the omission is unfortunate, as many qualities inherent in these works rise to the surface more when a reader is familiar with electronic literature. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html The linearity of print also provides the passage with an illusory center whose force is intensified by such selection." Die Linearität der Schrift erscheint als eine 'Verengung', die im guten Sinne eine Konzentration, im schlechten aber den Verlust von Komplexität bedeutet; und Bolz, für eine bündige Zusammenfassung immer gut, kann summieren: "So gilt für unser Zeitalter der Datenflüsse prinzipiell: Das Buch ist der Engpaß menschlicher Kommunikation. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms For instance, in the case of a book, Kay and Goldberg point out “It need not be treated as a simulated paper book since this is a new medium with new properties. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html The study of cybertexts reveals the misprision of the spaciodynamic metaphors of narrative theory, because ergodic literature incarnates these models in a way linear text narratives do not. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html A fairer comparison would be print literature produced from 1550 to 1565, when the conventions of print literature were still in their nascent stages, with the electronic literature produced from 1985 to 2000. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles By electronic literature, Hayles means literature that is “digital born.” This includes genres as varied as interactive fiction, hypertext fiction, and digital poetry. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Aarseth highlights the fact that reading paths through a book are actually less linear and predfined as they are in a hypertext. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles Excluding authors like Neil Gaiman, who still creates his novels first on paper, all contemporary literature is created digitally, from start to finish. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Instantiating a linear narrative that turns into a circle, the book simulates an autopoietic structure in which the details produce the overail organization, and the organization produces the details. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Located within the humanities by tradition and academic practice, electronic literature also has close affinities with the digital arts, computer games, and other forms associated with networked and programmable media. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html The book follows the central character, Janey, from her home with her father to Tangier in the company of Jean Genet and beyond. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html The site is informed throughout by an enlightened editorial policy, for the editors state that they take the "work" to be the book considered as a unique physical object. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Of necessity, electronic literature must build on these expectations even as it modifies and transforms them. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html [One gets] so far or so much out of a little piece of language, context after context widening out from these few phrases to include as their necessary milieux all the family of Indo-European languages, all the literature and conceptual thought within these languages, and all the permutations of our social structures of household economy, gift-giving and gift receiving" (Miller, "The Critic as Host," 223). Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl At MIT, Knuth initiated a project God and computers whose results were an exhibition of Bible calligraphies and, in 2001, a book Things a Computer Scientist Rarely Talks About.In this book, Knuth remembers how as a student he read a computer program code that he found “absolutely beautiful. Michael Goddard;  Felix and Alice in Wonderland. The Encounter between Guattari and Berardi and the Post-Media Era  2006;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpbifo1.htm However, to gain a different perspective on these questions we will now turn to the book by Berardi, Felix, which poses these exact problematics and constitutes the other side of the Guattari-Berardi, rhizomatic thought-media subversion encounter. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt (The prime example was the detachment of "Shakespeare" from the historical actor and playwright and the reassignment of his "face" to such august personages as Francis Bacon.) As Rose observes, these developments operated as a chain of deferrals sliding from the embodied to the disembodied, the book to the work, the content to the style, the style to the face, the face to the author's personality, the personality to the author's unique genius. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html The varieties of electronic literature are richly diverse, spanning all the types associated with print literature and adding some genres unique to networked and programmable media. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html As literature (although not as textual media), MUDs are very different from anything else, with their streams of continuing text and their collective, often anonymous readership and writership. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf With the help of a typewriter he has resumed his writing activities, and we can hence expect a book along the lines of his last ones. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf A strange mystification: a book all the more total for being fragmented. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Coverley's Califia and her new work Egypt: The Book of Going Forth by Day ; the picaresque hypertext The Unknown by Dirk Stratton, Scott Rettberg and William Gillespie, reminiscent in its aesthetic of excess to Kerouac's On the Road ; Michael Joyce's elegantly choreographed Storyspace work, Twelve Blue, disseminated on the Web through the Eastgate Hypertext Reading Room ; Caitlin Fisher's These Waves of Girls, including sound, spoken text, animated text, graphics and other functionalities in a networked linking structure ; Stuart Moulthrop's multimodal work Reagan Library, featuring QuickTime movies with random text generation ; The Jew's Daughter by Judd Morrissey in collaboration with Lori Talley, with its novel interface of a single screen of text in which some passages are replaced as the reader mouses over them ; Talan Memmott's brilliantly designed and programmed Lexia to Perplexia ; and Richard Holeton's parodic Frequently Asked Questions about Hypertext, which in Nabokovian fashion evolves a narrative from supposed annotations to a poem , along with a host of others. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html The demarcation between electronic literature and computer games is far from clear; many games have narrative components, while many works of electronic literature have game elements. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Initially the most striking feature of the book is the presentation. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html While alluding to print predecessors, this time-based work also performs its difference from a codex book in its rhythmic pace synchronized to the music tempo and operating outside the user's control. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf Relational Aesthetics, of which this book is a continuation, described the collective sensibility within which new forms of art have been inscribed. Lev Manovich;  DEEP REMIXABILITY  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=61 In his book After the Great Divide (1986), Andreas Huyssen writes: “All modern and avantgardist techniques, forms and images are now stored for instant recall in the computerized memory banks of our culture. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 The dual nature of the cybernetic sign processes can be described as follows: while some signification systems, such as painted pictures and printed books, exist on only one material level (i.e., the level of paint and canvas, or of ink and paper), others exist on two or more levels, as a book being read aloud (ink-paper and voice-soundwaves) or a moving picture being projected (the film strip and the image on the silver screen). Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Theories of literature have a powerful ability to co-opt new fields and fill theoretical vacuums, and in such a process of colonization, where the "virgin territory" lacks theoretical defense, important perspectives and insights might be lost or at least overlooked. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Offensichtlich ist zunächst, daß innerhalb der Literatur verstärkt Projekte auftreten, die mit der Linearität in offenem Zwiespalt liegen. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The book and its page had been the site of writing and the logic of writing had shaped the order of the page and the book; the screen is the site of the image and the logic of the image is shaping the order and the arrangements of the screen. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf There is no difference between what a book talks about and how it is made. Christian Kerslake;  The Vertigo of Philosophy:Deleuze and the Problem of Immanence  2002;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze8.htm Spinoza and the ‘best plane of immanence’ In the Spinoza book of 1968, Deleuze fashions a history of the philosophy of immanence, from the Neoplatonists through to Duns Scotus, which culminates in Spinoza. WALTER BENJAMIN;  THE AUTHOR AS PRODUCER  1970;  http://newleftreview.org/I/62/walter-benjamin-the-author-as-producer The World is Beautiful—that is the title of a famous book of photographs by Renger-Patsch, in which we see the photography of the ‘new objectivity’ at its height. Eduardo Navas;  THE FRAMEWORK OF CULTURE: REMIX IN MUSIC, ART, AND LITERATURE  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=651#more-651 Consequently, it is in the materialization of the immaterial—that is in the careful measurement of the flow of ideas as they are embedded in different forms where there is potential for remix in music, art, and literature as forms of criticism and creative production to thrive, while functioning on the second layer; the challenge remains to push the first layer to be more transparent and admit to its relation to the politics of culture. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Here I have focused not on the effects and insights produced by the various branches of literary theory when applied to nonlinear texts but on the potential for new perspectives on literature in general that the study of nonlinear textuality might bring us. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles This fact should not be confused with a prediction of the demise of print culture, as it is inarguable that electronic literature is a descendant of the bound text and has adopted much from its printed predecessor. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html In my book the characters enjoy themselves in a landscape that doubles for the female body. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html In The Archeology of Knowledge , he points out that the "frontiers of a book are never clear-cut," because "it is caught up in a system of references to other books, other texts, other sentences: it is a node within a network... network of references". N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt These range from DeLillo's Underworld to Bolter and Grusin's Remediation, which self-consciously pushes the book form toward hypertext through arrows that serve as visual indications of hypertextual links. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Some writers have extended their attack to the typography of the book itself, creating antibooks that disrupt our notion of how a book should look and behave before our eyes. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf In opposition to these notions, I argue that the lessons of nonlinear literature show us a textuality different from our readings (and our readings of “reading”), more fundamental than our messages, and, through the evolving rituals and technologies of use and distribution, subject to many types of change. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf A book has neither object nor subject; it is made of variously for matters, and very different dates and speeds. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The printed book makes these acts of reference easier through the use of footnotes and page references. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Rather than circumscribe electronic literature within print assumptions, Aarseth swept the board clean by positing a new category of "ergodic literature," texts in which "nontrivial effort is required to allow the reader to traverse the text" (1). Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms By systematically developing easy to use GUI-based software to create and edit familiar media types, Kay and others appear to lock a computer into being a simulation machine for “old media.” Or, to put this in terms of Bolter and Grusin’s influential book Remediation: Understanding New Media (2000), we can say that GUI-based software turned digital computers into a “remediation machine:” a machine that expertely represents a range of earlier media. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Writing on New Media poetics, Adalaide Morris aptly discusses this aspect of digital literature by commenting that it articulates for us what we already in some sense know. Marshall McLuhan;  The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man  1962;  http://books.google.de/books/about/The_Gutenberg_Galaxy.html?id=y4C644zHCWgC&redir_esc=y (As a symbol of intellectual and spiritual order, the number three retained great importance for him throughout his life.) Within a year, McLuhan announced to Ezra Pound that he was “writing a book on ‘The End of the Gutenberg Era’”1 and sent him an eighteen-point outline of the work, pitching it as the “icon smashing” groundwork for an overhaul of undergraduate education. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf Schaudt published their book ComputerLyrik. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles (As Hayles points out, because of this many genres of electronic literature have become widely associated with the software that they run on.) She also introduces the term “intermediation” to describe electronic literature, arguing that e-lit can be understood as a mediator between humans and computers. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf But the book as a spiritual reality, the Tree or Root as an image, endlessly develops the law of the One that becomes two, then of the two that become four ... N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html Like many arguments McGann mounts to prove the superiority of print, the implied comparison here between print and electronic literature is seriously flawed. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Our literature is characterized by the pitiless divorce which the literary institution maintains between the producer of the text and its user, between its owner and its consumer, between its author and its reader. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html As computers have moved out of the desktop and into the environment, other varieties of electronic literature have emerged. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Hence McLuhan’s wry book title: The Medium is the Massage (not quite the ‘message’). N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Realizing this broader possibility requires that we understand electronic literature not only as an artistic practice (though it is that, of course), but also as a site for negotiations between diverse constituencies and different kinds of expertise. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html While there might be sociological reasons for such a study, we would not be able to claim any understanding of how different forms of literature vary. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html The technology of the book found enhancement by pagination, indices, and bibliographies. Vilém Flusser;  Essays  1967;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ All you need to do is open an “erudite” book to feel that climate. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Während in der Literatur und der klassischen Kunst die Schöpfung unmittelbar aus dem Bewußtsein unter Vermittlung der Hände auf Papier oder Leinwand übertragen wird, ist die Produktion eines Dancefloor-Stückes nur mit Hilfe von viel Technologie, von Studios und Produzenten möglich. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles My introduction came by way of her keynote address, in which Hayles discussed why English departments need to incorporate electronic literature into their programs. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Moreover, print texts can engage in reflexive play at least as complex as anything in Patchwork Girl, as Michael Snow's wonderful artist book Cover to Cover playfully demonstrates. Marshall McLuhan;  The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man  1962;  http://books.google.de/books/about/The_Gutenberg_Galaxy.html?id=y4C644zHCWgC&redir_esc=y McLuhan was not around when the World Wide Web exploded onto the world, but he read Norbert Weiner and understood that the book as an object would be preserved in the electrified command and control of the computer age; in fact, he cross-read and applied various semantics. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Available for free downloading at the Electronic Literature Organization site (http://collection.eliterature.org), it offers the literary works through a Creative Commons license that allows them to be freely disseminated, so long as they are not altered. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf The law of the book is the law of reflection, the One that becomes two. Vilém Flusser;  What Is Communication?  1973–74;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Therefore, it makes little sense to speak of the “same phenomenon.” An “interpreted” cloud is not the same as the meteorologist’s cloud, and an “explicated” book has nothing to do with literature. Michael Goddard;  Felix and Alice in Wonderland. The Encounter between Guattari and Berardi and the Post-Media Era  2006;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpbifo1.htm The first striking element of this book is its title, Felix not Guattari, thereby indicating that this is an intimate portrait, not an abstract account of a body of thought. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf A book is an assemblage of this kind, and as such is unattributable. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html The Electronic Literature Organization has taken a proactive approach to this crucial problem with the Preservation, Archiving and Dissemination Initiative (PAD). Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf According to MallarmJ's instant insight, literature is made up of nor more and no less than twenty-six letters.[47] Lacan's "methodological distinction"[48] between the real, the imaginary, and the symbolic is the theory (or merely an historical effect) of that differentiation. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html The exposition made here is mostly for elucidation purposes and must not be mistaken for an attempt to produce an exhaustive historical inventory of ergodic literature (see, instead, Vuillemin 1990). Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Within the parameters of reactive language, she strove to break down the language-controlled barriers between the classes in British society, and to challenge the accepted orders of art and literature without producing 'unbearable nonsense'. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf This may seem more radical than it actually is, with subversive political consequences for the world of literature and art; but Bush’s user is clearly modeled on the traditional academic author, who can carry out his critical comparisons and annotations of sources with the same serene distance as before, only much more efficiently. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html More important, since on Intermedia you would read this hypertext book on a large two-page graphics monitor, you would have the opportunity to place several texts next to one another. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html This essay aims to provide (some of) the context that will open the field of inquiry so that electronic literature can be understood as both partaking of literary tradition and introducing crucial transformations that redefine what literature is. Deleuze and Guattari;  How do you make yourself a body without organs?  1947;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze2.htm After all, is not Spinoza's Ethics the great book of the BwO? Eduardo Navas;  THE FRAMEWORK OF CULTURE: REMIX IN MUSIC, ART, AND LITERATURE  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=651#more-651 As previously noted, creative acts in music, art, and literature function on the second layer of The Framework of Culture. Eduardo Navas;  THE FRAMEWORK OF CULTURE: REMIX IN MUSIC, ART, AND LITERATURE  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=651#more-651 It is evident that literature initially explored principles of remix in terms of cultural citation, meaning that unlike remix as popularly understood in terms of music, literature more often than not relies on referencing ideas. WALTER BENJAMIN;  THE AUTHOR AS PRODUCER  1970;  http://newleftreview.org/I/62/walter-benjamin-the-author-as-producer On the contrary, in Antiquity large areas of literature bore its stamp. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Das Leben, so Barthes, imitiert lediglich das Buch, und das Buch selbst ist nichts als ein Netz Eine Tradition, die dann in der psycho von Zeichen, eine endlose Imitation. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Chapters in the book were coherent and complete in themselves; paragraphs had their logic; and sentences derived their form and purpose from the organization of the paragraph and the larger text. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt When the print book becomes unbound in electronic media, time is affected as well. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf Regarding the arrangement of text segments by the author, two types can be distinguished: Segments can either be put together in succession in a book and highlighted only as loosely associated elements by cuts, numbers, chapter headings or various other paratextual elements or, alternatively, they can be printed on loose leaves such as untacked sheets of paper, cards or lots. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The philosophical remarks in this book are, as it were, a number of sketches of landscapes which were made in the course of these long and involved journeyings”. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html From a critical point of view, works that appear in both print and electronic instantiations, such as Stephanie Strickland's innovative poetry book V: Wave Son.Nets/Losing l'Una and the Web work V:Vniverse, programmed in Director in collaboration with Cynthia Lawson, illustrate that when a work is reconceived to take advantage of the behavioral, visual, and/or sonic capabilities of the Web, the result is not just a Web "version" but an entirely different artistic production that should be evaluated in its own terms with a critical approach fully attentive to the specificity of the medium. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm It showed bow to reach the literary element, to what in literature passes through an irreducibly graphic text, tying the play of form to a determined substance of expression. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm The desire to restrict play is, moreover, irresistible.) This interest in literature is effectively manifested in the Copenhagen School. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html The deepest and most provocative for electronic literature is the fifth principle of "transcoding," by which Manovich means the importation of ideas, artifacts, and presuppositions from the "cultural layer" to the "computer layer" (46). Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf Aided by compulsory education and new alphabetisation techniques, the book became both film and record around 1800--not as a media technological reality, but in the imaginary of readers' souls.

CHAPTER
THREE

N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html Rossetti Hypermedia Archive demonstrate. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 Here, the archive is similar to analog vinyl records losing their fidelity and being slightly deteriorated every time the needle passes through the groove. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 History is here dependent on linear traces that expose the instability of interpretation; much like tree rings, traces are left behind, marking time, leaving us with an allegorical database presenting destruction (death) as an inevitable part of life. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The database becomes a delivery device of authority in potentia: when needed, call upon it to verify the reliability of accessed material; but until that time, all that is needed is to know that such archive exists. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 This particular type of mashup goes deep into the database to access dynamic data. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Jerome McGann, whose work on the Rossetti Archive and contributions to Institute of Advanced Technology in the Humanities (IATH) at the University of Virginia have made him a leading figure in the field, turns this perspective on its head in Radiant Textuality: Literature after the World Wide Web by arguing that print texts also use markup language, for example, paragraphing, italics, indentation, line breaks and so forth. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html Thus he is more interested (at least theoretically) in what deformations of Rossetti's images in Photoshop reveal about their composition than in the accomplishments of the William Blake Archive in simulating the color tones and sizes of the paper documents. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf For the libraries, in which the archeologist found so much rich material, collected and catalogued papers that in terms of addressee, distribution technique, degree of secrecy and writing technique had been extremely diverse -- Foucault's archive as the entropy of a post office.[5] Even writing itself, before it ends up in libraries, is a communication medium, the technology of which the archeologist simply forgot. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 This is quite a challenge because as this text demonstrates, the Regenerative Remix is primarily designed for practicality, for the sake of immediate services; and the archive is designed to come to the front at the very moment that a query is made. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf A new media object can be defined as one or more interfaces to a multimedia database (see introduction to “Interface” chapter and “Database” section for more discussion of this principle). Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf At first, we may think that this is simply a particular technological implementation of variability principle, but, as I will show in “Database” section, in a computer age database comes to function as a cultural form of its own. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Eine relationale Datenbank könnte, anders als ein Karteikasten, eine Vielzahl gleichrangiger Sortierungen enthalten; darüber hinaus wäre eine Anzahl von Unterdateien denkbar, die, durch komplizierte Querverbindungen miteinander verwoben, ein verzweigtes Netz von Informationen bilden, eine 'Architektur', die an die drei Dimensionen des physikalischen Raumes nicht mehr gebunden ist. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html It is no exaggeration to say that theWilliam Blake Archive establishes the gold standard for literary Web sites. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Yet, even when its archive may be accessible, it does not mean that people will necessarily ever use it directly; most people will stick to the most immediate material, placed on the front pages of any online resource, because the Regenerative Remix encourages the now: the present—for the sake of practicality and functionality. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html The database is in principle similar to the filing cabinet but with a level of automation and speed that made radically different textual practices possible. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html The editors of the archive are meticulous in insisting that even small differences in materiality potentially affect meaning, so they have gone to a great deal of trouble to compile not only different works but extant copies of the same work. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html The Web promises to allow these dual imperatives to be more successfully integrated than ever before, as the William Blake Archive and McGann's work on the D. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 In “Le Catalogue,” the mastermind behind x-arnDOTorg has created a database of documentary images (an archive) of art projects between 1990-1996 that’s available for public access. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 But, as previously noted, the archive also functions in market value as the resource’s importance grows as its database grows; when reconfigured properly, it can provide revenue when people use a search engine to buy items online. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Here the archive becomes the field of knowledge to be accessed; it is the archeological ground to be explored by sophisticated researchers and lay-people alike. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The Regenerative Remix privileges the ever-present—at the same time, it knows it needs history for legitimation, and the archive can be called upon to suffice as proof of its reliability.

CHAPTER
FOUR

EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 To this aspect of sampling we will turn to in the next section. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Samples geben dem Leser und Nutzer die Möglichkeit, die Erkenntnisse des Autors zu überprüfen, und wer den Text remixen will, kann die Samples für eigene Zwecke nutzen. Vilém Flusser;  On the Theory of Communication  1986–87;  http://www.flusserstudies.net/ The three types can be combined variously, the structure of TV, for example, being a complex combination of diachronicity and plain synchronicity. Lev Manovich;  REMIXABILITY  2005;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CC4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2FRemix_modular.doc&ei=2zqzUdX4Gcem4AT6lYHAAQ&usg=AFQjCNHlaRFP8sddB6-_oH4XEmra5A8NlQ&sig2=FAwD4HxylAODfMkX2J-4ig&bvm=bv.47534661,d.bGE&cad=rja In the 1980s musicans start sampling already published music; TV fans start sampling their favorite TV series to produce their own “slash films,” game fans start creating new game levels and all other kinds of game modifications. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history In early ancient works of fiction and nonfiction, the dominant structure was usually the line. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf This principle can be called "fractal structure of new media.” Just as a fractal has the same structure on different scales, a new media object has the same modular structure throughout. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm Above the level of sound structure, Putnam assumes that the only significant properties of language are that they have proper names, that the grammar contains a phrase structure component, and that there are rules “abbreviating” sentences generated by the phrase structure component. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html This is the possibility on which I wish to insist: the possibility of extraction and of citational grafting which belongs to the structure of every mark, spoken or written, and which constitutes every mark as writing even before and outside every horizon of semiolinguistic communication; as writing, that is, as a possibility of functioning cut off, at a certain point, from its "original" meaning and from its belonging to a saturable and constraining context. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf It consists of tracing, on the basis of an overcoding structure or supporting axis, something that comes ready-made. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm Furthermore, an investigation of their work indicates that the underlying recursive principles that generate deep structure were assumed to be restricted in certain ways – for example, by the condition that new structures are formed only by the insertion of new “propositional content,” new structures that themselves correspond to actual simple sentences, in fixed positions in already formed structures. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 This implies that the originality of the remix is nonexistent, therefore it must acknowledge its source of validation self-reflexively. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf With music derived from sampling, the sample no longer represents anything more than a salient point in a shifting cartography. Christian Kerslake;  The Vertigo of Philosophy:Deleuze and the Problem of Immanence  2002;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze8.htm From the ideal notion of collective unity we move to a permanently distributive structure of reason. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html In effect, it might be said to me: you cannot allege that you account for the so- called graphematic structure of locution solely on the basis of the occurrence of failures of the performative, however real these failures might be, and however effective or general their possibility. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html This may be hard to understand for the traditional literary critic who cannot perceive the difference between metaphorical structure and logical structure, but it is essential. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Flash’s mix does not fit comfortably into any of the Remix definitions I have provided above; instead, it vacillates among them as a transitional song. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf One can recognize a DJ's style in the ability to inhabit an open network (the history of sound) and in the logic that organizes the links between the samples he or she plays. Vilém Flusser;  On the Theory of Communication  1986–87;  http://www.flusserstudies.net/ The physical property of symbols influences decisively the structure of the codes. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 In the beginning of the twenty first century the Regenerative Remix is a form of material production best understood in software. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 As previously defined, the Reflexive Remix demands that the viewer or user question everything that is presented, but this questioning stays in the aesthetic realm. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html So you don't need to structure a novel according to linear time or even according to memory, flashbacks plus linear time. Christian Kerslake;  The Vertigo of Philosophy:Deleuze and the Problem of Immanence  2002;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze8.htm The intelligible articulation of the structure of self-differentiation is what Hyppolite will call sense, while the movement itself can be called expression. Wolfgang Iser;  THE RANGE OF INTERPRETATION  2000;  http://books.google.de/books/about/The_range_of_interpretation.html?id=9IPLzzYy2hAC&redir_esc=y Recursive looping as a structure of translatability reveals that the liminal space between the foreign and the familiar, between input and output, between the structural coupling of systems, and between the levels of autonomous systems, cannot be eliminated, although recursivity is powered by the drive to eliminate it. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Der im vorangegangenen Kapitel beschriebene Einfluß der Produktionstechnologien und deren progressive Nutzung im Sinne von Offenlegung von Samples und Zitaten (und nicht deren Verschleierung) ist ein weiteres Element, das den Schöpfungsprozeß transparent werden läßt. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Networks allow the content of a new media object to be periodically updating while keeping its structure intact. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm The outside, “spatial” and “objective” exteriority which we believe we know as the most familiar thing in the world, as familiarity itself, would not appear without the grammé, without difference as temporalisation, without the nonpresense of the other inscribed within the sense of the present, without the relationship with death as the concrete structure of the living present. Vilém Flusser;  Waiting for Kafka  1967;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ On the other hand, this language experiences the uninterrupted influence of the Czech language, whose structure is completely alien to the German language. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm To summarise, it seems to me that neither Goodman nor Putnam offers a serious counter-argument to the proposals concerning innate mental structure that have been advanced (tentatively, of course, as befits empirical hypotheses) or suggests a plausible alternative approach, with empirical content, to the problem of acquisition of knowledge. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See To describe the change that takes place, the authors use the term "natural drift." There seems tobe a natural drift in "natural drift," however, and in later passages it becomes "structural drift." If structure changes, what does it mean to say that autopoiesis is conserved? Eduardo Navas;  THE FRAMEWORK OF CULTURE: REMIX IN MUSIC, ART, AND LITERATURE  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=651#more-651 At the moment, corporations’ attitudes are changing, but it is still very hard to sample for a major and official international production unless you have deep pockets. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja To this were added techno sounds and a house-inspired remix of a rhythm section that loosened the heavy, sliding beat of the rap piece, making it sound lighter and brighter.” In another example, London DJ Tim Simenon produced a remix of his personal top ten of 1987. Vilém Flusser;  On the Theory of Communication  1986–87;  http://www.flusserstudies.net/ Therefore, the structure of Western languages basically allows for the transmission of three types of messages: indication (knowledge, epistemological messages), command (behavior models, ideological messages), and feeling (experience models, aesthetic messages). Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ This shifts our problem to the structure of the media. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm This formula, beside the fact that it is the questioning of metaphysics itself, describes the structure implied by the “arbitrariness of the sign,” from the moment that one thinks of its possibility short of the derived opposition between nature and convention, symbol and sign, etc. Lev Manovich;  REMIXABILITY  2005;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CC4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2FRemix_modular.doc&ei=2zqzUdX4Gcem4AT6lYHAAQ&usg=AFQjCNHlaRFP8sddB6-_oH4XEmra5A8NlQ&sig2=FAwD4HxylAODfMkX2J-4ig&bvm=bv.47534661,d.bGE&cad=rja Will the separation between libraries of samples and “authentic” cultural works blur in the future? EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 A Regenerative Remix is most common in Software Mashups, although all social media from Google to YouTube rely on its principles. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm The instituted trace cannot be thought without thinking the retention of difference within a structure of reference where difference appears as such and thus permits a certain liberty of variations among the full terms. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 But the Extended Remix is not found in popular culture before the 70s. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Thus, it is not the plot, or the narrative, or any other wellknown poetic unit that will be our definitive agency but the shape or structure of the text itself. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 To entertain these questions, I will analyze a net art project developed in 2002 by x-arn titled “Le Catalogue,” which puts into action the principles of remix so far discussed. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf As the simulation of social structure becomes richer, plot control becomes increasingly difficult; and it is easy to predict the decentered cybertext in which stories, plots, and counterplots arise “naturally” from the autonomous movements of the cybernetic constructs. Eric A. Havelock;  The Muse Learns to Write  1986;  http://www.thenewhumanities.net/books/Book%20Reviews16.html In the English of this widely used modern versionthe grammatical structure is atomistic, item is added to item using the connections supplied by the verb ‘to be’ and the preposition ‘with.’ The whole effect is static. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The remix is always allegorical following the postmodern theories of Craig Owens, who argues that in postmodernism a deconstruction—a transparent awareness of the history and politics behind the object of art—is always made present as a “preoccupation with reading.” The object of contemplation, in our case Remix (as discourse), depends on recognition (reading) of a pre-existing text (or cultural code). NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf In visiting them, one senses that the task of art is no longer to propose an artificial synthesis of heterogeneous elements but to generate "critical mass" through which the familial structure of the nearby market metamorphoses into a vast warehouse for merchandise sold online, a monstrous city of detritus. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Ifthe absent structure of narrative is the key problem in literary hypertext, in determinate cybertext the absent structure is the plot. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf Michel Majerus, who integrates the technique of sampling into his pictorial practice, exploits the rich visual stratum of promotional packaging. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf In fact, the modular structure of new media makes such deletion and substitution of parts particularly easy. Christian Kerslake;  The Vertigo of Philosophy:Deleuze and the Problem of Immanence  2002;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze8.htm If the structure is taken purely in its ‘pre-actual’ state, as a set of ideal transformations, in which the elements are subject to reciprocal determination, then the contradictions that might arise between the actualised elements and relations remain undecided or unselected. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html It constructs the mark; and the eventual presence of the referent at the moment when it is designated changes nothing about the structure of a mark which implies that it can do without the referent. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm Real (reell and not real) component of lived experience, the hylè/morphé structure is not a reality (Realität). EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Flash’s mix also has principles of the Reflexive Remix because it pushes the overall composition to attain its own independence with the quick juxtaposition of the songs. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 The concept of Remix often referenced in popular culture derives from the model of music remixes which were produced around the late 1960s and early 1970s in New York City, with roots in Jamaica’s music. Lev Manovich;  DEEP REMIXABILITY  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=61 With 3D computer graphics, we can represent the three-dimensional structure of the world – this versus capturing only a perspectival image of the world, as in lens-based recording. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See The structure is meant to enact their central idea that "all doing is knowing and ail knowing is doing" (27) by showing the interrelation between simple and complex living systems. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 Today, Remix (the activity of taking samples from pre-existing materials to combine them into new forms according to personal taste) has been extended to other areas of culture, including the visual arts; it plays a vital role in mass communication, especially on the Internet. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 To understand Remix as a cultural phenomenon, we must first define it in music. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Instead, time becomes a river that always already exists in its entirety, and we create sequence and chronology by choosing which portions of the river to sample. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Video goes one step further by sampling the frame along the vertical dimension (scan lines). Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm The presentation of the other as such, that is to say the dissimulation of its “as such,” has always already begun and no structure of the entity escapes it. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 It is one of the most important sampling experiments, along with Marrs’s “Pump Up The Volume” which can be considered an early mashup still relying on the concept of a uniting groove as first experimented on the turntables by Grandmaster Flash. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm He argues that the nature of the phrase structure component is determined by the existence of proper names; that the existence of a phrase structure component is explained by the fact that “all the natural measures of complexity of an algorithm – size of the machine table, length of computations, time, and space required for the computation – lead to the ... Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms Kay was particularly concerned with how to structure programming tools in such a way that would make development of media software possible for ordinary users. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Denn ein Remix kann nicht nur die Anpassung an einen neuen Kontext gewährleisten, sondern auch die Aktualisierung eines alten (brillanten) Gedankens ermöglichen. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Leaving aside the hand-waving explanations of structure and organization, that something is basically the integrity of a selfcontained, self-perpetuating system that is operationally closed to its environment. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf A genetic axis is like an objective pivotal unity upon which successive stages are organized; a deep structure is more like a base sequence that can be broken down into immediate constituents, while the unity of the product passes into another, transformational and subjective, dimension. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ They impose a radically new structure on thought in that they represent the world by means of moving images. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Thus, culture is redefined by the constant flow of information in fragments dependent on the single activity of sampling. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm The abstractness of linguistic structure reinforces this conclusion, and it suggests further that in both perception and learning the mind plays an active role in determining the character of the acquired knowledge. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm There is nothing to be said about the abstract structure of the various patterns that appear at various stages of derivation. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html In S/Z , Roland Barthes describes an ideal textuality that precisely matches that which has come to be called computer hypertext -- text composed of blocks of words (or images) linked electronically by multiple paths, chains, or trails in an open-ended, perpetually unfinished textuality described by the terms link, node, network, web , and path: "In this ideal text," says Barthes, the networks [réseaux ] are many and interact, without any one of them being able to surpass the rest; this text is a galaxy of signifiers, not a structure of signifieds; it has no beginning; it is reversible; we gain access to it by several entrances, none of which can be authoritatively declared to be the main one; the codes it mobilizes extend as far as the eye can reach, they are indeterminable. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Generally speaking, remix culture can be defined as a global activity consisting of the creative and efficient exchange of information made possible by digital technologies. Vilém Flusser;  On the Theory of Communication  1986–87;  http://www.flusserstudies.net/ The effect of the structure on the message concerns the problem of translation. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 Whether at the periphery or at the center of culture, it follows that Remix is not only allegorical, but is also dependent on history to be effective. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The validation of the Reflexive Mashup found in web applications does not acquire its cultural authority in popular recognition of pre-existing sources, but instead it is validated based on how well those sources are sampled in order to develop more efficient applications for online activity. Eduardo Navas;  THE FRAMEWORK OF CULTURE: REMIX IN MUSIC, ART, AND LITERATURE  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=651#more-651 This means that remixing material as is commonly known in terms of material sampling has reached a moment in which we produce almost as fast as we speak. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 They are complex aggregates yes, but it is foolish to think that writing an ‘if/then’ control structure in eight lines of assembly code is any more or less machinic than doing it in one line of C, just as the same quadratic equation may swell with any number of multipliers and still remain balanced. Christian Kerslake;  The Vertigo of Philosophy:Deleuze and the Problem of Immanence  2002;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze8.htm Kant’s method of transcendental argumentation secures an enduring restriction upon all the faculties and features of cognition so that they can only be legitimately used if they conform to the structure of experiential cognition. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf Through the generic structure of the shelf, Haim Steinbach emphasizes its predominance in our mental universe: we only look at what is well-presented; we only desire what is desired by others. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm And it seems to me that today there is no better or more promising way to explore the essential and distinctive properties of human intelligence than through the detailed investigation of the structure of this unique human possession. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja To note just three differences: musical samples are often arranged in loops; the nature of sound allows musicians to mix pre-existent sounds in a variety of ways, from clearly differentiating and contrasting individual samples (thus following the traditional modernist aesthetics of montage/collage), to mixing them into an organic and coherent whole; finally, the electronic musicians often conceive their works beforehand as something that will be remixed, sampled, taken apart and modified. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Die Worte oder semantischen Einheiten werden als 'Knoten' verstanden, die durch eine Vielzahl negativ- differentieller Verweise aufeinander bezogen sind; ihre Positionen im Netz ergeben sich ausschließlich aus der Struktur der Verweise; semantische 'Nähe' oder 'Ähnlichkeit' ist entsprechend nicht substanziell bestimmt, sondern ergibt sich aus einer Ähnlichkeit der Verweisstruktur; Differenz, Kontrast oder Abstoßung sind basal, um das System als eine n-dimensionale Struktur überhaupt zu artikulieren. Lev Manovich;  REMIXABILITY  2005;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CC4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2FRemix_modular.doc&ei=2zqzUdX4Gcem4AT6lYHAAQ&usg=AFQjCNHlaRFP8sddB6-_oH4XEmra5A8NlQ&sig2=FAwD4HxylAODfMkX2J-4ig&bvm=bv.47534661,d.bGE&cad=rja These paths stimulate people to draw information from all kinds of sources into their own space, remix and make it available to others, as well as to collaborate or at least play on a common information platform (Wikipedia, Flickr). Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Yet another example of modularity is the structure of a HTML document: with the exemption of text, it consists from a number of 52 separate objects — GIF and JPEG images, media clips, VRML scenes, Schockwave and Flash movies -- which are all stored independently locally and/or on a network. Christian Kerslake;  The Vertigo of Philosophy:Deleuze and the Problem of Immanence  2002;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze8.htm Instead, for Deleuze the Idea is determined according to a logic of structure, in which contradiction between terms that actualise the structure should not be confused with the relations and transformations set out in the structure itself. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading Consequently, the implied reader as a concept has his roots firmly planted in the structure of the text; he is a construct and in on way to be identified with any real reader. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm In other words, we can ask the question, What initial structure must be attributed to the mind that enables it to construct such a grammar from the data of sense? Jacques Derrida;  Speech and writing according to Hegel  1993;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida1.htm But (and this is my last point here before broaching this semiology for itself) Hegel, who at first sight seems to place no limits on the extension of the theory of signs, none the less immediately reduces its import and reinscribes it in the movement and structure of a dialectic that encompasses it. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm It is not a matter of complicating the structure of time while conserving its homogeneity and its fundamental successivity, by demonstrating for example that the past present and the future present constitute originarily, by dividing it, the form of the living present. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html In these two cases, the crisis of meaning (nonpresence in general, absence as the absence of the referent of perception or of meaning of the actual intention to signify) is always linked to the essential possibility of writing; and this crisis is not an accident, a factual and empirical anomaly of spoken language, but also the positive possibility and "internal" structure of spoken language, from a certain outside. Christian Kerslake;  The Vertigo of Philosophy:Deleuze and the Problem of Immanence  2002;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze8.htm For Deleuze, all activities, both voluntary and involuntary, in which thought becomes caught up in a problematic field which undermines the structure of experience, go under the name of ‘transcendental empiricism’, a phrase which is analogous to the Hegelian notion of ‘speculative experience’. James J. Pulizzi;  Machine Intelligence and Electronic Literature  http://newhorizons.eliterature.org/essay.php@id=9.html Neuroscience studies the physical and chemical structure of the brain. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REGRESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE MASHUPS IN SAMPLING CULTURE  2010;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=444 The principle of the Regenerative Remix is to subvert, not to recognize but to be of practical use. Lev Manovich;  REMIXABILITY  2005;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CC4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2FRemix_modular.doc&ei=2zqzUdX4Gcem4AT6lYHAAQ&usg=AFQjCNHlaRFP8sddB6-_oH4XEmra5A8NlQ&sig2=FAwD4HxylAODfMkX2J-4ig&bvm=bv.47534661,d.bGE&cad=rja We can find precedents for this “remixability” – for instance in modern electronic music where remix has become the key method since the 1980s. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See The energy generated by these Contradietory propositions rebounds like a loaded spring toward the very term that Maturana's closure was designed to erase, namely "reality." What is enacted rhetorically within the structure of this sentence is formalized in Luhmann's theory by investing the observer with the agency to draw a distinction. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf Clive Campbell, alias DJ Kool Here, already practiced a primitive form of sampling in the seventies, the "breakbeat," which involved isolating a musical phrase and looping it by going back and forth between two turntables playing copies of the same vinyl record.

CHAPTER
FIVE

Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf The fundamental difference is that between the linear and the nonlinear. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html When confronted with a forking text such as a hypertext, they claimed that all texts are produced as a linear sequence during reading, so where was my problem? Wolfgang Iser;  THE RANGE OF INTERPRETATION  2000;  http://books.google.de/books/about/The_range_of_interpretation.html?id=9IPLzzYy2hAC&redir_esc=y Instead, it is nonlinear insofar as these modes of interpretation are responses to the ever-increasing open-endedness of the world, thus focusing on what appears to be pressing in the situation of the moment. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Since we now regard labyrinthine and linear as incompatible terms, and since the labyrinth no longer denotes linear progress and teleology but only their opposites, its status as a model of narrative text has become inapt for most narratives. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf The figures of nonlinearity suggest that one must revise literary terminology and poetics in order to avoid further confusion and unnecessary ambiguity. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Damit wäre die Software-Struktur von Hypermedien identisch mit der Theorie-Struktur komplexer Sachverhalte: Relationierung von Relationen." Hypertextsysteme sind Maschinen, die Texte quer zum Verlauf des linearen Syntagmas miteinander verknüpfen. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Why is the variable expression of the nonlinear text so easily mistaken for the semantic ambiguity of the linear text? Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf The behavior of some kinds of nonlinear texts can certainly be described in terms of unpredictability, self-organization, and turbulence, but for the definition and basic understanding of nonlinear literature we need not look that far. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles In particular, he emphasizes Barthes’ writing about the writerly text and its non-linear nature and Derrida’s about intertextuality and textual openness. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf The difference between these two types of experience can be explained by the presence or absence of an established (meaningful) ritual, which must absolve the user from the burden of reading, which in the case of nonlinearity may be defined as the frustrating attempt to harmonize contradictory scriptons from the same text. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history After the invention of the paged book, linear structure of course survived. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ But let us not exaggerate: only a very few knew how to read and write, and the illiterate masses distrusted (and pour cause) the linear historicity of the scribes and clerks who manipulated the civilization. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ Particularly for the purpose of critique linear writing was invented. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Agrippa is a unique lesson in textual ontology, a linear text that seems to flirt with nonlinearity, not through its convention or mechanism but through the difference between its used and unused copies. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf This perspective lets us include nonlinear texts, many of which have no author (or even reader) in the traditional sense. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Much simpler examples of nonlinear texts are some of Guillaume Apollinaire's "calligrammes" from early in this century (Apollinaire 1966). Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Und umgekehrt wird an dieser Stelle der Übergang zu einem Entwicklungsmodell möglich: nun nämlich erscheint denkbar, daß die linearen Syntagmen etablierte Assoziationen nicht nur nachvollziehen, sondern auch verstärken oder gar bahnen. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Below is a list of the variates, slightly adapted from my Texts of Change, in which they are developed and discussed at length and applied to a set of nonlinear texts. Vilém Flusser;  The Codified World  1978;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ And the industrial revolution, which tore the “pagan” villagers from their magical existence, in order to crowd the masses around machines, programmed this mass with linear codes thanks to elementary schools and the press. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ (Denotative images, encoded to allow just one reading, become possible only after the invention of linear writing.) If images can be interpreted differently by each receiver, they are not reliable models. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Acker explained her approach to sequential narrative thus: I certainly don't believe linear time is adequate. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 The analog is only deemed ‘trivial’ because of the perceived obviousness of mimetic congruence using a continuously variable material value (for example, the curvilinear represen- tation of a sound wave). Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ In this phrasing all linear writing appears as a description of images, as a critique of the imagination based on a new mode of thought. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ There is the linear time in which the pictures of scenes follow one another. Vilém Flusser;  The Future of Writing  1983–84;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ And so did Plato when he announced his hatred of what we now call the “plastic arts.” Writing, historical consciousness, linear, rational thought were invented to save humankind from “ideologies,” from hallucinatory imagination. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html In erstaunlicher Einhelligkeit würden sowohl McLuhan als auch Flusser, Bolz, Landow und eine Vielzahl anderer Medientheoretiker mit einem Modell antworten, das die Linearität der Schrift in den Mittelpunkt stellt. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Wenn wir unser Wort: arbre (Baum) wieder aufgreifen, [sehen wir, daß] es alle symbolischen Kontexte anzieht, in denen es im Hebräisch der Bibel erscheint [und ebenso Verse der Dichtung, die man], glauben wir, mit Recht in den mitklingenden Tönen des Wortes arbre hören kann." Drei Gedanken faßt diese Stelle zusammen: die Kritik einer allzu schlichten Vorstellung von Linearität, das Gegenbild einer Vielstimmigkeit oder Partitur, das die Kopräsenz der 'vertikalen', paradigmatischen Achsen betont, und drittens, wie gleich zu zeigen sein wird, ein Entwicklungsmodell. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Nonlinear texts can be very different from each other, at least as different as they are from the linear texts. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history But, except perhaps in some branches of philosophy, ancient texts continued to be strongly linear. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ We are “Western people” because our “forma mentis” has been shaped by the linearity of the alphanumeric code. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Why should a writer be forced to produce a single, linear argument or an exclusive analysis of cause and effect, when the writing space allows a writer to entertain and present several lines of thought at once. Vilém Flusser;  Criteria—Crisis—Criticism  1984;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Critical thinking results from the praxis of linear writing. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html As Andrews, Kearns, and Wardrip-Fruin acknowledge, these works are indebted to William Burroughs's notion of the "cut-up" and "fold-in." They cite as theoretical precedent Burroughs's idea that randomization is a way to break the hold of the viral word and liberate resistances latent in language by freeing it from linear syntax and coherent narrative. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf As the advocates of hypertext enthusiastically remind us, it can be found as fiction, poetry, textbooks, encyclopedias, and so on; so nonlinearity as the superset of hypertext is clearly not a literary genre, or a type of poetic expression or discourse. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ The function of the picture as a plate for orientation is significant here (our intent is to consider what motivates linear writing). Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ And, in a similar way, these surface media, including painting, graphics, and posters, are having increasing recourse to linear thought, and they can do so because their own technical advance permits it. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history There is no linear argument that spans the columns, yet the reader’s eye is drawn across, down, and around the page looking for visual and verbal connections. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Traversing this path, the "doing" of the reader-the linear turning of pages as she reads-becomes also a kind of"knowing," for she experiences the structure ofautopoiesis as weil as comprehends it when the text circles back on itself. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ Linear, process-oriented, historical thinking sooner or later had to fall victim to analytical, structural, zero-dimensional, point- thinking. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Short, simple programs are often linear, but longer programs generally consist of collections of interdependent fragments, with repeating loops, cross-references, and discontinuous "jumps" back and forth between sections. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf I have not tried to present an exhaustive empirical survey of such types or to give a detailed historical exposition of the development and spread of textual nonlinearity. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf A nonlinear text is a work that does not present its scriptons in one fixed sequence, whether temporal or spatial. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Das Prinzip der Linearität scheint in Konflikt geraten mit einer zunehmend komplexen Realität und den Notwendigkeiten eines zunehmend komplexen Denkens (?); was letztlich bedeutet, daß die Schrift als ein Modus der Abbildung vor dem Abzubildenden versagt. Vilém Flusser;  The Codified World  1978;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ And the result is a new experience of time, that is, linear time, a stream of unstoppable progress, of dramatic unrepeatability, of framing: in short, history. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf This counterpoint, which may be called the Verfremdungsargument, has much merit, but it ignores the fact that the understanding (beyond trivial) of a nonlinear text can never be a consummate understanding, because the realization of its script (and not just its meaning) belongs to the individual user, who is acutely aware of his or her own constructive participation. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ For a while now, mathematical, calculating thought has been breaking out from within the alphanumerical code, is claiming independence, and it is turning against linear thought, to analyze it, and (surprisingly, but certainly not unexpectedly) to lead to a new form of imagination. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Our civilization puts two types of media at our disposal: those of linear fiction (e.g., books, scientific publications, and computer printouts) and those of surface fiction (e.g., films, TV pictures, and illustrations). Vilém Flusser;  On the Theory of Communication  1986–87;  http://www.flusserstudies.net/ This explains the famous sentence “The medium is the message.” We can distinguish, grosso modo, three types of structures: those that order the symbols in linear sequences (the diachronical ones); those that order them in surfaces (the plain synchronical ones); and those that order them in space (the tridimensional synchronical ones). N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Freeman and Skarda's data on the olfactory perception of rabbits are akin to Maturana's results, in that the data indicate the rabbit's responses are transformative and highly nonlinear, influenced not only by the experience at hand but also by previous experiences the animal has had, his emotional state at the moment, and a host of other factors. Katherine Hayles;  The Power of Simulation: What Virtual Creatures Can Teach Us  1999;  http://www.stanford.edu/class/history34q/readings/Hayles/Simulation.html Instead of materialist/discursive, they suggest such pairings as analogue/digital, resemblance/code, linear/recursive, isolated/co-adaptive, visualization/program, abstraction/emergence, complexity at material level/complexity at symbolic level, behavior/function, forms that transmigrate/forms that compute. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Since writing always has been a spatial activity, it is reasonable to assume that ergodic textuality has been practiced as long as linear writing. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Konkret wird nun hervorgehoben, daß die Linearität als ein Mechanismus der Ausschließung, ja, der Verdrängung verstanden werden muß. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history But nonlinear writing resurfaced in the literature of the 20th century, when it seemed that the modern experience could not be recorded in the linear way. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The new works do not have a single linear order, corresponding to the pages of the book or the columns of the papyrus roll, and so there is no order to violate. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ The Crisis of Linearity, the first phases of which we are experiencing, is mainly a challenge to us: We should mobilize the newly emerging power of imagination to overcome the crisis, in us and around us. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Damit ergibt sich eine auffällige Entsprechung zu der erhöhten Aufmerksamkeit, die die Literaturtheorie in den letzten Jahren für die Intertextualität entwickelt hat; Hypertextsysteme erscheinen als eine Möglichkeit, intertextuelle Bezüge, die bis dahin latent waren, in manifeste Bezüge - in Links eben - zu überführen, und damit Strukturen nachzuzeichnen, die quer zu den linearen Syntagmen die verschiedenen Texte immer schon verbinden. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Amazingly, Eco also claims that the labyrinth of Crete was linear and that Theseus "had no choices to make: he could not but reach the center, and from the center, the way out. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Hillis Miller proposes that the relation is multiple, non-linear, non-causal, non-dialectical, and heavily overdetermined. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history He argued that linear writing was “rooted in a past of nonlinear writing, a writing that spells its symbols pluri-dimensionally; there the meaning is not subjected to successively, to the order of a logical time, or to the irreversible temporality of sound” Nonlinear writing had been suppressed, though never eradicated, by linear writing. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html An dieser Stelle besteht die Gefahr, daß hinter dem Modell das Ausgangsproblem verschwindet, und in der Rede von Linearität, Simultanität, Aktualisierung und Bahnung die konkrete 'lebendige' Sprache nicht mehr wiederzuerkennen ist. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf Joyce's words, accurately described as having "multiple roots," shatter the linear unity of the word, even of language, only to posit a cyclic unity of the sentence, text, or knowledge. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history And today all our major forms of nonfiction—the essay, the treatise, the report—are expected to be hierarchical in organization as they are linear in presentation. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Die Vielzahl der Verweise, die insgesamt die Bedeutung des Wortes ausmachen, stehen gleichrangig, in jedem Fall aber gleichzeitig zur Verfügung; die Netzmetapher eröffnet damit eine Dimension der Simultanität, die man mit den Überlegungen zur Linearität wird zusammendenken müssen. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf To semiotics, texts are chains of signs, and therefore linear by definition. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html So, if I'm going to do anything that has any relation to my own life, which it has to, I'm not going to write in terms of linear time. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html "Bei [der] ersten Betrachtung des Schreibens ist die Zeile, das lineare Laufen der Schriftzeichen, das Beeindruckendste. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Und man wird sich vergegenwärtigen müssen, daß dies ein in extremer Weise restriktives Ordnungsprinzip ist: Das Prinzip der linearen Anreihung läßt zu jedem Zeitpunkt nur die Auswahl eines einzigen neuen Elements zu, alle anderen möglichen Elemente müssen unterdrückt und von der Auswahl ausgeschlossen werden. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ We all know that a film is a linear sequence of pictures, but while reading or viewing a film, we forget this fact. Vilém Flusser;  The Codified World  1978;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Linear codes demand a synchronization of their diachronicity. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ Before we shall try to focus on the outright calculating and computing, it is imperative to consider the “photographic view”, through which we see the world and ourselves within it, and thanks to which we have already jumped out of linearity. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The earliest ancient writing was strictly linear: it was simply a concentration of letters that the reader turned back into sound. Vilém Flusser;  Habit: The True Aesthetic Criterion  1990;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ The novelty of such a criticism, its terror, its ugliness, is not so much the fact that it denies absolute values, but rather that it can no longer be linear, and thus confounds the upper with the lower, the sublime with the infernal. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Further, the function of these units must be relevant to our notion of nonlinearity. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Wittgenstein and Barthes rejected linear argument, but not the physical form, the “look and feel,” of the printed book. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf A narrative may be perfectly nonlinear (for example describing a sequence of events in a repetitive or nonsequential way) and yet be represented in a totally linear text. Vilém Flusser;  Line and Surface  1973;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ And, in addition, they are developments from conceptual thought in that they advance along linear discursive lines, which are conceptual. Lev Manovich;  DEEP REMIXABILITY  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=61 Film and video editing systems and the computer simulations of them that came to be known as non-linear editors (today exemplified by Avid and Final Cut ) have conceptualized a media project as a sequence of shots organized in time. Vilém Flusser;  Habit: The True Aesthetic Criterion  1990;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ However: the considerations advanced so far have not yet really touched the problem of habit, if habit is taken as the basic criterion for art criticism, because it now looks as if the problem were to build a linear scale of values marked by zones to be called “ugly,” “beautiful,” “pretty,” and “kitsch,” and to have the phenomena glide along the scale in order to evaluate them. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Instantiating a linear narrative that turns into a circle, the book simulates an autopoietic structure in which the details produce the overail organization, and the organization produces the details. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Since I shall return to the question of linear and nonlinear narrative in a later chapter, I wish here only to remark that nonlinearity has become so important in contemporary critical thought, so fashionable, one might say, that Smith's observation, whether accurate or not, has become almost inevitable. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf In addition, reader has—until now—always been defined by literary theorists with only the linear text in mind. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ This recoding of calculating thought is most clearly visible in its first emergence from linearity, in photography, and for that reason must be given closer scrutiny. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf The question of nonlinear narrative versus antinarrative should not be decided by the evidence from only one text (even if it exists in two versions), and perhaps we need a new terminology that lets us name the representation and composition principle that relates to nonlinearity as narrative relates to linearity. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Wiederholungen sind eine Strategie der Vertextung, die Elemente quer zum Verlauf des linearen Syntagmas miteinander verbindet; und zwar eine relativ schlichte Form, wenn man sie mit anderen Arten der Vertextung vergleicht. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html The general importance of non- or antilinear thought appears in the frequency and centrality with which Barthes and other critics employ the terms link, network, web, and path. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Freeman and Skarda's data on the olfactory perception of rabbits are akin to Maturana's results, in that the data indicate the rabbit's responses are transformative and highly nonlinear, influenced not only by the experience at hand but also by previous experiences the animal has had, his emotional state at the moment, and a host of other factors. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Although Bush emphasizes the “trail”—the linear ordering of interesting items from the “maze of materials available”—he allows his user to go off on little side excursions. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles The digressions and omissions in Sterne’s novel read like hypertext to me, and in fact, the general defiance of linearity and a distortion of conventional ordering didn’t seem quite right in print: Tristram Shandy needed the sort of reader participation I was becoming accustomed to in e-lit. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history A printed encyclopedia lies between these extremes, since each article is meant to be read linearly, but the alphabetized articles themselves can be read in any order. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Aslater examples reveal, the position of a single letter or the position of many syntagms strung together can make a text nonlinear. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Derrida concluded that a new form of nonlinear writing was possible, and this new writing would entail a new reading of earlier texts: “...beginning to write without the line, one begins also to reread past writing according to a different organization of space. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf The Corruption of the Critic How can literary theory attack the textualities of nonlinearity? Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Und dies verschiebt die Perspektive grundsätzlich; den linearen Texten gegenüber nämlich steht nun: die Sprache. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html This achieves a dual result; in the first instance, it reveals character and dialogue to be as much a fictive construct as plot or sequential, linear narrative, while in the second, it also further demystifies the creative process, the way in which a writer does 'choose, edit and rearrange the words at his disposal.' In this way, Acker uses the medium of writing against itself, employing a range of techniques to destabilise the 'author' figure and to promote reading as an activity which requires participation instead of passive observation. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf A nonlinear text is an object of verbal communication that is not simply one fixed sequence of letters, words, and sentences but one in which the words or sequence of words may differ from reading to reading because of the shape, conventions, or mechanisms of the text. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ The mood of the eternal return of the same (the magic mood) is replaced by the dramatic mood of linear progress (and it is secondary if this progress is seen as a fall from a perfect original situation or as a rise to utopian situations.) Differently said: the alphabetic critique of the imagination leads to a linear, causal explanation of images. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ (One is better able to hunt the pony if one has previously made a picture of it for oneself.) For the following reasons, the inventors of linear writing believed that the hunt still did not go well enough: The vision one gains when stepping back from an object is fleeting, and it has to be fixed in a memory to serve as a model for future acting. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf These hypothetical cases, which are far from impossible, illustrate a peculiar semiotic power of the linear text over the nonlinear: the linear can flirt with nonlinearity, but the nonlinear cannot lie and pretend to be linear.

CHAPTER
SIX

EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 Foucault reasons that these two authors developed concepts that were reevaluated by later generations. WALTER BENJAMIN;  THE AUTHOR AS PRODUCER  1970;  http://newleftreview.org/I/62/walter-benjamin-the-author-as-producer I should like to call your attention to Sergei Tretiakov and to the model of the ‘operative’ writer which he has defined and embodied. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Das grabende Schreiben (das Schreiben überhaupt) ist ikonoklastisch. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf For a text to convey its message, it does not matter whether the author is dead or alive. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm If I persist in calling that difference writing, it is because, within the work of historical repression, writing was, by its situation, destined to signify the most formidable difference. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Writers, including Coverley and Kate Pullinger, joined in collaborative writing at a Web site preceding the Incubation 2 Conference in Nottingham, riffing on the murder mystery genre to create a story revolving around the "death" of the book. Roland Barthes;  From Work to Text - 2  1971;  http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/From%20Work%20to%20Text.pdf It is not that the Author may not 'come back' in the Text, in his text, but he then does so as a 'guest'. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Ontogenetically and phylogenetically, it is the oral word that first illuminates consciousness with articulate language, that first divides subject and predicate and then relates them to one another, and that ties human beings to one another in society. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Instead of relying on numbered subdivisions to advance its plot, as Maturana's analytic writing does, narrative uses description. NICOLAS BOURRIAUD;  POSTPRODUCTIONCULTURE AS SCREENPLAY: HOW ART REPROGRAMS THE WORLD  2002;  http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bourriaud-Postproduction2.pdf Considering each book to consist of "multiple writings, proceeding from several cultures and entering into dialogue, into parody, into protest," Barthes accords the writer the status of scriptor, an intertextual operator: the only place where this multiplicity of sources converges is in the brain of the reader-postproducer. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms Englebart devotes the first segment of the demo to word processing, but as soon as he briefly demonstrated text entry, cut, paste, insert, naming and saving files – in other words, the set of tools which make a computer into a more versatile typewriter – he then goes on to show in more length the features of his system which no writing medium had before: “view control.” As Englebart points out, the new writing medium could switch at user’s wish between many different views of the same information. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Acker's work prior to her reading of Anti-Oedipus can be seen not simply as 'experimental,' but as the open workings of an author trying to understand herself, her ways of thinking and the context in which these exist. Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf To take a very simple example, one could say that Ann Radcliffe not only wrote The Castles of Athlin and Dunbayne and several other novels but also made possible the appearance of the Gothic horror novel at the beginning of the nineteenth century; in that respect, her author function exceeds her own work. Marshall McLuhan;  The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man  1962;  http://books.google.de/books/about/The_Gutenberg_Galaxy.html?id=y4C644zHCWgC&redir_esc=y Man the tool-making animal, whether in speech or in writing or in radio, has long been engaged in extending one or another of his sense organs in such a manner as to disturb all of his other senses and faculties. Roland Barthes;  From Work to Text - 2  1971;  http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/From%20Work%20to%20Text.pdf In the times of the greatest social division (before the setting up of democratic cultures), reading and writing were equally privileges of class. William S. Burroughs;  The Cut-Up Method of Brion Gysin  1963;  http://www.ubu.com/papers/burroughs_gysin.html Cut the word lines and you will hear their voices. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf "Are these humans," Nietzsche already asks himself in 1874, eight years before he buys a typewriter, "or maybe just thinking, writing and speaking machines?"[57] In 1950 Alan Turing, the practitioner among England's mathematicians, gave the answer to Nietzsche's question. Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf It is not simply a manner of indicating the source, but of providing a certain index of "reality" in relation to the techniques and objects of experience made use of in a particular period and in such-and-such a laboratory.) The third characteristic of this author function is that it does not develop spontaneously as the attribution of a discourse to an individual. Marshall McLuhan;  The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man  1962;  http://books.google.de/books/about/The_Gutenberg_Galaxy.html?id=y4C644zHCWgC&redir_esc=y Carothers stresses that until phonetic writing split apart thought and action, there was no alternative but to hold all men responsible for their thoughts as much as their actions. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y »Beim Schreiben scheinen die besten Resultate beinahe durch Zufall zustande zu kommen, aber ehe die Zerschneide-Methode deutliche Konturen gewann (alles Schreiben besteht im Grunde in Abschnitten) -, verfügten die Schriftsteller über kein Verfahren, um den Zufall der Spontaneität zu erzeugen. Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf In our culture, how does one characterize a discourse containing the author function? Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Imagine writing a treatise on horses (for people who have never seen a horse) which starts with the concept not of horse but of ‘automobile’, built on the readers’ direct experience of automobiles. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf More than any other single invention, writing has transformed human consciousness. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Plato was unwilling to set out his philosophy as a treatise, as a linear progression in which the writer assumes overt control of the argument. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Cummings’s untitled Poem No 276 (1968) about the grasshopper disintegrates the words of its text and scatters them unevenly about the page until at last letters come together in the final word ‘grasshopper’—all this to suggest the erratic and optically dizzying flight of a grasshopper until he finally reassembles himself straightforwardly on the blade of grass before us. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt If so, then the authorial function has shifted at some indeterminate point (or many indeterminate points) from Mary Shelley to the monster, recalling the earlier distribution of authorship between M/S. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Much of Acker's 'plagiarism' served as a means of exploring the relationship of her own writing with canonical texts, and as a way of discovering her own identity. Vilém Flusser;  The Future of Writing  1983–84;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ This inversion of writing may be observed very early in the course of history, but during the nineteenth century it becomes obvious: scientific texts (which are the most characteristic form of writing, and therefore the “aim of history”) tend to become explicitly unimaginable (one reads them erroneously if one tries to imagine their meaning), and scientific research “discovers” the rules that order its own texts (mainly logic and mathematics) “behind” the phenomena it is explaining. James J. Pulizzi;  Machine Intelligence and Electronic Literature  http://newhorizons.eliterature.org/essay.php@id=9.html Several programming languages have been developed for writing IF, but one could also use a high level programming language such as Pascal, C, or C++ to produce a piece. Vilém Flusser;  Criteria—Crisis—Criticism  1984;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ The reason for the invention of writing as a tool for the criticism of images is found in the internal dialectic of the images themselves. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt It calls for a movement away from works to texts, a movement so successful that the word "text" has become ubiquitous in literary discourse, almost completely displacing the more specific term "book." Yet Barthes's vision remains rooted in print culture, for he defines the text through its differences from books, not through its similarities with electronic textuality. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text In any case, there will always be a margin of indecision; the distinction will not be the source of absolute classifications, the paradigm will falter, the meaning will be precarious, revocable, reversible, the discourse incomplete.) If I read this sentence, this story, or this word with pleasure, it is because they were written in pleasure (such pleasure does not contradict the writer's complaints). Christian Kerslake;  The Vertigo of Philosophy:Deleuze and the Problem of Immanence  2002;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze8.htm The use of the word ‘sense’ (Sinn) does not seem especially central in Hegel’s own work, but Hyppolite makes clear that he is identifying it with the more familiar ‘notion’, or ‘concept’ (Begriff). Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf On the other hand it is presented in mechanical text-generating machines such as Georg Philipp Harsdörffer’s Fünffacher Denckring der Teutschen Sprache (1651), which claims to reproduce the entire German-language word formation in a mechanical apparatus. Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl The power of creation in the word is being resurrected in the text from a previously hidden potential. Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf In fact, however, all discourses endowed with the author function possess this plurality of self. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html If one takes the notion of writing in its usually accepted sense which above all does not mean an innocent, primitive, or natural senseone indeed must see it as a means of communication. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm The word trace must refer to itself to a certain number of contemporary discourses whose force I intend to take into account. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html According to Calcutt and Shepherd, the uncertainty regarding her age is 'indicative of a contrary writer committed to both the destruction and creation of identity,' a suggestion which is relatively accurate in describing at least one of Acker's primary preoccupations.Although she would later return to an academic environment in a teaching capacity, while initially at college she studied a number of writing courses - all of which she 'hated:' I took a lot of writing courses when I was in college... Vilém Flusser;  Criteria—Crisis—Criticism  1984;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ To achieve the distance necessary to observe the apparatus criteria, photo critics in the second sense of the word would have to be people who neither are employed by the apparatus nor work for newspapers, museums, or advertising agencies. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ The feedback between thinking and writing has an effect on brain functions: Neurophysiology is beginning to localize centers of writing and functions of writing in the brain. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history However, according to Aarseth, there is no way the user can claim authorship which is one of the main propositions of poststructuralist theory. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf When we look for ways to describe differences between types of text, the word electronic usually does not get us very far. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 The detailed forms of algorithmic interaction and play required today of the computer-using public is, in my mind, so exactly akin to writing code that the division between the two must certainly be ascribed to other ends. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html In his book Digital Poetics: Hypertext, Visual-Kinetic Text and Writing in Programmable Media, Glazier argues that electronic literature is best understood as a continuation of experimental print literature. Katherine Hayles;  The Power of Simulation: What Virtual Creatures Can Teach Us  1999;  http://www.stanford.edu/class/history34q/readings/Hayles/Simulation.html The relation between the word and thing becomes conventional, arbitrary, whereas the relation within language between trace and voice is stronger, more direct". Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html More significantly, however, is the strongly implicit concern with influence and theft, or plagiarism, and Acker's choice of Genet as a character is significant for a number of reasons, not least of all because he is one of the authors she cited as a major influence on her work. Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf Furthermore, in the course of the nineteenth century, there appeared in Europe another, more uncommon, kind of author, whom one should confuse with neither the "great" literary authors, nor the authors of religious texts, nor the founders of science. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html "By 'hypertext,' " Nelson explains, "I mean non-sequential writing -- text that branches and allows choices to the reader, best read at an interactive screen. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm The very idea of institution — hence of the arbitrariness of the sign — is unthinkable before the possibility of writing and outside of its horizon. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Asirle from the introrluctions, Autopoiesis and Cognition consists of two essays, "Biology of Cognition" anrl ''Autopoiesis: The Organization ofthe Living." In both essays, the writing is almost exclusively analytic, with one proposition relaterl to another logically in an argument that proceeds by division and subdivision, implication and extension. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms It is possible to put Sutherland’ work on Sketchpad in the center of computational media history; or Englebart and his Research Center for Augmenting Human Intellect which throughout the 1960s developed hypertext (independently of Nelson), the mouse, the window, the word processor, mixed text/graphics displays, and a number of other “firsts.” Or we can shift focus to the work of Architecture Machine Group at The MIT which since 1967 was headed by Nicholas Negroponte (In 1985 this group became The Media Lab). Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf The typewriter veils the essence of writing and of the script. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html For the written to be the written, it must continue to "act" and to be legible even if what is called the author of the writing no longer answers for what he has written, for what he seems to have signed, whether he is provisionally absent, or if he is dead, or if in general he does not support, with his absolutely current and present intention or attention, the plenitude of his meaning, of that very thing which seems to be written "in his name" Here, we could reelaborate the analysis sketched out above for the addressee. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html It is here that diffé rance as writing could no longer (be) an (ontological) modification of presence. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Existing cultural forms such as the printed word and cinema bring their own powerful conventions of organizing information. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history And in order to be taken seriously, both scholarly and scientific writing must be nonfiction in a linear-hierarchical form. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf This is what we usually mean today by writing in its sharply focused sense. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Speech uses the material of (human) sound; writing uses the material of graphic substance. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html Differing from the classical assertion, from the constative utterance, the performative's referent (although the word is inappropriate here, no doubt, such is the interest of Austin's finding) is not outside it, or in any case preceding it or before it. Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf We are used to thinking that the author is so different from all other en, and so transcendent with regard to all languages that, as soon as he speaks, meaning begins to proliferate, to proliferate indefinitely. Edward Robinson;  From Cut-Up to Cut and Paste  2010;  http://literaturainglesafhuce.blogspot.de/2010/11/from-cut-up-to-cut-and-paste-plagiarism.html Like Burroughs' White Subway, The Persian Poems is presented as a series of experiments and exercises, a scrap-book or exercise book of sorts, showing the mechanisms and the workings of the author - although in The Persian Poems, there remains a greater degree of artifice in that the author is not Acker, but Acker writing as Janey. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm At any rate, its value seems problematic to him and an interesting paragraph elaborates a question left suspended: That the elements forming a word follow one another is a truth that it would be better for linguistics not to consider uninteresting because evident, but rather as the truth which gives in advance the central principle of all useful reflections on words. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf As noted above, I style the orality of a culture totally untouched by any knowledge of writing or print, ‘primary orality’. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Semitic writing was still very much immersed in the non-textual human lifeworld. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf If this is what is meant by writing, the antiquity of writing is perhaps comparable to the antiquity of speech. EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 The author function becomes clear when Foucault explains it in relation to Marx and Freud, two “authors” who created discourses following their names, Marxism and Freudianism (or psychoanalysis). Roland Barthes;  From Work to Text - 1  1971;  http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/From%20Work%20to%20Text.pdf Here again, the metaphor of the Text separates from that of the work: the latter refers to the image of an organism which grows by vital expansion, by 'development' (a word which is significantly ambiguous, at once biological and rhetorical); the metaphor of the Text is that of the network; if the Text extends itself, it is as a result of a combinatory systematic (an image, moreover, close to current biological conceptions of the living being). Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Traces of this early attitude toward writing can still show etymologically: the Middle English ‘grammarye’ or grammar, referring to booklearning, came to mean occult or magical lore, and through one Scottish dialectical form has emerged in our present English vocabulary as ‘glamor’ (spell-casting power). George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html In attempting to imagine the experience of reading and writing with (or within) this new form of text, one would do well to pay heed to what Mikhail Bakhtin has written about the dialogic, polyphonic, multivocal novel, which he claims "is constructed not as the whole of a single consciousness, absorbing other consciousnesses as objects into itself, but as a whole formed by the interaction of several consciousnesses, none of which entirely becomes an object for the other". Katherine Hayles;  The Power of Simulation: What Virtual Creatures Can Teach Us  1999;  http://www.stanford.edu/class/history34q/readings/Hayles/Simulation.html "A readerly imaginary evolved which paid homage to this wonderful author who was always there in his or her words. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Plato as writer sets up his path, but he cannot be sure that the reader is following. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf The authors point out that even when one thinks one has reached a multiplicity, it may be a false one-of what we call the radicle17 type-because its ostensibly nonhierarchical presentation or statement in fact only admits of a totally hierarchical solution. Jacques Derrida;  Speech and writing according to Hegel  1993;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida1.htm 'Learning to write an alphabetic writing must be considered a means of infinite culture (unendliche Bildungsmittel). Roland Barthes;  From Work to Text - 1  1971;  http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/From%20Work%20to%20Text.pdf Significantly, the coming of democracy reversed the word of command: what the (secondary) School prides itself on is teaching to read (well) and no longer to write (consciousness of the deficiency is becoming fashionable again today: the teacher is called upon to teach pupils to express themselves', which is a little like replacing a form of repression by a misconception). Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja The author sets up some general rules but s/he has no control over the concrete details of the work – these emerge as a result of the interactions of the rules. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Special mechanical skills were required for working with such writing materials, and not all ‘writers’ had such skills suitably developed for protracted composition. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 In this way, “Le Catalogue” takes on the idea of destruction as a progressive movement marking time, bringing on the new: one can look forward to destruction as a type of online collaboration between the author and the end user, where the archived information is not preserved but rather reinterpreted constantly—it is a constant remix, moving towards destruction. Lev Manovich;  Models of Authorship  2002;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.manovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fmodels_of_authorship.doc&ei=-AeQUe_PLoWKtAbZtYCgDA&usg=AFQjCNG8ea2z-Crz6up6n6kSaEnT2Z20Ow&sig2=VY1kJlXbcbRb3LyTxxLKEg&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms&cad=rja When the author uploads a new media object (anything from a text to a piece of music), s/he can specify what modifications by others will be allowed. Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf In De Viris Mustribus, Saint Jerome explains that homonymy is not sufficient to identify legitimately authors of more than one work: different individuals could have had the same name, or one man could have, illegitimately, borrowed another's patronymic. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt The mind, Jackson writes in "Stitch Bitch," "what zen calls monkey-mind and Bataille calls project, has an almost catatonic obsession with stasis, centrality, and unity." The project of writing, and therefore of her writing most of all, is to "dismantle the project". Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html Conversely, it is within the general field of writing thus defined that the effects of semantic communication will be able to be determined as particular, secondary; inscribed, supplementary effects. Jacques Derrida;  Speech and writing according to Hegel  1993;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida1.htm We then cannot question the Hegelian concept of writing without questioning the whole history of metaphysics. EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 This actually is not too different from how Barthes considers the idea of authorship being a way of limiting the possibilities of the text. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text Does writing in pleasure guarantee—guarantee me, the writer—my reader's pleasure? Roland Barthes;  From Work to Text - 2  1971;  http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/From%20Work%20to%20Text.pdf The author is reputed the father and the owner of his work: literary science therefore teaches respect for the manuscript and the author's declared intentions, while society asserts the legality of the relation of author to work (the 'droit d'auteur' or 'copyright', in fact of recent date since it was only really legalized at the time of the French Revolution). N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html And how would the spread of cheap printed materials affect the culture of the Word, bringing scribbling into every hut and hovel whose occupants had hitherto relied on priests to interpret writing for them? Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf That is not all, however: this relationship between writing and death is also manifested in the effacement of the writing subject's individual characteristics. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm The presence-absence of the trace, which one should not even call its ambiguity but rather its play (for the word “ambiguity” requires the logic of presence, even when it begins to disobey that logic), carries in itself the problems of the letter and the spirit, of body and soul, and of all the problems whose primary affinity I have recalled. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf And there is the strategy “Drip standing stone hollowing” (the author here invented a word game in German with the saying “Steady dripping hollows stone”) [...] Real brainteasers, the author was virtually to disappear [...] The author was virtually to disappear: This assertion, which encouraged Pastior to re-explore the possibilities of the anagram in 1985, is similar to statements from poets and poeticians of the Enlightenment – although their conclusions were diametrically opposed to Pastior’s. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf The name belongs to the text, the writer (as in ghostwriter) does not. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history A text always undergoes typographical changes as it moves from one writing space to another. Vilém Flusser;  Crisis of Linearity  2003;  http://bootscontemporaryartspace.org/blog/bootprint/ In the preceding, 3500 year evolution of alphabetic writing (in the previous history of the West) this contemporary crisis is not palpable. Lev Manovich;  REMIXABILITY  2005;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CC4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2FRemix_modular.doc&ei=2zqzUdX4Gcem4AT6lYHAAQ&usg=AFQjCNHlaRFP8sddB6-_oH4XEmra5A8NlQ&sig2=FAwD4HxylAODfMkX2J-4ig&bvm=bv.47534661,d.bGE&cad=rja Creative Commons offers a special set of Sampling Licenses which “let artists and authors invite other people to use a part of their work and make it new.” Flickr offers multiple tools to combine multiple photos (not broken into parts – at least so far) together: tags, sets, groups, Organizr. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Across the world the alphabet, the ruthlessly efficient reducer of sound to space, is pressed into direct service for setting up the new space-defined sequences: items are marked a, b, c, and so on to indicate their sequences, and even poems in the early days of literacy are composed with the first letter of the first word of successive lines following the order of the alphabet. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm What matters here is that in the synchronic structure and systematic principle of alphabetic writing — and phonetic writing in general — no relationship of “natural” representation, none of resemblance or participation, no “symbolic” relationship in the Hegelian-Saussurian sense, no “iconographic” relationship in the Peircian sense, be implied. Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf To admit that writing is, because of the very history that it made possible, subject to the test of oblivion and repression, seems to represent, in transcendental terms, the religious principle of the hidden meaning (which requires interpretation) and the critical principle of implicit signification, silent determinations, and obscured contents (which give rise to commentary). Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf From the Remington via the Turing machine to microelectronics, from mechanization and automatization to the implementation of a writing that is only cypher, not meaning--one century was enough to transfer the age-old monopoly of writing into the omnipotence of integrated circuits. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html The absence of the sender, the addressor, from the marks that he abandons, which are cut off from him and continue to produce effects beyond his presence and beyond the present actuality of his meaning, that is, beyond his life itself, this absence, which however belongs to the structure of all writing and I will add, further on, of all language in generalthis absence is never examined by Condillac. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The writer may incorporate in the text references and allusions that cause the reader to jump back and forth, at least mentally, as he or she reads. James J. Pulizzi;  Machine Intelligence and Electronic Literature  http://newhorizons.eliterature.org/essay.php@id=9.html The program has been so intricately designed that it is difficult for the interactor to determine exactly the story’s conclusion or how his or her questions and word choices will sway the crowd gathered to hear the inner story. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html In a moment, a certain concept of writing is bound to intervene, in order to transform itself, and perhaps in order to transform the problematic. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history In computer writing any relationships between textual elements can float to the surface; the computer invites the writer to reveal the inner structure in the appearance and the behavior of the text. Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf Using all the contrivances that he sets up between himself and what he writes, the writing subject cancels out the signs of his particular individuality. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm Hjelmslev recognises that an “analysis of writing without regard to sound has not yet been undertaken”. Jacques Derrida;  Of Grammatology  1974;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm The system of writing in general is not exterior to the system of language in general, unless it is granted that the division between exterior and interior passes through the interior of the interior or the exterior of the exterior, to the point where the immanence of language is essentially exposed to the intervention of forces that are apparently alien to its system. Foucault, Michel;  What Is an Author?  1969;  https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/74858352/FoucaultWhatIsAnAuthor.pdf Is it not what an author has written? Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history A writer using a papyrus roll was more likely to repeat himself just because it was hard to refer the reader back to a previous passage.

CHAPTER
SEVEN

James J. Pulizzi;  Machine Intelligence and Electronic Literature  http://newhorizons.eliterature.org/essay.php@id=9.html To talk about a solitary author distinct from the reader would have little meaning. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt In a digital computer texton could refer to voltages, strings of binary code, or programming code, depending on who the "reader" is taken to be. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Thus, an isolated passage in the right column of the first page seems to be referring both to the text and to the reader’s response: “Two unequal columns, they say, each of which—envelops or encloses, incalculably reverses, returns, replaces, marks again, cross-links the other”. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html As Heim has argued, electronic word processing inevitably produces linkages, and these linkages move text, readers, and writers into a new writing space: The distinctive features of formulating thought in the psychic framework of word processing combine with the automation of information handling and produce an unprecedented linkage of text. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading The real reader is invoked mainly in studies of the history of responses, i.e., when attention is focused on the way in which a literary work has been received by a specific reading public. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Both types of text discussed so far seem to reject the presence of the traditional reader figure, as it is implied and applied in the theories of literature. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt There thus arises a tension between the sequence of lexias chosen by the reader, and the simultaneity of memory space in which all the lexias always already exist. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text Read slowly, read all of a novel by Zola, and the book will drop from your hands; read fast, in snatches, some modern text, and it becomes opaque, inaccessible to your pleasure: you want something to happen and nothing does, for what happens to the language does not happen to the discourse: what "happens," what "goes away," the seam of the two edges, the interstice of bliss, occurs in the volume of the languages, in the uttering, not in the sequence of utterances: not to devour, to gobble, but to graze, to browse scrupulously, to rediscover—in order to read today's writers—the leisure of bygone readings: to be aristocratic readers. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf Once memories and dreams, the dead and ghosts become technically reproducible, readers and writers are no longer in need of the powers of hallucination. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html "Code work," a phrase associated with such writers as Alan Sondheim, MEZ (Mary Ann Breeze), and Talan Memmott and critics such as Florian Cramer, Rita Raley, and Matthew Fuller, names a linguistic practice in which English (or some other natural language) is hybridized with programming expressions to create a creole evocative for human readers, especially those familiar with the denotations of programming languages. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf The critical and unique breakthrough into new worlds of knowledge was achieved within human consciousness not when simple semiotic marking was devised but when a coded system of visible marks was invented whereby a writer could determine the exact words that the reader would generate from the text. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history In each writing technology and in each text, the question is: how and to what extent does the writer control the reader’s experience of reading. Roland Barthes;  From Work to Text - 1  1971;  http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/From%20Work%20to%20Text.pdf This means that the Text requires that one try to abolish (or at the very least to diminish) the distance between writing and reading, in no way by intensifying the projection of the reader into the work but by joining them in a single signifying practice. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf They are programmable machines, which are able to process signifiers according to a program and thus generate an output that can neither be predicted nor kept under control by writers or by readers. EDUARDO NAVAS;  REMIX: THE BOND OF REPETITION AND REPRESENTATION  2009;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=361 Today, blogs (public journals online, which often specialize on a subject) follow the evolution of the newspaper writer, the newspaper reader, and the rise of the collaborator. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles Joyce has created the terms “exploratory” and “constructive” hypertext in order to denote the differences between pre-Web and Web-based hypertexts, and he considers exploratory hypertexts like Patchwork Girl and Victory Garden to be more in line with the “output” readers would associate with contemporary book culture. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Even today, however, in the United States (and doubtless in other highliteracy societies across the globe) readers in certain subcultures are still operating in a basically oral framework, performance-oriented rather than information-oriented (Ong 1978). George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Electronic linking shifts the boundaries between one text and another as well as between the author and the reader and between and the teacher and the student. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf It presents philosophical material in dialogues, such as those of Plato’s Socrates, which the reader can imagine himself overhearing. Marshall McLuhan;  The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man  1962;  http://books.google.de/books/about/The_Gutenberg_Galaxy.html?id=y4C644zHCWgC&redir_esc=y Though many commentators radically misread McLuhan as intending to hasten the collapse of book culture, in fact he issued a call for shoring it up: “Far from wishing to belittle the Gutenberg mechanical culture, it seems to me that we must now work very hard to retain its achieved values.”2 GG provides progressively stronger hints to the reader as to how this can be done; the companion volume (Understanding Media, promised in GG’s closing pages) explicitly states that retaining book culture can only be done by avoiding the errors of the past. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf No matter how accurate and thorough such apophatic description, automobile-driving readers who have never seen a horse and who hear only of ‘wheelless automobiles’ would be sure to come away with a strange concept of a horse. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Nabokov's Pale Fire, however, leaves the mode of cursality up to the reader; consisting of a foreword, a 999-line poem, a long commentary of notes addressing individual lines (but really telling the commentator's story), and an index, it can be read either unicursally, straight through, or multicursally, by jumping between the comments and the poem. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Herodotus would proceed to tell a story, then digress on an interesting detail, and then notify the reader/listener that he was resuming the original storyline. EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 He writes, “A text is made of multiple writings, drawn from many cultures and entering into relations of dialogue, parody and contestation, but there is one place where this multiplicity is focused and that place is the reader, not, as was hitherto said, the author.” With this statement he summarizes his argument that we should treat the text not as something coming from a specific person, but as something that takes life according to how the reader interprets the writing as a collage of diverse sources. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Even (and especially) the famously “unreadable” texts subversively observe the metaphysics of the general reader: the door would not be locked if the owner did not believe in thieves. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Perhaps, also, the adventure game, for all its trivia and popular appeal, is too radical to be recognized, because it disfigures not only the reading process but also the reader. EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 For Barthes, it is the reader who holds the real potential to make discourse productive. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Readers of this journal are experts in design. EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 The notion of authorship which they examined can now be assessed, especially in relation to new media practice, which is largely dependent on the “reader” or user, as the participants are commonly called. William Patrick Wend;  INTRO TO E-LIT: HOW ELECTRONIC LITERATURE MAKES PRINTED LITERATURE RICHER  http://quarterlyconversation.com/electronic-literature-n-katherine-hayles While games like Grand Theft Autooffer situations and characters that may or may not act in a “literary” way, they do not let readers explore their worlds and interact on their own terms. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Computer communications services already allow the reader to dial in from a home computer and read articles from various published newspapers. Roland Barthes;  The Pleasure of the Text  1973;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pleasure_of_the_Text I must seek out this reader (must "cruise" him) without knowing where he is. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The network can never be fully explicit, however, because the verbal ideas of the textual always reach out beyond any given electronic text to all other texts that the writer and reader know. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Although this point somewhat muddies the waters in that it conflates operations performed by the reader with those performed by the computer, it nevertheless establishes common ground between scholars interested in bibliographic and textual criticism of print works and those oriented to close examination of digital texts. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Later, in the Middle Ages, writing will present philosophical and theological texts in objection-andresponse form, so that the reader can imagine an oral disputation. EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 For him it is the text that speaks to the reader. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html He cannot have the player's pleasure of influence: "Let's see what happens when I do this." The reader's pleasure is the pleasure of the voyeur. Roland Barthes;  From Work to Text - 2  1971;  http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/From%20Work%20to%20Text.pdf Just as Einsteinian science demands that the relativity of the frames of reference be included in the object studied, so the combined action of Marxism, Freudianism and structuralism demands, in literature, the relativization of the relations of writer, reader and observer (critic). N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html What constitutes the materiality of a given text will always be a matter of interpretation and critical debate; what some readers see as physical properties brought into play may not appear so to other readers. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history For example, there is nothing in storytelling that quite corresponds to the reader’s sense that in turning the pages he or she is coming to the end of the book. WALTER BENJAMIN;  THE AUTHOR AS PRODUCER  1970;  http://newleftreview.org/I/62/walter-benjamin-the-author-as-producer Its content is “material” which refuses any form of organization other than that imposed by the reader’s impatience. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf The shock of discovering that one is not a reader can only happen (and only accidentally) with a linear text, because that is the only text in which the metaphysics of a real reader has any credibility and the only text in which the reader can exist as a reducible, accountable figure. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf The nineteenth-century novelists’ nervous apostrophes to the ‘dear reader’, as has already been noted, suggest that the typical reader was felt by the writer to be closer to the old-style listener than most readers commonly are felt to be today. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Yes, the elements are there in certain spatial relations, but how the reader reconstitutes them is largely up to the reader. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf This machine consists of a material medium, a user, and strings of signs that are divided into so-called “scriptons” (defined as strings as they appear to readers on some material surface) and “textons”, which are “strings as they exist in the text” (Aarseth 1997, 62). Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Nineteenth century novelists self-consciously intone, ‘dear reader’, over and over again to remind themselves that they are not telling a story but writing one in which both author and reader are having difficulty situating themselves. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Such an outline not only shows how each piece fits, but also directs the readers movement through its parts, Whether we are told to write deductively or inductively, the result is still supposed to be a hierarchy of ideas and a carefully controlled reading. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Early hypertext theorists, notably George Landow and Jay David Bolter, stressed the importance of the hyperlink as electronic literature's distinguishing feature, extrapolating from the reader's ability to choose which link to follow to make extravagant claims about hypertext as a liberatory mode that would dramatically transform reading and writing and, by implication, settings where these activities are important such as the literature classroom. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Poststructuralism on the other side overemphasises the position of the reader, the process of reading and interpretation, thus turning the reader into an author. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html As a number of critics have pointed out, notably Espen J. Aarseth, the reader/user can only follow the links that the author has already scripted. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html The differences in teleological orientation--the different ways in which the reader is invited to "complete" a text--and the texts' various self-manipulating devices are what the concept of cybertext is about. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html In making available these points, hypertext has much in common with some major points of contemporary literary and semiological theory, particularly with Derrida's emphasis on de-centering and with Barthes's conception of the readerly versus the writerly text. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html (S/Z , 4) Compare the way the designers of Intermedia, one of the most advanced hypertext systems thus far developed, describe the active reader that hypertext requires and creates: Both an author's tool and a reader's medium, a hypertext document system allows authors or groups of authors to link information together, create paths through a corpus of related material, annotate existing texts, and create notes that point readers to either bibliographic data or the body of the referenced text. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html This phenomenon I call ergodic, using a term appropriated from physics that derives from the Greek words ergon and hodos, meaning "work" and "path." In ergodic literature, nontrivial effort is required to allow the reader to traverse the text. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf In our context, the user/reader functions are the most important variables: According to Aarseth, ergodic literature requires more from a reader/ user than just interpreting what he reads in order to understand a text’s meaning. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading It denotes the role of the reader, which is definable in terms of textual structure and structured acts. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Bush then provides a scenario of how readers would create "endless trails" of such links: When the user is building a trail, he names it, inserts the name in his code book, and taps it out on his keyboard. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html Philippe Bootz has powerfully theorized generative texts, along with other varieties of electronic literature, in his functional model that makes clear distinctions between the writer's field, the text's field, and the reader's field, pointing out several important implications inherent in the separation between these fields, including the fact that electronic literature introduces temporal and logical divisions between the writer and reader different from those enforced by print. Roland Barthes;  From Work to Text - 1  1971;  http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/From%20Work%20to%20Text.pdf The reader of the Text may be compared to someone at a loose end (someone slackened off from any imaginary); this passably empty subject strolls -- it is what happened to the author of these lines, then it was that he had a vivid idea of the Text -- on the side of a valley, a oued flowing down below (oued is there to bear witness to a certain feeling of unfamiliarity); what he perceives is multiple, irreducible, coming from a disconnected, heterogeneous variety of substances and perspectives: lights, colours, vegetation, heat, air, slender explosions of noises, scant cries of birds, children's voices from over on the other side, passages, gestures, clothes of inhabitants near or far away. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt The specificity of an electronic hypertext like Patchwork Girl comes from the ways in which it mobilizes the resources of the medium to enact subjectivities distributed in flexible and mutating ways across author, text, interface, and reader. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Moreover, when as literary critics weexamine a hypertextual text, we should take care not to confuse its interpretation with the author-reader relationship made possible by the ideology of its hypertext system and then assign the conclusions to a general theory of literary hypertext. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt The interjection of simultaneity into the sequence of a reader's choices makes clear why different ontological levels (character, writer, reader) mingle so monstrously in this text. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Traversing the body are multiple dotted lines, as if the body were a crazy quilt of scars or seams; retrospectively the reader can identify this image as representing the female monster's patched body, among other possible referents. ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Der Text/das Kunstwerk als potentiell unendliches Zeichenreservoir, das dann vom Leser, dem für Barthes neuen Regenten nach dem Tod des Autors, auf jeweils eigene Art dekodiert wird. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf This move, which might be seen as self-defense, serves two practical purposes: to avoid the rather silly idea that the reader and author are becoming the same person; and to free the text from being identified with its readings and its writings. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf The fixed point of view and fixed tone showed in one way a greater distance between writer and reader and in another way a greater tacit understanding. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt We can now see that the construction of multiple subjectivities in this text and the reconfiguration of consciousness to body are both deeply bound up with what I have been calling flickering signification, constituted through the fluidly mutating connections between writer, interface, and reader. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See Traversing this path, the "doing" of the reader-the linear turning of pages as she reads-becomes also a kind of"knowing," for she experiences the structure ofautopoiesis as weil as comprehends it when the text circles back on itself. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading It is also, in itself, composed of a variety of perspectives that outline the author’s view and also provide access to what the reader is meant to visualize. Roland Barthes;  From Work to Text - 2  1971;  http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/From%20Work%20to%20Text.pdf This means that the Text requires that one try to abolish (or at the very least to diminish) the distance between writing and reading, in no way by intensifying the projection of the reader into the work but by joining them in a single signifying practice. Vilém Flusser;  Essays  1967;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ The topic would be rendered explicit, and my readers would be informed. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Readers whose norms and expectancies for formal discourse are governed by a residually oral mindset relate to a text quite differently from readers whose sense of style is radically textual. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Only the first of these relationships will be discussed here, and only because of the assumptions about the effects of hypertext upon the figures of author and reader. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Cent Mille Milliards de Poèmes effectively mocks the theoretical notions of writer and reader, while the power of the text is cleverly demonstrated. EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 He looks at specific authors, like Proust, Mallarme and Valery as authors who “Restore the place of the reader.” The author ceases to matter for Barthes because only in this way can the text be set free, for to have “an Author is to impose a limit on that text, to furnish it with a final signified, to close the writing.” Barthes wants the reader to overthrow the myth of the author as “genius” as it has been promoted since the renaissance. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Later, for the reader-response theorists, he became a thumbtack with which to pin down the variable of literary meaning when it could no longer be located in the text. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Since I wrote this discussion of Bush's memex, Paul Kahn and Ian Adelman have created a sound-enhanced animation of the device, which you can download from another site.] In addition to thus searching and retrieving information, the memex also permits the reader to "add marginal notes and comments, taking advantage of one possible type of dry photography, and it could even be arranged so that he can do this by a stylus scheme, such as is now employed in the telautograph seen in railroad waiting rooms, just as though he had the physical page before him". N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html As both Mats Dahlström and McGann point out, the two imperatives guiding most textual criticism are, if not contradictory, at least in tension with one another: editors want to converge on the ideal work and at the same time provide readers as much information as possible about textual variants. Katherine Hayles;  The Power of Simulation: What Virtual Creatures Can Teach Us  1999;  http://www.stanford.edu/class/history34q/readings/Hayles/Simulation.html No doubt an experienced programmer such as Karl Sims can look at a program's functions and "see" the morphologies and behaviors of his creatures with no more difficulty than an experienced novel reader can "see" Isabel Archer in Henry James' tellingly entitled novel, The Portrait of a Lady. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt "I sense a reluctance when I tow a frame forward into the view," the narrator says in an utterance that conflates writer, reader, and character, as if reflecting within the jumble of fiction and metafiction the jumbled time represented by the lexias. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Jane Yellowlees Douglas, writing on Michael Joyce's hypertext fiction Afternoon, suggests that closure is achieved not when all the lexias have been read, but when the reader learns enough about the central mystery to believe she understands it. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf The writer could be confident that the reader would adjust (greater understanding). Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading The latter is merely one component part of the reader’s role, by which the author exposes the disposition of an assumed reader to interaction with the other perspectives, in order to bring about modifications. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt In the heart of the computer, which is to say at the deepest levels of machine code, the distinctions between character, writer, and reader are coded into strings of ones and zeros in a space where the text written by a human writer and a mouse click made by a human reader are coded in the same binary form as machine commands and computer programs. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf from Schmitz-Emans 2002, 179).43 This brings to the foreground Aarseth’s cybertext theory as there are now present the three basic elements of a material medium, the non-trivial effort of the reader and the text segments which the reader has to recombine “modeling the literary process itself” (transl. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html American explorations of generative text include Noah Wardrip-Fruin's Regime Change and News Reader, created in collaboration with David Durand, Brion Moss, and Elaine Froehlich, works that Wardrip-Fruin calls "textual instruments" (a designation to which we will return). EDUARDO NAVAS;  THE AUTHOR FUNCTION IN REMIX  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=309 Michel Foucault also questions the role of the author in contemporary culture, but unlike Barthes, who only pointed out the necessity to shift our cultural attention from the author to the reader, Foucault concludes that even though the death of the author as a great individual has been claimed, the notions supporting such claim actually have only renegotiated the privilege in authorship. Wolfgang Iser;  The Act of Reading  1980;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/37128411/Iser-Wolfgang-The-Act-of-Reading As a rule there are four main perspectives: those of the narrator, the characters, the plot, and the fictitious reader. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history The new dialogue will be, as Plato demanded, interactive: it will provide different answers to each reader and may also in Plato’s words know “before whom to be silent”.

CHAPTER
EIGHT

ULF POSCHARDT;  DJ-CULTURE - DISKJOCKEYS UND POPKULTUR  1997;  http://books.google.de/books/about/DJ_culture.html?id=1w4wAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y analytisch banalisierten Form in der »ecriture automatique« der Surrealisten wieder auftaucht. James J. Pulizzi;  Machine Intelligence and Electronic Literature  http://newhorizons.eliterature.org/essay.php@id=9.html I would call such a narrative cybernetic given its incorporation of human, machine, and text. Vilém Flusser;  Criteria—Crisis—Criticism  1984;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Because the criteria here are lacking for the time being, it is difficult to foresee how they could be automated. WALTER BENJAMIN;  THE AUTHOR AS PRODUCER  1970;  http://newleftreview.org/I/62/walter-benjamin-the-author-as-producer For since they think they possess an apparatus which in reality possesses them, they defend an apparatus over which they no longer have any control, which is no longer, as they believe, a means for the producer, but has become a means opposed to the producer.’ The theatre’s complicated machinery, enormous expenses for actors, subtle effects, have become a means of opposition to the producers, not least of all because this theatre seeks to recruit the producer for a competition in which film and radio have entangled it and which can lead nowhere. MATTHEW FULLER;  BEHIND THE BLIP - ESSAYS ON THE CULTURE OF SOFTWARE  2003;  http://www.multimedialab.be/doc/citations/matthew_fuller_blip.pdf In addition, new social machines are invented to spawn the code, to diffuse and manage its development. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 Logic gates are electronic machines; they are physical devices through and through. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf The fact that there are certain analogies between the initial subconscious state of mind of the girl and the subconscious of a computer might let us consider that the first use of a programmed, machine-generated text in a radio-play can be justified. MATTHEW FULLER;  BEHIND THE BLIP - ESSAYS ON THE CULTURE OF SOFTWARE  2003;  http://www.multimedialab.be/doc/citations/matthew_fuller_blip.pdf Despite the fact that free software makes public the labour which is repressed from visibility under proprietary software, it is still the case that whoever is “closest to the machine” owns the space of possibilities which the relations have been established to explore. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms In short, why did these people dedicated their careers to inventing the ultimate “remediation machine”? N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See In this respect, it carried out the imperative of the cybernetic program to create a common framework for animals, humans, and machines. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms In short, the reasons why many of new techniques did not become common place are multiple, and are not reducible to a single principle such as “the most easy to use techniques become most popular.” For instance, one of the ideas developed at PARC was “project views.” Each view “holds all the tools and materials for a particular project and is automatically suspended when you leave it.” Although currently (2006) there are some applications that implement this idea, it is not a part of most popular operating systems: Windows, MAC OSX, and Lunix. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf Neither the storing nor the production of knowledge, however, is ascribed to an author, and the knowledge is not written or printed in syntagmatic chains but machines are designed, which generate the knowledge from a compact source code by combinatorial procedures. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf The researchers are also working on what can be called “high-level” automation of media creation which requires a computer to understand, to a certain degree, the meanings embedded in the objects being generated, for example their semantics. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Examples: Web sites use the information about the type of hardware and browser or user's network address to automatically customize the site which the user will see; interactive computer installations use information about the user's body movements to generate sounds, shapes, and images, or to control behaviors of artificial creatures. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf The following are some of the examples of what can be called “lowlevel” automation of media creation, in which the computer user modifies or creates from scratch a media object using templates or simple algorithms. Rick Prelinger;  On the Virtues of Preexisting Material | Contents Magazine  2007;  http://contentsmagazine.com/articles/on-the-virtues-of-preexisting-material/ Not simply aggressively edited machine-gun-style collages of mainstream news footage. Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl Obviously, software referred to algorithms as control logic that was abstracted from the machine. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Moreover, Bush wished to replace the essentially linear fixed methods that had produced the triumphs of capitalism and industrialism with what are essentially poetic machines -- machines that work according to analogy and association, machines that capture and create the anarchic brilliance of human imagination. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf And with that the world of the symbolic really turned into the world of the machine.[63] Unlike the history it put an end to, the media age proceeds in jerks, just like Turing's paper strip. N. Katherine Hayles;  My Mother Was a Computer - Digital Subjects and Literary Texts  2005;  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/321487.html To demonstrate that print is unstable even at the level of a document, he scans a document with an optical character reader and reports that the machine gives different readings on different scans. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms In short, only when a computer became a cultural medium – rather than only a versatile machine. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html A cybertext is a machine for the production of variety of expression. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See In this respect, it carried out the imperative of the cybernetic program to create a common framework for animals, humans, and machines. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html The "essential feature of the memex," however, lies not only in its capacities for retrieval and annotation but also in those involving "associative indexing" -- what present hypertext systems term a link -- "the basic idea of which is a provision whereby any item may be caused at will to select immediately and automatically another". Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms Furthermore, we can automatically (i.e., by running the appropriate algorithms) improve its contrast, make it sharper, and even in some situations remove blur. Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl Calvino’s lecture on Cybernetics and Ghosts ends its theory about language and poetry as a “combination game” with the speculation that one day, the machine might be able to defy its own rules. Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl The first modern computing hardware, the Turing machine, did not materially exist, but was theoretical and imaginary. Michael Goddard;  Felix and Alice in Wonderland. The Encounter between Guattari and Berardi and the Post-Media Era  2006;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpbifo1.htm Guattari refers to Alice as a “generalised revolution, a conjunction of sexual, relational, esthetic and scientific revolutions all making cross-overs, markings and currents of deterritorialisation.” Rather than pointing to a new revolutionary form, the experimentation of Radio Alice was a machine for the production of new forms of sensibility and sociability, the very intangible qualities constitutive of both the molecular revolution and the post-media era. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf A more penetrating consideration would have to recognize here that the typewriter is not really a machine in the strict sense of machine technology, but is an "intermediate" thing, between a tool and a machine, a mechanism. MATTHEW FULLER;  BEHIND THE BLIP - ESSAYS ON THE CULTURE OF SOFTWARE  2003;  http://www.multimedialab.be/doc/citations/matthew_fuller_blip.pdf Much of the rhetoric is about empowerment and the sovereignty of the user, whose “personality” shapes and dialogues with the machine. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf Our criticism of these linguistic models is not that they are too abstract but, on the contrary, that they are not abstract enough, that they do not reach the abstract machine that connects a language to the semantic and pragmatic contents of statements, to collective assemblages of enunciation, to a whole micropolitics of the social field. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf It is certainly true that mechanical text generators are not computers in a strict sense as they are neither able to convert analog signals into universal machine codes nor do they operate as fast as modern digital computers. Michael Goddard;  Felix and Alice in Wonderland. The Encounter between Guattari and Berardi and the Post-Media Era  2006;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpbifo1.htm All the above fields, as well as those of biotechnology and cyberthought are thoroughly traversed by the concepts constructed by what Berardi calls the neo-logistic machine of Deleuze and Guattari. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 This flows from a long-standing assumption that data are fundamentally immaterial or ethereal and that, conversely, machines are the stuff of material cogs and levers. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html Using an analogy to optics, computer scientists speak of "virtual machines" created by an operating system that provides individual users with the experience of working on their own individual machines when they in fact share a system with as many as several hundred others. MATTHEW FULLER;  BEHIND THE BLIP - ESSAYS ON THE CULTURE OF SOFTWARE  2003;  http://www.multimedialab.be/doc/citations/matthew_fuller_blip.pdf Your wage statement is the cryptic blip that instantiates the enormous machine of class relations. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf The information about the user can be used by a computer program to automatically customize the media composition as well as to create the elements themselves. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf Although the term hypertextwas first used by Theodor H Nelson in 1965 (compare Nelson 1987), the modern origin of the idea is generally accepted to stem from Vannevar Bush, whose article “As We May Think” (1945) described a possible solution to the scientist’s problem of keeping up with the “growing mountain of research,” in the form of a “sort of mechanized private file and library,” a machine for storing, annotating, retrieving, and linking information: the memex. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Cybertext, as now should be clear, is the wide range (or perspective) of possible textualities seen as a typology of machines, as various kinds of literary communication systems where the functional differences among the mechanical parts play a defining role in determining the aesthetic process. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html (See also Bolter 1991, 140-42.) A rather well-known example is Raymond Queneau's Cent Mille Milliards de Poèmes (a hundred thousand billion poems; see Queneau 1961), which is a sonnet machine book of 10 [lozenge] 14 lines, capable of producing 1014 sonnets. Michael Goddard;  Felix and Alice in Wonderland. The Encounter between Guattari and Berardi and the Post-Media Era  2006;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpbifo1.htm There is no need to think of power as a cold machine composed of decisions and wills. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 The difference is that exploits operate intensively within and through the rules of the symbolic system, while natural languages operate extensively as a result of a combinatorial discursive logic ever intent on probing the boundaries of allowable style.) Reflective sandboxing of software code within a machine built to parse it is seen in the case of a computer language like Java which must be compiled and then run as bytecode inside a special runtime environment, or, as with the language C, compiled and then run as ‘native’ machine instructions, or with a simple mark-up language like HTML the specifications for which must be entirely designed into any browser destined to interpret and display it, or also with other interpreted code such as a three-dimensional model whose mathematical values for vertices and textures must be transcoded according to the rules of a given data format and a given style of visual projection. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf All data streams flow into a state of n of Turing's universal machine; notwithstanding Romanticism, numbers and figures become the key to all creatures. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Mamber’s software generates a still for every shot of the film; it then automatically combines all the stills into a rectangular matrix. Jörgen Schäfer;  LITERARY MACHINES MADE IN GERMANY. GERMAN PROTO-CYBERTEXTS FROM THE BAROQUE ERA TO THE PRESENT  2012;  http://cybertext.hum.jyu.fi/articles/77.pdf The crucial point of Aarseth’s theory, however, is his idea of regarding any text in a very literal – and not only metaphorical – sense as a machine for the production, transmission (very much in Winkler’s sense) and reception of verbal signs. Deleuze and Guattari;  How do you make yourself a body without organs?  1947;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze2.htm All we are saying is that the identity of effects, the continuity of genera, the totality of all BwO's, can be obtained on the plane of consistency only by means of an abstract machine capable of covering and even creating it, by assemblages capable of plugging into desire, of effectively taking charge of desires, of assuring their continuous connections and transversal tie-ins. N. Katherine Hayles;  Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What Systems Theory Can't See  1995;  http://de.scribd.com/doc/20261880/Hayles-Making-the-Cut-The-Interplay-of-Narrative-and-System-Or-What-Systems-Theory-Can-t-See As a result ofthis compensation, the machine's variables remain within specified Iimits. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html As the cyber prefix indicates, the text is seen as a machine--not metaphorically but as a mechanical device for the production and consumption of verbal signs. Deleuze and Guattari;  How do you make yourself a body without organs?  1947;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpdeleuze2.htm You have constructed your own little machine, ready when needed to be plugged into other collective machines. Michael Goddard;  Felix and Alice in Wonderland. The Encounter between Guattari and Berardi and the Post-Media Era  2006;  http://www.generation-online.org/p/fpbifo1.htm As Guattari concludes: “ The point of view of the Alicians on this question is the following: they consider that the movement that arrives at destroying the gigantic capitalist-beaureaucratic machine will be, a fortiori, completely capable of constructing an other world—the collective competence in the matter will come to it in the course of the journey, without it being necessary, at the present stage to outline projections of societal change.” Apart form anticipating many of the subsequent problematics of the counter-globalisation movement, what this citation tells us most of all about the post-media era is that it is not something that can be given in advance; it is instead a process of the production of subjectivity, the becoming of a collective assemblage of enunciation whose starting point is the emptiness and coerciveness of the normalising production of subjectivity that the mass media currently enact. Vilém Flusser;  Criteria—Crisis—Criticism  1984;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ On the other hand, the daily life of industrial society was flooded with a great number of scientifically true insights and good machines and products that were inhuman, because they were robbed of their beauty. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Die Sprache erscheint als eine gesellschaftliche Maschinerie, die die linearen Syntagmen im Außenraum mit der nicht-linearen Struktur der empirischen Gedächtnisse in eine regelhafte Verbindung bringt. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf It is not accidental that modern man writes "with" the typewriter and "dictates" [diktiert] (the same word as "poetize" [dichten]) "into" a machine. Espen J. Aarseth;  Nonlinearity and Literary Theory  1994;  http://www.manovich.net/vis242_winter_2006/New%20Media%20Reader%20all/52-aarseth-03.pdf As always, we do not have to wait for the textual machines to catch up. Wikipedia;  Mashup (web application hybrid)  2013;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mashup_%28web_application_hybrid%29 Especially when performing reasoning (automatically inferring new data from existing data), erroneous data has potentially devastating impact on the overall quality of the resulting dataset. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Word processors and other text management software for a long time provided the abilities to search for specific strings of text and automatically index documents. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 ‘What is software’, Chun (2004) writes, ‘if not the very effort of making something explicit, or making something intangible visible, while at the same time rendering the visible (such as the machine) invisible?’. Vilém Flusser;  Criteria—Crisis—Criticism  1984;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ For nothing can compete with the programmed truth, goodness, and beauty of photographs created automatically (for instance, by NASA). Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf Other computer programs can automatically generate 3D objects such as trees, landscapes, human figures and detailed ready-to-use animations of complex natural phenomena such as fire and waterfalls. Lev Manovich;  REMIXABILITY  2005;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CC4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2FRemix_modular.doc&ei=2zqzUdX4Gcem4AT6lYHAAQ&usg=AFQjCNHlaRFP8sddB6-_oH4XEmra5A8NlQ&sig2=FAwD4HxylAODfMkX2J-4ig&bvm=bv.47534661,d.bGE&cad=rja On the contrary, if the blocks themselves are created using one of many already developed computer designed methods (such as parametric design), every time they are used again they can modify themselves automatically to assure that they look different. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf Indeed, at first, book printing and then machine type offer advantages and conveniences, and these then unwittingly steer preferences and needs to this kind of written communication. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf And this is so because a Turing machine is even more exceedingly crude than the Sherborne plan for a typewriter. Lev Manovich;  Alan Kay’s Universal Media Machine  2006;  https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmanovich.net%2FDOCS%2Fkay_article.doc&ei=FAyQUdG2Fcq0tAbA34CwDA&usg=AFQjCNE3ZG1xd-Q2ZB7u9FqCgMofZXbD5w&sig2=inCnBfB6ci2b5WApU0Dy1w&bvm=bv.46340616,d.Yms Rather than conceiving of Sketchpad as simply another media, Sutherland presents it as something else - a communication system between two entities: a human and an intelligent machine. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Instead of evenly surfaced machine-made paper and relatively durable ball-point pens, the early writer had more recalcitrant technological equipment. Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari;  A Thousand Plateaus  1987;  http://danm.ucsc.edu/~dustin/library/deleuzeguattarirhizome.pdf Amsterdam, a city entirely without roots, a rhizome-city with its stem-canals, where utility connects with the greatest folly in relation to a commercial war machine. Vilém Flusser;  Orders of Magnitude and Humanism  1990;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ The present apparatuses, with the machines and instruments that are based on them, are descendants of the lens. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html Given the seminatural vocabulary of some modern programing languages, it is not uncommon for programers to write poems in them, often with the constraint that the "poegrams" (or whatever) must make sense to the machine as well. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 In both cases we have an ‘object’ imbued with a complex machinery for hiding things, be it the commodity object (or as Guy Debord maniacally demon- strated, the commodity as image) and its ability to mask its own history of production and the social division of labor that generated it, or be it the Java object and its ability to cordon off various functionality into this or that site of inscription and execution, which is no doubt an abstraction or mapping of the actual division of labor globally in the dot-com firm producing it, where one part of the code might spring from a desk in Redmond and another part from a desk in Bangalore without anyone being the wiser. Vilém Flusser;  Criteria—Crisis—Criticism  1984;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ If we look at the work of most photo critics, we truly get the impression that the automation of photo criticism is close at hand. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf (This is paralleled by the use of phone or Web-based automated menu systems by all big companies to handle their customers; while the companies are doing this in the name of “choice” and “freedom,” one of the effects of this automation is that labor to be done is passed from company’s employees to the customer. George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html These networks can take the form of contemporary Local Area Networks (LANs), such as Ethernet, that join sets of machines within an institution or a part of one, such as a department or administrative unit. N. Katherine Hayles;  Electronic Literature: What is it?  2007;  http://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html The intermixture of code and language on which recombinant flux depends is situated within a more general set of practices in which human thinking and machine execution collaborate to produce literary works that reference both cognitive modes. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf "Not coincidentally as well, early competing models came from the Domestic Sewing Machine Co., the Meteor Saxon Knitting-Machine Factory, or Seidel & NaumannY Bipolar sexual differentiation, with its defining symbols, disappeared on industrial assembly lines. N. Katherine Hayles;  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis  2000;  http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.100/10.2hayles.txt Because electronic hypertexts are written and read in distributed cognitive environments, the reader necessarily is constructed as a cyborg, spliced into an integrated circuit with one or more intelligent machines. Jay David Bolter;  Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing  1991;  http://www.questia.com/library/79980689/writing-space-the-computer-hypertext-and-the-history Texts that were originally written for print or manuscript can not only be transferred to machine-readable form, but also translated into hypertextual structures. Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf Even the most advanced Von-Neumann machines (with program storage and computing unit), though they operate much faster, are in principle no different from Turing's infinitely slow model. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf Customary law, trimmed of material no longer of use, was automatically always up to date and thus youthful—a fact which, paradoxically, makes customary law seem inevitable and thus very old (cf Clanchy 1979, p 233). Friedrich Kittler;  Gramophone, Film, Typewriter  1999;  http://hunlit.lett.ubbcluj.ro/data/tszlkompara/Kittler_Gramophone_Film_Typewriter.pdf Our writing tool not only works on our thoughts, it "is a thing like me." Mechanized and automatic writing refutes the phallocentrism of classical pens. Vilém Flusser;  Waiting for Kafka  1967;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ Kafka teaches that the higher powers are an administrative, hierarchically overorganized machine, a pedantic machine, corrupt, poorly functioning, and repugnant. Walter J. Ong;  Orality and Literacy - The Technologizing of the Word  1982;  http://monoskop.org/images/f/ff/Ong,_Walter_J_-_Orality_and_Literacy,_2nd_ed.pdf To achieve such expression of course the violinist or organist has to have interiorized the technology, made the tool or machine a second nature, a psychological part of himself or herself. Lev Manovich;  DEEP REMIXABILITY  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=61 The machine that could do that – Quantel Paintbox – cost over USD 160,000, which we could not afford. Hartmut Winkler;  Die Metapher des 'Netzes'  1997;  http://homepages.uni-paderborn.de/winkler/h-1kap.html Die entscheidende Neuerung, die die Computer in die Welt der Repräsentationsmaschinen eingebracht haben, besteht in ihrer Fähigkeit, n-dimensionale Räume aufzubauen. Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl Aside from the blurriness of software as a machine process and software as a human cultural practice, the technical distinction between software and hardware is blurry itself. MATTHEW FULLER;  BEHIND THE BLIP - ESSAYS ON THE CULTURE OF SOFTWARE  2003;  http://www.multimedialab.be/doc/citations/matthew_fuller_blip.pdf New imaginal and communicative capacities to enter into relations of becoming—of machine, technical, aesthetic, and social dynamics—are required. Vilém Flusser;  Criteria—Crisis—Criticism  1984;  http://www.flusser-archive.org/ As apparatus functionaries, photo critics can theoretically be programmed and automated just like any other apparatus function. Wikipedia;  Mashup (web application hybrid)  2013;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mashup_%28web_application_hybrid%29 Data quality is a general challenge when automatically integrating data from autonomous sources. Lev Manovich;  DEEP REMIXABILITY  2005;  http://remixtheory.net/?p=61 Because the cells are transparent, the drawings get automatically “composited” into a single composition. Noam Chomsky;  Language and Mind  1968;  http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/chomsky.htm As to the second point, it is simply untrue that all measures of complexity and speed of computation lead to phrase structure rules as the “simplest possible algorithm.” The only existing results that are even indirectly relevant show that context-free phrase structure grammars (a reasonable model for rules generating deep structures, when we exclude the lexical items and the distributional conditions they meet) receive an automata-theoretic interpretation as non-deterministic push-down storage automata, but the latter is hardly a “natural” notion from the point of view of “simplicity of algorithms” and so forth. Lev Manovich;  The Language of New Media  2002;  http://www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf In Hollywood films, flocks of birds, ant colonies and crowds of people are automatically created by AL (artificial life) software. Alexander R. Galloway;  Language Wants To Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology  2006;  http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/315 It is certainly incorrect to divorce one from the other, as authors like Lev Manovich have rightly pointed out (see in particular his essay ‘The Automation of Sight’, 1996). George P. Landow;  HyperText 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.  1997;  http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/contents.html True, at the most basic level of machine code and at the far higher one of program languages, the digitization, which constitutes a fundamental of electronic computing, does involve binarity. Florian Cramer;  WORDS MADE FLESH - Code, Culture, Imagination  2005;  http://www.pzwart.wdka.hro.nl That their codeworks rarely execute properly, being imaginary code and conflations of machine code with human conversational language, reflects this understanding. Jacques Derrida;  Signature, Event, Context  1971;  http://hydra.humanities.uci.edu/derrida/sec.html To write is to produce a mark that will constitute a kind of machine that is in turn productive, that my future disappearance in principle will not prevent from functioning and from yielding, and yielding itself to, reading and rewriting. Espen J. Aarseth;  Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic  1997;  http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/aarseth1.html The cybertext reader is a player, a gambler; the cybertext is a game-world or world-game; it is possible to explore, get lost, and discover secret paths in these texts, not metaphorically, but through the topological structures of the textual machinery.